The History of Middlesex County 1635-1885
J. H. Beers & Co., 36 Vesey Street, New York
1884
Pages 537 - 561

TOWN OF SAYBROOK.
BY REV. WILLIAM H. KNOUSE,
PASTOR OF CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH,
DEEP RIVER
[transcribed by Janece Streig]


INTRODUCTION.

          THE TOWN OF SAYBROOK, as we know constituted, is the relatively small remnant, after successive divisions, of the ancient and much larger town which bore the same name.

          The earliest settlement in the original town was made in the extreme southeastern part, now called Saybrook Point, in November 1635.

          The territory to which the name of Saybrook was given, and which was sold to the Connecticut Colony, included, until 1667, the present town of Lyme, originally called East Saybrook, on the east of Connecticut River. The settlers who came with Mr. WINTHROP in 1635, and those who came with Colonel FENWICK in 1639, constituted but a small body. But about 1646 the number was increased by other colonists, who came from Hartford and Windsor. From a division of lands made in 1648, there appear to have been 43 proprietors then in the town.

          Among them were the ancestors of the BARKERS, BULLS, BUSHNELLS, CHAPMANS, CLARKS, LAYS, LORDS, PARKERS, PRATTS and POSTS, as there were of the CHAMPIONS, GRISWOLDS, LEES and WADES, who settled afterward in Lyme; and of the BUCKUSES, BLISSES, FITCHES, HUNTINGTONS, HYDES, LARRABEES, LEFFINGWELLS, MASONS, and BUDDS, who removed about 1660 from Saybrook or Lyme, and settled in Norwich. These all lived upon the Point or in its near neighborhood, as did also the ancestors of the CHALKERS and TULLYS, who were very early associated with them. Among the early settlers in Saybrook Parish, after those who have been mentioned, were the ancestors of the WATERHOUSES, KIRTLANDS, SHIPMANS, WHITTLESEYS, WILLARDS, and LYNDES, the last three families of which came from Boston.

          Of the above mentioned names of the early settlers at or near Saybrook Point, the following are now found among the inhabitants of the present town of Saybrook, viz: BULL, BUSHNELL, CHAPMAN, CLARK, LORD, PARKER, PRATT, POST, SHIPMAN, and WATERHOUSE (or WATROUS). Of the names of subsequent yet early settlers in other parts of the original town, Westbrook, Chester, and Essex, the following now occur more prominently and numerously in this town, viz.: BULKELEY, DENISON, PLATTS, SOUTHWORTH, SPENCER, and WILLIAMS.

          The original town, exclusive of Lyme, which was incorporated as a separate town in 1667, extended from Long Island Sound on the south to the town of Haddam on the north, and from Connecticut River on the east to the town of Killingworth on the west, and was about eight and a half miles in length, and from five to six and a half miles in breadth, and contained, by computation, 40,000 acres. It belonged, until the incorporation of Middlesex county, in 1785, to the county of New London. As already indicated, the settlement of the old town was confined chiefly to the territory adjacent to Saybrook Point. From an old record of the division of "lands that lye remote," dated January 4th 1648, it appears that 13 years after the first settlement, there were 40 proprietors, more or less, in the town, including Lyme. The reason for this division, as stated in the town records, was that "the inhabitants settling upon a neck of land, found themselves straitened and disabled as to comfortable subsistence." The persons chosen by the town to make the proposed division of these outlands, were: John CLARK, William HYDE, William PRATT, Thomas TRACEY, Matthew GRISWOLD. The entire town was valued at 8,000.

          "Having first laid out the nearest lands of the town, a sufficient and convenient tract of land, properly to belong to those that lived in the Town Plat, for the feed of their cattle, they divided all the other lands into three parts, which were called quarters."

          1. The quarter, including the land on the east side of the Great or Connecticut River, called the Black Hall Quarter, extended three miles eastward and six miles northward, and was valued at 3,500. It embraced but a small part of what is now the town of Lyme. The lands on the west side of the river were divided into two quarters.

          2. Oyster River Quarter, which beginning at Oyster River, extended four miles westward to "Pootchaug," or "Manunkatesick," and northward seven miles and a tenth part of a mile from Prospect Hill. The line running northward divided the Oyster River Quarter, on the east from Potapuag Quarter. Oyster River Quarter was estimated at 2,500, and included the present town of Westbrook, and the western portions of the present towns of Old Saybrook, Essex, Saybrook, and Chester.

          3. The Potapaug Quarter (called, also, in an old record, "Eight Mile Meadow), beginning at Prospect Hill and Ferry Point on the south, extended eight miles on a line running north-northwest to the utmost bounds of the town's grant, and included most of the territory which now forms the towns of Essex, Saybrook, and Chester. It was valued at 2,500.

          These quarter divisions indicate, in a general way, the directions in which the settlement of the town originally extended; that is to say, eastwardly, as early at least as 1664, across the Connecticut River, into East Saybrook or Lyme (called by the Indians Nehantic); westwardly along "the sea," or Long Island Sound, into Westbrook (the Indian name of which was Pochaug), which began to be settled from 1663 to 1664; and during the next 30 years, it extended gradually and sparsely over the extensive tract, which was called by the Indians Potapaug. This statement, respecting the progress of settlement in the town, is not be understood as implying a numerous population in any part of it. At the beginning of the 18th century, the town was but sparsely settled, especially in the portions that were remote from the few centers; and away from these, the inhabitants were more or less widely scattered. In 1756, the population, which grew mainly by natural increase, was 1,931, and in 1774, 18 years afterward, it had increased to 2,637. In 1810, it was 3,996, and in 1830 it had increased to 5,018.

          The original territory of the town, exclusive of Lyme, remained intact from its first settlement, in 1635, until the year 1836, when the northernmost portion was incorporated as the town of Chester.

          Then followed the incorporation, in 1840, of the south-western part, as the town of Westbrook, in 1852, a larger portion was detached, as the town of Old Saybrook, which was subsequently subdivided into the towns of Old Saybrook and Essex. Finally, in 1859, from the territory that remained after these divisions as the town of Saybrook, still another portion, known as Centerbrook, was separated, and added to the town of Essex. Previous to this last division, a school district in the southern part of Chester was returned, in 1856, to Saybrook.

          The original town has thus been divided since 1667 into six smaller towns, viz., Lyme, Chester, Westbrook, Old Saybrook, Essex, and Saybrook, the last names of which, as being the part from which the others voluntarily seceded, retains the original name of Saybrook, and by right of its name, has possession of the ancient town records.

          From This point onward, therefore, this narrative will deal with matters which belong more particularly to the history of the town which now bears the name of Saybrook, making reference to such facts only of the remoter past as may be necessary to the clearer understanding of the history.


THE PRESENT TOWN OF SAYBROOK

          GEOGRAPHICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE The town of Saybrook, as now constituted, is bounded on the north by Chester, on the east by the Connecticut River, on the south by Essex and Westbrook, and on the west by Killingworth. It forms an irregular oblong, about eight miles long from east to west, and about two and a half miles wide from north to south, and contains nearly 11 square miles, or 6,920 acres. The land is generally hilly, much of it rocky, and not specially fertile, and is not easily available for profitable agriculture, though the level spaces lying between the hill ridges fairly rewarded the toilsome tillage of the thrifty early settlers.

          Along the Connecticut River the town is boarded by a rocky ridge, the highest point of which is Bork Hill, commonly called Book Hill. This ridge is broken, in the southern part of the town, by a cove, anciently known as Pratt's Cove, about half a mile long, navigable only by scows, and is terminated at the north by Deep River Cove. Into this empties the only stream that runs through the town, which though of shallow depth, is called Deep River. This stream is said to derive its waters principally from Wilcox's Pond, and in the extreme northwestern part of the town, and possibly in part from Cedar Swamp, a little further north, in Chester. Its general course is southeast, east and northeast, making by its irregularities a length of about six miles. Its entire capacity of water power is utilized by mills and factories, of which there are not less than eight in operation.

          The manufacturing village of Deep River is situated in the eastern part of the town, three-fourths of a mile from the Connecticut River, on a plain about a mile wide, which is enclosed by the ridge that skirts the river and the hills that lie farther to the west. The village is consequently not in sight from the river. It is the business center of the town. Here is massed the bulk of the population; here is the town hall and the principal post office; here are also the factories, banks, telegraph, and telephone offices. Its main street is a part of what was until recently the Hartford and Middlesex Turnpike, and is finely shaded with elm and maple trees. It is generally considered by travelers to be, when arrayed in its summer dress, one of the most beautiful villages on the west side of Connecticut River, as it is without doubt the busiest place south of Middletown. The Deep river station of the Connecticut Valley Railroad is located at the river, where also is the landing of the Hartford and New York Steamboat Company. Four miles from Deep river, in the northwestern part of the town, is the pleasant hamlet of Winthrop, and its church, store, factory, saw mills, cemetery, and post office. Through Winthrop passes the old mail and passenger stage route between Chester and New Haven.


EARLY SETTLERS OF THE TOWN

          It is somewhat difficult to ascertain with certainty the names of all the earliest settlers, or to fix the date of the earliest settlement. It is believed, however, that the earliest families who resided in the eastern part of the town were the KIRLANDS, LORDS, PRATTS, SHIPMANS, and a little later, the SOUTHWORKS and DENISONS. In the western part of the town the earliest settlers were the PLATTS, BUCKELEYS, BUSHNELLS, and DENISONS, and somewhat later the POSTS. From the town records, it appears that John, Nathaniel, and Philip KIRTLAND were joint proprietors, in 1723, of nearly the entire plain on which the village of Deep River is located, and that their land extended to the Connecticut River. John KIRTLAND, in 1725, inherited from his father-in-law, Rev. Thomas BUCKINGHAM (who was pastor from 1670 till his death in 1709, of the first parish of Old Saybrook), 75 acres or more of land, about two miles west of the village of Deep River, near what was then known as the New Iron Mines District. His mother was Lydia, daughter of Lieut. William PRATT, one of the original settlers of Hartford and Old Saybrook. His paternal grandfather was Nathaniel KIRTLAND, of Sherrington, in Buckinghamshire, England, who immigrated to America in 1635, when 19 years of age, and was a resident, in 1672, of Lyme.

          Of the descendants of John KIRTLAND and his brothers, Nathaniel and Philip, none are now residents of this town, and their property long since passed into other hands.

          Elijah LORD, the first of the name who settled in this town, about 1750, owned a farm in the southeastern part of the town. He was a son of Deacon Andrus and Hester (BUCKINGHAM) LORD, of Old Saybrook, and was married to Sarah DOTY, of the same place. The old homestead, which he built, probably in 1771, is now owned and occupied by one of his descendants, William N. LORD, the LORDS of this, and adjoining town, are descendants of Thomas LORD, of the ancient family of LAWARD, in England, who in 1635 came with his wife, Dorothy, to Cambridge, Mass., and soon afterward settled in Hartford, where he was a merchant and mill owner, and where he and his wife died.

          The LORDS of this town are descendants, also, by a maternal line of the first PRATT settler, Lieut. William PRATT, through his eldest son, Ensign John PRATT.

          The PRATTS, who were among the earliest settlers of the eastern part of the town, were the descendants of Jedediah, in the fifth generation, of Lieut. William PRATT* {NOTE: --Lieut. William PRATT was a native of the parish of Stevenage, Hertfordshire, England, and is supposed to have come with Rev. Thomas HOOKER, to Newton (now Cambridge) Mass., in 1633, from thence to Hartford, Conn., in June 1636. He married Elizabeth, daughter of John CLARK, of the old parish of Saybrook. He was one of the original proprietors of Hartford, but sold his land there about 1645, and removed to Saybrook, in what was the Potapaug Quarter, and is now the borough of Essex; his home lot and house were n the region now occupied by the Rope-walk. He represented the town in the General Assembly continuously from 1666 to 1678, He was a large landholder in the town, and in other parts of the State. He died, probably, in 1678. His eldest son, Ensign JohnPRATT, was also a large landholder in Potapaug, and elsewhere, and was a man of some distinction. ("PRATT Family.")]

          Jedediah, the son of Benjamin and Sarah (MEIGS) PRATT was married to Anna WOLCOTT, about 1768, by whom he had ten children. He died in 1814 aged nearly 74 years. A pleasing exhibition of patriotism is given in the following notice of him by one of his descendants:

          "During the Revolutionary war, in the years 1779-1783, no military corps of Americans, no matter how great the number, were ever allowed to pass his house, without his stopping them, and upon hastily constructed tables, of barrels and boards, he would empty his dairy of its pans of milk, his larder of provisions, and baking huge Johnny-cakes of Indian corn, would spread before the hungry soldiers an ample meal, while his high-sounding voice would bid all a hearty welcome; and his cocked hat would be seen in all directions, hurrying his servants, seeing that all had not only enough, but carried away a ration in his knapsack; and as the refreshed soldiers wound away through his extensive orchard, he would sing out a hearty wish that they would, when they met those British, gave them a genuine whaling, and that he and his Queen Anne were ready to be with them at the first alarm."* [PRATT Family.}

          Mr. Lester PRATT, one of Jedediah's sons, was taken prisoner in the war of 1812, and confined in Dartmoor prison, until its close, when he was released, and permitted to return to his native land.

          Other descendants of the original colonist, Lieut. William PRATT, though the line of his son John, who have been identified with the history of this town, are Deacon Phineas PRATT 2d, who died over 91 years of age, in 1875. Deacon PRATT was one of the earliest manufacturers of ivory combs in Deep River. His son, Ulysses PRATT, who died in 1881, aged 68, was for many years extensively engaged in the manufacture of ivory veneers for piano fortes, and was the senior partner in the firm of PRATT Brothers & Co., in Deep River. Mention may also deservedly be made of Mr. Obadiah P. PRATT, a farmer, and universally esteemed for this moral worth and public spirit, who died in 1882, aged 66 years. Much of the land in the southeastern part of the town was occupied by the PRATTS.

          The SHIPMANS, descendants of Edward SHIPMAN, one of the original colonists in the old parish of Saybrook, have been prominently connected with the earlier and later history of this and the adjacent towns as landowners and otherwise. Mr. Samuel M. SHIPMAN, the present postmaster of the Deep River office, has discharged efficiently the duties of that position almost continuously since 1861.

          The very numerous family of SOUTHWORTHS belongs to the early history of the town. Its pedigree may be traced back to the earliest settlement of New England.

          Constant SOUTHWORTH, born in 1615, came to Plymouth, Mass., in 1628, became a freeman of the colony, and was married in 1637, to Elizabeth COLLIER, daughter of William COLLIER, of Duxbury, Mass. His widowed mother, Alice, who preceded him, 1623, became the wife of governor BRADFORD. His youngest son, Capt. William SOUTHWORTH, settled at first at Little Compton, R. I., where probably he married his first wife, Elizabeth, by whom he had nine children. The name is not now seen in Little Compton. After this wife's death, in 1703, he was married, in 1705, to Mrs. Martha, widow of Joseph BLAGUE, of the old parish of Saybrook, where it is presumed, he settled. By the second marriage he had two sons: Gideon, born in 1707, who was an early graduate of Yale College, while it was located at Saybrook Point; and Andrew, born December 12th 1709. The younger son was the Lieut. Andrew SOUTHWORTH, who settled in the parish of Pattaconk (now the town of Chester) and by his marriage, in 1732, with Temperance, daughter of John and Temperance KIRTLAND, became the near ancestor, through his second son, Nathan, of all the numerous SOUTHWORTHS, who now live in this town.

          Contemporary, or nearly so, with the above mentioned earliest settlers of the eastern part of the town were the earliest settlers of the western part, or what is now Winthrop. Their names were BULKELEY, BUSHNELL, DENISON, JONES, PLATTS, and POST. The PLATTS family of this town is ascertained to be, not of English, as commonly supposed, but of German origin, the ancestor Frederick PLATTS (for PLATZ), having come, with two brothers, from the Upper Rhine in Germany, and settled in Westbrook. He married a Miss FOX, of New London, formerly from England, and settled about 1670 in Old Killingworth, now Clinton. He had six children. Obadiah, his third son, born in 1709, was married in 1737 to Hannah LANE, of Clinton, and settled in Winthrop. He built a house not far from the residence of Mr. Alfred PLATTS, which has disappeared. The town records give the fact that fifteen acres of land were deeded to him by a CHAPMAN as early as 1735. His eldest son, Daniel, is supposed to have been the first child born in that part of the town.

          His third son, Noah (born in 1742 and died in 1811), built a house, either before or during the Revolutionary war, which is still in habitable condition, though more than a hundred years old.

          In 1786, he built another house, which was occupied by his son, Col. Obadiah PLATTS, a commissioned officer in the war of 1812, and is now the residence of his grandson, Mr. J. Lozel PLATTS, who is one of the largest farmers and landholders in the town.

          The BUCKELEYS are descended from Rev. Peter BUCKELEY, who was born in 1583, at Odell, Bedfordshire, England, where his father, Rev. Edward BULKELEY, was minister. He received a thorough education at St. John's College at Cambridge, and succeeded to the benefice of his father in his native town. Here for about 20 years he was known as an eminent and very successful non-conforming clergyman of the English Church. Silenced at length for non-conformity, by Archbishop LAUD, he sold his large estate, and sought religious liberty in New England. Arriving in 1634 at Cambridge, Mass., he became, in 1637, the first pastor of the church of Concord, which was then but a wilderness. "Here he expended most of his estate for the benefit of his people; and after a laborious and useful life he died, March 9th 1659, in his 77th year." John BULKELEY, a great grandson of Rev. Peter BULKELEY, and of the fourth generation, born about 1687, was married to Deborah SHIPMAN, of Saybrook, in the then parish of Chester, and became, through his son Job (who married Dorcas CONKLING) the near ancestor of the present BULKELEYS in this town. The records of Saybrook notice a deed of 50 acres of land given in 1742 to Job BULKELEY from one John LOVELAND.

          The DENISONS of this, and of neighboring towns, trace their ancestry to the original colonists, who came from England to Massachusetts about 1632, and whose descendants subsequently settled at Stonington in 1649, and at Potapaug Point (Essex) about 1690. The first of the name in Winthrop is supposed to have been John DENISON, who came March 1769, and whose first wife, Lydia PRATT, was the mother of all his children, five sons and one daughter. William DENISON, his second son, was the father of Rev. William DENISON and Rev. Albert DENISON, well known thoughout the town and other parts of the State as estimable and successful Baptist ministers. Both have acceptably served in the pastorate of the Baptist church in Winthrop.

          Rev. William DENISON, the elder brother, now deceased was identified with his native place, not only as a pastor, but as the conductor for ten years, from 1854 to 1864, of a boarding school, called the "Winthrop Institute for Young Ladies." This modest institution, though for lack of means limited in its equipment and influence, provided, nevertheless, educational advantages which its pupils could not so easily have otherwise enjoyed.

          Samuel JONES, the first of the name in Winthrop, came from Westbrook, about 1778. His posterity have been prominently identified with the western, and more recently with other parts of the town. His son, Josiah, who died in 1878, aged 91, kept a tavern for a number of years in the old centenarian house, which was built, as already said, by Mr. Noah PLATTS. Later came to Winthrop from Westbrook, about 1765, Isaac POST, the forefather of the POSTS who reside in the eastern part of Winthrop. In this vicinity stands a timeworn and very antiquated farm house, one-half of which is believed to be 120 years old or more. It was built by Jeremiah KEWLSEY, who gave it to Jeremiah K. POST, a son of the above-mentioned Isaac. It has been occupied by the POSTS nearly 79 years.

          Passing reverence may be here made to another old house in Winthrop, now occupied by Miss Clarissa RICE, which was built by Mr. Daniel G. BAILEY, and early land owner, in 1764, and which is just 120 years old.


OLD HOUSES.

          In addition to those that have been already incidentally mentioned, there are several other old houses in the town that deserve brief notice.

          One of the most venerable of these is the farm house located south of the village of Deep River, on the road to Centerbrook, which has been owned and used by the town for a number of years as an almshouse.

          The history of this antiquated, and now somewhat dilapidated, relic, which was doubtless built by one of the earliest PRATT settlers, may be traced back 93 years, and may be reasonable considered much older. Previous to 1807, it was directly on the old county road, but in that year, when the Middlesex Turnpike was opened, a change in the direction of the road left is several rods to the west.

          Another ancient house is that which is owned and occupied by Mr. Solomon MOLANDER, on the Straits road (or Chester street). It was built by Captain William and Nathan SOUTHWORTH, and was intended for the joint occupancy of their families, but on its completion it was, by their mutual agreement, occupied by the former, while the latter occupied one of the old KIRTLAND houses, on the Connecticut River. Its exact age has not been ascertained, but it cannot be less than 75 years old.

          Until August 1881, when it was destroyed by fire, and ancient dwelling stood on Chester street, not far north of the Congregational church. This house was not only noticeable for it venerable appearance, but also memorable as having, in long past years, been occupied successively by some of the prominent families in Deep River. Though its age is not precisely known, it must have been 100 years old or more.

          Belonging to Mr. Ansel D. PLATT, and just south of his residence on the east side of South Main street, is an old house, the external appearance of which, by careful preservation, conceals it real age. It originally stood where the Congregational church now stands, and was removed to its present location about the time of the Middlesex Turnpike was opened to travel, in 1807. Tradition says that it was occupied, possibly built, by Mr. Doty LORD, about the year 1790.

          The house fronting the Connecticut River and opposite the Deep River station of the Connecticut Valley Railroad, which is now occupied by Mrs. Horace S. PHELPS and family, was built by Mr. R. Kirtland, in 1799. This fact is verified by a rough inscription on the upper stone of the kitchen fireplace, probably cut by himself, "R. K., 1799." The house was subsequently bought and occupied by Nathan SOUTHWORTH jr., whose granddaughter, Mrs. PHELPS, now owns it.


THE WAR OF THE REBELLION.

          The following votes, copied in chronological order, from the town records, will sufficiently indicate the spirit and attitude of the inhabitants of the town in regard to the Civil War of 1861-1865:

          October 7th 1861.-"Voted, That the town of Saybrook pay to the volunteers that have enlisted, or that may enlist from this town in the United States service the sum of ten dollars each to be paid from the Treasury of said town."

          July 28th 1862, special meeting.-"Whereas the President of the United States, at the suggestion of a majority of the governors of the loyal States has called for reinforcement of the Army to the number of 300,000 men the more speedily to crush out the present rebellion; and whereas the Legislature of this State has approved of the same by providing an additional bounty to encourage enlistments;

          "Therefore as a further inducement to speedy enlistments, be it resolved, "That the Selectmen of the town of Saybrook are hereby instructed to pay from the treasury of the town the sum of one hundred dollars as a bounty to any and each person that may enlist from this town, not exceeding ten in number, into the service of the United States, on or before the twenty-fifth of August next ensuing, provided that he be accepted and sworn into said service within a reasonable time; and the same shall be in lieu of all other bounties provided by the town."

          August 22d 1862. At a special meeting called to vote bounty to a sufficient number of volunteers to fill the quota of this town, under the call of the president, of August 4th 1862:

          "Voted, To pay a bounty of seventy-five dollars to any volunteer into the service of the United States for the term of nine months, in pursuance of the last order of the president, upon his being accepted and sworn into said service within a reasonable time, provided that the number does not exceed the proportion required of the town under said call; and in case the full number apportioned to the town is made up by enlistment as aforesaid, the bounty shall be increased to one hundred dollars; and the selectmen are instructed to draw on the Treasurer for the several amounts, which shall be in lieu of all other bounties of the town."

          At a special meeting held September 14th 1863, in reference to the military draft ordered by the president of the United States:

          "Voted, That the sum of one hundred and fifty dollars be appropriated to each of the individuals drafted from this town, as bounty to those who shall honor said draft in person, or procure a substitute, or pay to the Collector of the Internal Revenue in the Second Congressional District of this State, the sum of three hundred dollars."

          November 21st 1863, special meeting.-"Voted, That it is the intention of the town of Saybrook to use all honorable means to recruit by volunteering or enlistment a sufficient number of men to fill the quota of the town, under the last call of the President of October 17, 1863.

          "Voted, To appoint a Committee of five, who shall have the whole matter of recruiting in charge, and employ such recruiting officer or officers as may be deemed expedient, and make such expenditures of money, not exceeding the amount appropriated by this meeting, as may be deemed best in furtherance of the object.

          " Voted, To appropriate the sum of six hundred dollars, to be placed in the hands of the Committee, who shall be appointed by this town to recruit men to fill the quota of this town, by the President's last call of October 17, 1863.

          "The following named persons were appointed said Committee, viz.: J. Albert SHIPMAN, Lozel J. PLATTS, Ezra S. WILLIAMS, John W. MARVIN, Henry C. KINGSLEY.

          "Voted, That the Selectmen be authorized to borrow money or draw orders on the Town Treasurer for the sum of six hundred dollars, or any amount not exceeding that, to be appropriated for the above named purpose."

          Special meeting, July 30th 1864.-"Voted, Whereas the President of the United States, during the present month has made a call for 500,000 men, and whereas, in order to fill the large quota assigned to this town, previous to the day set for a draft, extraordinary inducements must be offered for recruiting, therefore

          "Resolved, That a special committee of one be appointed by this meeting to pay the sum of one hundred dollars to any person bringing proper evidence that he has recruited or caused to be recruited either as principal or substitute, and either in the Army or Navy, since the said call of the President and previous to Draft, a person that has been applied on said quote; meaning that a sum not exceeding one hundred dollars be paid for each recruit as aforesaid.

          "Resolved, That the sum of two thousand eight hundred dollars be appropriated, and the same is hereby appropriated for the above named object.

          "Resolved, That The Selectmen be herby instructed to borrow the sum of two thousand eight hundred dollars, or such part thereof as may be needed for the above named purpose.

          "Mr. Sedley SNOW was appointed to act as the Committee, and subsequently Mr. Arba H. BANNING was appointed to act with him."

          Special Meeting August 19th 1865. "Voted, That including the appropriation made by this town at the special meeting held July 30, the amount of money which the Committee appointed for that purpose are hereby directed to pay to any person bringing proper evidence that he has recruited or caused to be recruited, either as principal or substitute, and either in the Army or Navy, since the last call of the President for 500,000 men, and previous to a draft, if a draft is had in this town in pursuance of said call, a person that has been applied on the quota of this town, shall be as follows: viz., for each person so recruited to servie one year shall be paid the sum of two hundred dollars, and for each person so recruited to serve three years shall be paid the sum of three hundred and fifty dollars, provided nevertheless that the amount thus paid shall not exceed the actual cost of the recruit so accredited, if purchased.

          "Voted, Further that the selectmen are hereby authorized and instructed to borrow the sum of eight thousand dollars, including the amount appropriated at the meeting of July 30th last, or such part thereof as may be needed to carry into effect the foregoing resolution: and that the same be paid to the Committee appointed at the meting of July 30th, to make similar payments, and that the said amount of eight thousand dollars including the amount previously appropriated for this object, or such part thereof as may be needed to carry into effect the foregoing resolutions hereby appropriated for that purpose.

          "October 17th 1864, special meeting.-Voted, That the vote upon the subject of recruiting, at the special meeting held August 19th 1864 is hereby approved.

          "Voted, That it be left discretionary with the selectmen to make such further expenditure for recruiting purposes, not exceeding the sum of fifteen hundred dollars, as the circumstances may seem to warrant, and as they may deem advisable.

          "Voted, That the Selectmen are hereby authorized and instructed to borrow on the credit of the town the sum of fifteen hundred dollars, or such part thereof as may be needed to carry into effect the foregoing resolution."

          October 7th 1867, the report of the war committee appointed at the previous annual meeting was accepted, giving the names of all the residents of the town, who served in the army and navy of their country during the recent Rebellion; either as principals or substitutes, with suitable resolutions.

          Following the list of names above referred to, resolutions were adopted as follows:

          "Resolved 1. That the blood spilt, the treasurer expended, the privations endured, and the sore trials of friends near and more remote during the recent war were indispensable to the suppression of that wicket rebellion, the result of which in the unsettled state of the Country, and in taxes grievous to be borne, are still upon us, and that they should be considered with the losses and privations of our Revolutionary forefathers, as necessary trials, to secure and maintain a free and independent Government.

          "Resolved 2d, That while we recall with gratitude and veneration the many struggles and sacrifices made by our ancestors of the Revolution in gaining our independence, we accord to those who fought and bled to maintain it, equal honor and equal gratitude.
          "John W. MARVIN,
          "J. Albert SHIPMAN,
          "Bradley TERRELL. Com."


CIVIL LIST.

          Representatives.-The Representatives to General Court and Assembly from the town of Saybrook, from 1670 to the present time, have been:

          Robert CHAPMAN, 1670M.-1671 O., 1674 M., 1675 M., 1675 O., 1676 O.-1678 M., 1679 M., 1679 O., 1680 O., 1692 M., 1693 M.-1694 M., 1704 O., 1706 O., 1710 O.-1711 O.; William BUSHNELL, 1670 M; William PRATT, 1670 O.-1672 M., 1673 M.-1678 M.; William PARKER, 1672 M., 1673 M., 1673 O., 1674 O., 1676 M., 1678 O.-1679 )., 1680 O, -1683 M., 1691 O., 1692 O., 1693 M., 1695 O., 1706 O.,-1709 M., 1611 O., 1712 M.; Robert LAY, 1678 O.; John CHAPMAN, 1681 O., 1683 O.-1687 O., 1689 M.-1690 O., 1691 O.; William DUDLEY, 1682 M.-1684 M., 1685 M., 1686 O.-1687 O., 1689 M.-1691 M., 1692 M., 1692 O., 1693 O., 1694 M., 1695 M.; John PRATT, 1684 O., 1691 M.; Abram POST, 1685 O.; John PARKER, 1686 M., 1698 O.-1700 O.; Nathaniel LYNES *[This name, which is spelled in the records both with and without the "s," probably refers to the same person and the Nathaniel LYNDE or LIND farther on.] 1694 O.-1695 O.; John CLARK, 1694 O., 1696 M., 1696 O., 1700 M., 1701 M., 1703 M., 1703 O., 1706 M., 1708 M., 1709 O., 1711 M., 1712 M., 1712 O., 1715 M., 1716 O.-1717 O., 1720 O., 1724 M., 1728 M; Nathaniel LYNDE, 1696 O., 1697 O.-1698 O., 1700 O., 1701 O.-1702 O., 1703 O.-1706 M., 1708 O., 1709 O., 1722 M.; John WHITTLESEY, 1696 M., 1697 M., 1698 M.,1699 M., 1703 M., 1731 O., 1735 M; Nathaniel CHAPMAN, 1697 M., 1697 O., 1699 O., 1701 M.-1702 O., 1704 M., 1705 M., 1705 O., 1707 M., 1707 O., 1712 O.-1714 O., 1715 O., 1716 M., 1718 M.-1716 M., 1722 O-1723 O.; Benjamin LORD, 1709 M., 1710 M.; Stephen WHITTLESEY, 1710 M., 1718 M., 1718 O., 1822 M.-1723 O., 1724 O., 1725 O., 1725 M., 1726 M.-1728 O., 1730 O.; Daniel BUCKINGHAM, 1713 M.-1717 O., 1719 M., 1724 O.; Nathaniel PRATT, 1719 O., 1720 M., 1721 M; Thomas BUCKINGHAM, 1719 O.-1721 O.; Joseph DUDLEY, 1721 O.; Samuel LYNDE, 1624 M., 1725 M.-1727 O., 1728 O.-1730 M.; Samuel PRATT, 1725 O., 1731 M.; Samuel WILLARD, 1729 M.-1732 M., 1733 M., 1734 M., 1734 O., 1736 M., 1736 O., 1737 O.-1738 O., 1739 O.-1741 M., 1765 O., 1766 M.; Samuel DOTEY, 1732 M.; Nathaniel CLARK, 1733 M.-1734 O., 1739 M., 1739 O., 1741 O.-1743 M.; Andrew LORD, 1733 O., 1735 M., 1735 M., 1735 O., 1737 M., 1737 O., 1743 O.; Jedediah CHAPMAN, 1735 O.-1737 M., 1739 M., 1740 M.-1747 M., 1748 M.-1750 M., 1751 M., 1751 O., 1753 M., 1754 M.-1755 O., 1757 M., 1757 O., 1763 M.; Joshua BUSHNELL, 1738 M., 1738 O.; Ambrose WHITTLESEY, 1744 M.-1747 M., 1748 M.-1751 O., 1753 M., 1754 M.-1755 O.; John TULLY, 1747 O., 1752 M., 1752 O., 1750 O., 1752 M., 1752 O., 1753 O., 1758 O.-1762 O., 1763 O.-1765 M., 1766 M., 1767 M.-1768 M., 1769 M.-1770 M.; Hezekiah WHITTLESEY, 1756 M.-1757 M., 1758 O., 1759 O.-1762 O., 1764 M., 1764 O., 1766 O., 1767 M., 1768 O., 1770 M., 1770 O., 1774 M.; Samuel LORD, 1758 M.; William TULLY, 1759 M., 1799 O., 1801 M.; John SHIPMAN, 1763 M., 1763 O., 1765 O., 1767 O., 1768 M., 1769 O., 1770 O., 1777 O.; Samuel FIELD, 1771 M., 1774 O., 1776 O., 1780 M., 1780 O., 1781 O.; William WORTHINGTON, 1771M.-1774 O., 1776 M., 1777 M., 1778 M., 1779 M., 1779 O., 1781 M., 1782 M., 1783 O., 1786 O., 1790 O., 1791 O.; John COCHRANE, 1771 O., 1772 M., 1781 M.; Stephen CHALKER, 1772 O.-1773 O.; John ELY, 1775 M., 1783 M., 1784 M., 1784 O., 1785 O., 1786 M.; Benjamin WILLIAMS, 1775 O., 1776 O., 1786 O.; Justus BUCK, 1775 O., 1780 O.; Samuel SHIPMAN, 1776 M., 1782 O., 1786 M., 1787 M., 1788 O.; William LYNDE. 1777 O., 1785 M., 1785 O.; Edward SHIPMAN, 1778 M.-1780 M., 1782 M., 1782 O.; William HART, 1783 M.-1784 O., 1787 M.-1788 M., 1789 O.-1791 M., 1792 M., 1792 O.,-1795 M., 1800 O., 1801 O.,-1802 O.; William MITCHELL, 1787 O.; Elisha CHAPMAN, 1788 M.; Jonathan LAY, 1789 M., 1790 M., 1791 M.,-1793 O., 1794 O.-1796 M., 1797 O., 1798 M., 1799 O., 1800 O.,-1803 O.; Thomas STARKEY, 1789 O., 1793 M., 1794 M.,; John BULL, 1789 M, 1796 M., 1804 O., 1806 O., 1807 O.; Elisha ELY, 1791 O.; Samuel WILLIAMS, 1796 O., 1797 M., 1798O., 1799 M., 1801 M., 1804 M., 1807 M., 1809 M., 1811 M., 1812 O., 1813 M., 1814 M.-1815 M.; Daniel BRAINERD, 1800 M.; Smith CLARK, 1800 M.; Elisha HART, 1804 M., 1804 O.; Richard ELY 2d, 1803 M., 1808 M., 1809 M.; Joseph HILL, 1803 O., 1805 M.-1806 M., 1808 M., 1808 O., 1809 O.-1810 O., 1812 M., 1813 O., 1817 O., 1818 M., 1821, 1824, 1827; Timothy PRATT, 1805 M.; John STANNARD 2d, 1805 O.; Ambrose WHITTLESEY jr., 1806 M., 1808 O., 1813 M., 1814 O., 1817 O., 1818 O.; Thomas SILLIMAN, 1806 O.; Elisa SHIPMAN, 1807 M.; Michael HILL, 1807 O.; Elisha SILL, 1809 O., 1817 M., 1819 M., 1824, Samuel HART, 1810M.-1812 O., 1813 O., 1814 M., 1815 M.-1816 O; John STANNARD, 1811 O., 1818 M.; Clark NOTT, 1815 O.-1816 O., 1819 M.; Joel PRATT, 1817 M., 1833; Samuel COLT, 1818 O.; Jonathan WARNER, 1820; John AYER, 1820, 1821; George Pratt, 1822, 1828, 1829; Ebenezer HAYDEN, 1822; Gurdon SMITH, 1823; Jonathan CLARK 2d, 1823; Ebenezer CONE, 1825, 1826; Joseph PLATTS, 1825, 1826; Arthur Lane 1827, 1830, 1834; Samuel INGHAM, 1828-1833, 1835, 1851, Joshua L'HOMMEDIEU, 1831, 1832; Joel PRATT, 1833, Benjamin DOWD, 1834, 1840,1841; Jedediah POST 1835; Richard P. WILLIAMS, 1836, 1837; John H. HAYDEN, 1836-38; Elsha KIRTLAND, 1838, Ezra WILLIAMS, 1839, 1840; Alexander CLARK, 1839; Alpheus STARKEY, 1841, 1845; Asa H. KING, 1843; Selden M. PRATT, 1843, 1844, 1852, 1853, 1857; George CHAPMAN, 1844, 1845; George H. CHALKER, 1846, 1847; Stephen JENNINGS, 1846; Cornelius R. DOANE, 1847, 1848; Giles BLAGUE, 1848; Ezra S. WILLIAMS, 1849, 1860, 1861, 1866; David P. PLATTS, 1849, 1850; Richard N. DOWD, 1850; Edward W. PRATT, 1851; Ozias H. KIRTLAND, 1852; Russell JENNINGS, 1853, 1854; Lozel J. PLATTS, 1854; John S. LANE, 1855, 1856; Josiah S. DICKINSON, 1855, 1858; William DENNISON 2d, 1856, 1861, 1863; George REED, 1857, 1858; Joseph H. MATHER, 1859; Gilbert A. GLADWIN, 1859; D. P. PLATTS, 1860; John ROGERS, 1862, 1873; N. B. PRATT, 1862; John MARVIN, 1863, 1864; N. E. SHAILER, 1864, 1865; John DENISON, 1865; Oliver C. CARTER, 1866-69; Daniel P. PLATTS, 1867; L. B. SOUTHWORTH, 1868; Gilbert F. BUCKINGHAM, 1869, 1870; S. S. GILBERT, 1870; John W. MARVIN, 1871, 1872; Epaphroditus BATES, 1871, 1872; William L. JONES, 1873; I. Albert SHIPMAN, 1874; G. N. SHOW, 1874; Milon PRATT, 1875; Asa R. SHALER, 1875; Frederick W. WILLIAMS, 1876, 1877; Gilbert STEVENS,1876 1877; William D. WORTHINGTON, 1878, 1879; Lozel J. PLATTS, 1878, 1879; Felix A. DENISON, 1880, 1881; Joseph B. LORD, 1880, 1881; John CHILD, 1882, 1883; Ezra J. B. SOUTHWORTH, 1882, 1883; George F. SPENCER, 1884; Carlton M. PRATT, 1884.

          Town Clerks.-The following is a list of the clerks of the town of Saybrook from 1680 to the present time, with dates of their election: John TULLY, December 27th 1680; Samuel WILLARD, December 30th 1701; Samuel PRATT, March 15th 1716; Samuel WILLARD, December 23d 1718; John TULLY, December 23d 1745; Samuel TULLY, December 11th 1776; Zephaniah PRATT, December 9th 1794; Samuel TULLY, December 24th 1799; Clark NOTT, December 8th 1801; Selden M. PRATT, October 6th 1828; Ulysses MATHER, October 5th 1829; Obadiah SPENCER, October 8th 1832; Selden M. PRATT, October 5th 1840; John MARVIN, October 3d 1853; John W. MARVIN, October 6th 1873; Samuel F. SNOW, October 4th 1880; Frederick L'HOMMEDIEU, October 1st 1883.

          Present Town Officers.-The town officers elected in October 1884, for the ensuing year, are: Frederick W. WILLIAMS, Milon D. PRATT, J. Lockwood LAMB, selectmen; Frederick L'HOMMEDIEU, town clerk; Henry R. WOOSTER, town treasurer.


ANCIENT TOWN RECORDS.

          Reference has been made, incidentally, to the fact that this town retains possession of all the ancient records, now known to be extant, of the original town of Saybrook. These documents extending as far back as the year 1666, time-worn, discolored, and dilapidated, and characterized by an orthography and chirography so antiquated that only an expert can read them with facility, contain the record of the old town acts, deeds, wills, allotments of lands, marriages, and births, with much other valuable material. The lapse of time has increased their historic interest and value to such an extent, that frequent use is made of them in tracing family histories and pedigrees, and in verifying or correcting old traditions, events, and titles to property. The value of these relics of the remote past is evident from the fact that the General Assembly, a few years ago, caused copies of some of the more important to be made, and deposited in the State Capitol, at Hartford. The original volumes are now carefully preserved in a fire proof vaults, adjoining the town hall, in Deep River, which, by requirement of the Legislature, was constructed in 1875, for the safer keeping of all town and probate records.


THE TOWN HALL.

          The earliest town meeting were held, of course, within the limits of the primitive settlement, and usually in the meeting houses. As the population extended northward, they were held alternately in the old parish of Saybrook and that of Potapaug; and finally, as early as and probably before 1835, they were for a number of years held exclusively in Potapaug Parish, and at the old church, until a town hall was erected near it. This locality was regarded as the geographical center of the town as then constituted, and from this fact received the name of Centerbrook, by which it is still locally known. In 1854, by which time the town of Saybrook was reduced to its present limits, excepting that Centerbrook had not yet been separated from it, it was voted to dispose of the town hall in that locality, and to transfer the town meetings to Read's Hall, in the village of Deep River. Following this action, and possibly to some extent as the consequence of it, Centerbrook was joined to the town of Essex.

          In 1860, this town instructed its selectmen to purchase the property known as Read's Hall and post office building, with the land adjoining, for the use and benefit of the town. The purchase was effected; and in this building, on the southwest corner of Main and Elm streets, all the town meeting have since been held.

          At some auspicious day in the future, the progress of improvement will doubtless require the erection of a new town hall, which in size, style, and convenience will comport with the dignity and enterprise of the town.


POST OFFICES.

          The first post office in the original town was established in 1793, in its extreme southern part; the second was opened in 1810, in the then parish of Pattaconk or Chester. These were the only post offices in the old town as late as 1819.

          The first post office in the present town was established probably in 1827, and was originally located in the so-called "Green Store" of Mather, Read & Co. on the northeast corner of Main and River streets. 'Squire Joseph H. MATHER, a man of more than average mental ability and the senior partner of the above firm, was appointed as the first postmaster, and served as such for a number of years. The position was afterward held by Obadiah SPENCER and Sedley SNOW (both of whom were engaged in general merchandise while postmasters); then by H. G. LOOMIS, and finally in 1861, by the present incumbent, Samuel M. SHIPMAN, who with the exception of an interval of about eighteen months, has held the position and efficiently discharged its duties for more than 23 years.

          The unpretentious building adjoining the town hall, which now provides somewhat straitened quarters for the post office of Deep River, was in its infancy a cooper's shop, built by Mr. Jabez SOUTHWORTH sen., on the corner of Union and Elm streets, nearly 101 years ago. After numerous removals from place to place in the village, and after serving various honorable uses, it was finally established on the site it now occupies, more than 60 years ago. In consideration of the humble origin from which it has risen, its eventful history, its varied usefulness, and its venerable age, it certainly deserves to be retired as a relic of the past, and to give place to a younger and more substantial successor.

          The post office in the western part of the town was established about 1837. The name of the place was then Sayville, after Lord SAY and SEAL, but a few years after the post office was opened, it was changed to Winthrop after George WINTHROP. The first postmaster was Mr. Aaron WATROUS, of the firm of DENISON & WATROUS, merchants. The present merchant, Mr. George T. CARR, now acts as postmaster.


DEEP RIVER NATIONAL BANK.

         sp In 1849, at its May session, the General Assembly of Connecticut granted a charter to the stockholders of The Deep River Bank, and their successors, with a capital of $75,000.

          On the 8th of August 1849, the commissioners appointed to receive subscriptions to the capital stock, held a meeting for the purpose, and the whole amount was subscribed for, and 25 per cent, paid down.

          The following persons were then elected as directors, viz., Joshua L'HOMMEDIEU, George READ, Sedley SNOW, George SPENCER, Samuel P. RUSSELL, Warren TYLER, Jabez SOUTHWORTH, Ulysses PRATT, Calvin B. ROGERS, William GOODSPEED, Gilbert STEVENS, Reynold S. MARVIN, and Stephen Jennings.

          At a subsequent meeting of the directors, on the same day, Joshua L'HOMMEDIEU was elected president. On the 8th of October 1849, Gideon PARKER was elected cashier, and has continued to hold the position to the present time. The bank began business by discounting paper, November 5th 1849.

          Soon after the organization of the bank, steps were taken for the erection of a banking house, and the building now occupied by the Deep River Saving Bank was completed, and the Deep River Bank moved its books and effects from the house of George READ, where they were previously kept, into is new banking house, in the latter part of November 1849, where it continued until the erection, in Marcy 1879, of the present building.

          The present banking house is a unique and handsome building, of brick, with Ohio stone trimmings, and with its beautiful frescoed interiors, is an architectural ornament to the main street of the village.

          Upon the petition of the directors and stockholders, the General Assembly, in its May session in 1854, authorized an increase of the capital stock to the amount of $75,000, making the total capital $150,000. This amount was soon taken up by the old stockholders.

          In May, 1865, the Deep River Bank was changed into a national bank.

          In December 1853, Ulysses PRATT succeeded Joshua L:HOMMEDIEU as president, and held the office until November 1859, when he resigned, and George SPENCER was elected president.

          In January 1865, George SPENCER resigned, and in February following, Henry WOOSTER was elected, and acted until in death, in August 1866. He was succeeded by Richard P. SPENCER, who has continued to hold the office to the present time.


DEEP RIVER SAVINGS BANK.

          The Deep River Savings Bank was incorporated by the General Assembly of Connecticut, at its May session, 1851.

          The following persons are named in the Act of Incorporation, as incorporators, viz.: Alpheus STARKEY, George READ, Zebulon BROCKWAY, Sedley SNOW, John C. ROGERS, Joseph POST, Henry WOOSTER, Henry W. GILBERT, Joshua L'HOMMEDIEU, Samuel P. RUSSELL, Joseph H. MATHER, Ulysses PRATT, Ezra S. WILLIAMS, and Calvin B. ROGERS.

          The bank was organized, July 14th 1851, by the appointment of the following officers and directors: George READ, president; Henry W. WOOSTER, vice-president; Sedley SNOW, secretary and treasurer; directors, Joshua L'HOMMEDIEU, Joseph POST, John C. ROGERS, Ulysses PRATT, Zebulon BROCKWAY.

          George READ was continued as president until his death in 1859. His successor, Joseph POST, was appointed in 1860, and continued until 1872, when the present incumbent, Asa R. SHALER, was appointed.

          Sedley SNOW acted as secretary and treasurer until is death, in 1873. He was succeeded by Richard P. SPENCER, who held the position for two years, when the present incumbent, Henry R. WOOSTER, was appointed,

          The total deposits, May 1st 1884, were $626,797.18 The surplus and profits 22,820.01 $649,617.19

          The bank was located in a part of Mr. Sedley SNOW's store, until May 1879, when it was removed into the present building on Main Street.


THE WAHGINNICUT HOUSE.

          The Wahginnicut House, the only hotel now in the town, derived its name from a sagamore of one of the local Indian tribes, who rendered friendly service to the white settlers. It was erected about 1854 by Mr. Stillman TILEY, now of Essex, who kept it as a hotel for about two years. He was succeeded by Mr. David WATROUS, who continued about eight years. The present proprietor, Mr. William D. WORTHINGTON, has been established since 1864. The hotel stands on an elevation which was early known as "KIRTLAND's Rock," from the fact that the dwelling house of Mr. Stephen KIRTLAND, one of the earliest residents of the town, occupied for many years previously the same site. The hotel commands one of the most beautiful views on the Connecticut River, and is capable of accommodating twenty or more guests.


SOCIETIES.

          Trinity Lodge, No. 43, F. & A. M., in this town, is the successor of a lodge of the same name and under the same charter which formerly existed in the town of Killingworth. The original Trinity Lodge, No. 43, was organized in that town in November 1797, in compliance with a petition which was presented to the grand lodge in session at New Haven, October 18th 1797. So far as known, the petitioners were Noah LESTER, Aaron ELLIOTT, Eli KELSEY, Joseph WILCOX, and Nathan WILCOX, with others whose names cannot be ascertained, to whom a charter was granted empowering them to perform the functions of a Masonic lodge within their territorial jurisdiction. Its first officers were the following: Noah LESTER, W. M.; Aaron ELLIOTT, S. W.; Eli KELSEY, J. W.; Joseph WILCOX, treasurer; Nathan WILCOX, secretary.

          The lodge held its meeting regularly in Killingworth, till 1805, when, by application to the grand lodge in session that year at Hartford, authority was obtained to hold its meetings a part of the time in the town of Saybrook; that is, in the months of March, April, May, and June of each year following, during the pleasure of the grand lodge.

          The lodge continued to hold its regular meetings and was duly represented in the grand lodge until the year 1822. Having for the three years following failed to comply with the laws of the grand lodge, its charter was revoked, and with the jewels, returned to the grand lodge. Its early records not being returned were lost; consequently no definite information can be obtained respecting the membership at that time, nor of other facts which would be of interest to members of the craft in this section.

          In the year 1854, the grand lodge, at its May session at Hartford, granted a charter or dispensation for the formation of a new lodge in the town of Chester, to the following brethren, who were previously members of St. John's Lodge, No. 2, at Middletown; viz.; Henry S. RUSSELL, Samuel J. AUGER, George D. HOLMES, Samuel A. WRIGHT, Daniel BARKER, Daniel D. SILLIMAN, and Robert M. Barnard.

          At the suggestion of the grand master and the grand secretary of the grand lodge, the new lodge took the forfeited charter and name of the former Trinity Lodge, No. 43, in Killingworth. The officers of the new Trinity Lodge, No. 43, when organized were: Henry S. RUSSELL, W. M.; Robert M. BARNARD, S. W.; Daniel BARKER, J. W.; Samuel A. WRIGHT, secretary; and Daniel D. SILLIMAN, treasurer.

          The lodge meetings were held for the first two years in the town of Chester, at the expiration of which time a dispensation from the grand lodge was procured to hold them in Deep river, town of Saybrook, where, since that time, they have continued to be held. The lodge room is conveniently located near the center of Deep River, in the upper story of SNOW's building, on the corner of Main and River streets. The present membership is 90, with the following officers: Frederick W. WILLIAMS, W. M.; Frank E. PHIPPENY, S. W.; Charles R. MARVIN, J. W.; William H. CHAPMAN, secretary; and John W. MARVIN, treasurer.

          Webb Lodge, No. 81, I. O. O. F., was instituted August 21st 1855, in compliance with an application previously made by the following petitioners, viz., Hiram G. LOOMIS, Albert J. SHIPMAN, Rowley FLINT, Harvey H. BROOKS, Samuel M.SHIPMAN, Frederick W. WILLIAMS, Henry W. BOGART, Bradley TERRELL, and others. The instituting ceremonies were duly performed in the presence of the most worthy grand master, Reynolds WEBB (after whom the lodge was named) and his attendant grand officers; and the elective officers were chosen and duly installed, as follows:

          Albert J. SHIPMAN, N. G.; Nathaniel A. STARKEY, V. G.; Rowley FLINT, treasurer; Samuel C. GLADDING, secretary.

          The lodge continued to hold its meeting until November 4th 1861, when, in consequence of the then dormant state of the order, it was deemed advisable to surrender its charter to the grand lodge.

          After an interval of about twelve and a half years, petition was made and granted for the restoration of the charter, and the lodge was reinstituted by the most worthy grand master, Stephen TERRY and his attendant officers, at Masonic Hall, Deep river, April 7th 1874; and the officers were duly elected and installed. The regular meetings of the lodge are now held every Thursday evening in its own lodge room, which is located in Pratt's Block on Upper Main street.

          Since its reorganization in 1874, the prosperity of Webb Lodge has been very satisfactory. Its membership at the close of the July term was 67, and has now in bank a fund amounting to nearly $1,000. During the past 10 years, it has expended for benefits between $600 and $700.

          The present officers are: Charles S. PHELPS, N. G.; Frank L. STIMPSON, V. G.; Virgil D. NORTON, treasurer; William H. CHAPMAN, secretary.

          GOOD INTENT LODGE, No. 144, I. O. of G. T., was organized in Deep River, February 7th 1781. At the time of its institution, its principal officers were: Virgil D. NORTON, W. C. T.; Mary E. DICKINSON, W. V. T.; Rev. William H. KNOUSE, W. C.; Henry N. BOOMA, W. S.; and Frederick R. GILBERT, W. T.

          For more than 13 years this meritorious society has sustained itself, despite the fluctuations of public interest in the beneficent reform which it worthily represents. Rarely, if ever, has it failed to hold its regular meetings, and in a quiet and unostentatious way it has done much good, not only to its own members, but to the community as well. It has a well selected library, which embraces, besides works on temperance, other volumes of a general character, and an unexceptionable quality; it has also labored to promote the cause of temperance by the holding of public meetings, and the circulation of a temperance literature. Its present membership is 20. Its lodge room is located on the southeast corner of Main and Kirtland streets.

          The principal officers are: John B. NORTON, W. C. T.; Rebecca PHELPS, W. V. T.; Dolly L. TYLER, W. S.; Davis N. TYLER, W. T.; Jane N. Chapman, W. C.

          WOMAN'S TEMPERANCE UNION.-No history of this town, especially in respect of its moral progress, would be complete without due recognition of this society and its good work. It was organized in Deep River, May 13th 1875, as a local auxilliary of the State Woman's Christian Temperance Union of Connecticut. Its name indicates its special object and the spirit in which its work is done. At its formation sixteen earnest women signed its pledge and engages, as members to give their best endeavors for the promotion of its work. Mrs. Jane N. CHAPMAN was its first president, with Miss Eunice SOUTHWORTH as vice-president, and Miss Ellen M. WILLIAMS as its secretary and treasurer. Such was the modest beginning of an organized and united effort by the women of Deep River for the promotion of temperance upon Christian principles and by the use of Christian methods; an effort which has proved to be of incalculable benefit to the moral interest of the town.

          Its membership rapidly increased, unit it numbered 134, and its frequent meetings for discussion and prayer were fraught with growing interest and power. In May 1878, Mr. David FROST conducted a series of Christian temperance meetings in Deep River which, continuing for about two weeks, resulted in a deep and general awakening of public interest in temperance reform; a large number were induced to pledge themselves to total abstinence, including not a few inebriates. But the ground was already prepared for this special work by the earnest labors, during the three previous years, of the ladies of the Woman's Temperance Union, who with characteristic zeal entered into the new movement. In every possible way they lent their encouragement and aid. When a fund had been secured for the purchase of the principal drinking saloon in the village, and a reform club had been organized, the members of the Union collected an additional sum of $200 for the renovation and furnishing of the club room; and throughout the subsequent history of the club, they continued to be its warmest and most efficient friends. Though somewhat discouraged by the final failure of this club, which they did their best to prevent, the Union has never relaxed its faith and zeal in the prosecution of its work. Down to the present time it has sought to educate public sentiment, and by constant agitation has endeavored to keep the cause of temperance before the community. It has secured from time to time the services of the ablest advocates; to the extent of its ability, it has distributed a temperance literature; it has aimed to do a work of prevention, as well as suppression, by the introduction into the public school of the towns of suitable textbooks on physiological temperance.

          The Union at present numbers about 50 members, and doubtless has a successful future before it. Its officers are: Mrs. Horace P. DENISON, president; Mrs. Charles JENNINGS, vice-president; Miss Sarah J. PARKER, recording secretary; and Mrs. Jane N. CHAPMAN, corresponding secretary and treasurer.

          In this connection, the fact may be noted that there are now no licensed drinking saloons in the town.

          Since 1880, when the inhabitants almost unanimously voted no license, the sale of intoxicating beverages has been contrary to law.


BIBLE SOCIETY.

         p The Deep River Bible Society is a modest institution, which was organized as an auxiliary to the American Bible Society, February 20th 1837. After the formation of the Connecticut State Bible Society it transferred its auxiliary connection to that organization.

          Its object is the circulation in the town, by sale at nominal prices, or by gratuitous distribution, of the holy scriptures, without note or comment. For this object it receives funds from any source, but depends mostly on individual donations. Its depository at the Deep River post office is, though small, large enough usually for the needs of the town, and contains 100 or more bibles and Testaments, varying in size, style, and price. The balance of receipts, in excess of the cost of keeping the depository fully supplied, is donated annually to the Connecticut Bible Society for its general Bible work throughout the State.


SCHOOLS.

          With the exception of the Young Ladies' Institute, before mentioned as having had, under Rev. William DENISON, a brief but useful career in Winthrop, and a boarding school in Deep River, conducted from 1851 to 1858 by Mr. Giles O. CLARK, this town has not been favored with any special educational advantages.

          From the early settlement the common district schools have existed, and provided instruction in the elementary branches of knowledge. The oldest of these school districts in the town are the West District in Winthrop and the South District in Deep River. With the growth of the population, others have been added, until now there are four districts, collectively embracing six schools, one in Winthrop and five in Deep River. All these are primary schools, excepting one in the Centre District of Deep River, which, relatively to the others, may be called a high school. Each of these districts was, until 1867, independent of the others, paying its own expenses, and selecting its own teachers; but all were subject to annual inspection and examination by school visitors, who were appointed by the town.

          Among the early teachers in the old South District were: Mason DENISON, Jared SHALER, Deacon Samuel GRISWOLD, Miss Ann LORD, Henry TYLER, and Giles O. CLARK.

          This town is one of the comparatively few in the State which have taken advantage of the authority given by the act of the General Assembly in 1866-67 for the consolidation of school districts. Agreeably to a vote passed in November 1867, all the school districts of the town were consolidated into on Union School District; and in 1870 the town voted to assume the entire control of the schools. They were accordingly placed under the general supervision of a Board of Education, consisting of twelve members, four of whom are elected annually, to serve for three years.

          The Board of Education, as originally constituted, consisted of the following members, viz.: J. Albert SHIPMAN, John S. LANE, Henry FOX, Rev. John N. CHASE, Midian N. GRISWOLD, Felix A. DENISON, Ansel D. PLATTS, Henry S. WARD, James A. ERWIN, Henry L. DENISON, Lozel J. PLATTS, William DENISON. The school expenses, excepting in so far as they are met by the income derived from the State school fund, are now paid out of the general town tax. Reference may be made, however, in this connection, but only for its historic interest, to a small special fund belonging to the town, of $325, known as the "School Society Fund," the inconsiderable income of which is used for the payment of school expenses. This fund is a legacy of the remote past, and its origin is involved in obscurity.

          The following facts, derived from FIELD's "Statistical Account," may possibly throw some light on the question of its origin: "In addition to monies drawn from time to time from the treasury of the state, these schools" (in the original town of Saybrook) "have the benefit of a considerable fund, belonging to the inhabitants, derived from various sources. Mr. Edward LOREY, in his last will, dated June 17th 1689, gave to them 300, to be applied to the support of schooling. The Legislature, by an act passed in October 1718, gave to them 50 for the same purpose, in consideration of the removal of the college. They also received another sum afterward, accruing from the sale of LITCHFIELD lands. A part of the legacy of Mr. LOREY was lost many years ago, by the reception of bills of credit from those who had borrowed it.

          "The remainder was divided, in 1773 or 1774, to the several parishes in the town, according to their list; and all the school funds in the town are now" (1819) "given up to the parishes, to be used by them for the education of their children. Their whole amount is unknown, Potapaug (of which the present town of Saybrook was then a part) possesses $652.43."

          Another important movement in the promotion of education has recently been made. As the result of a growing dissatisfaction, chiefly in the eastern part of the town, with the extent and quality of our educational facilities, a vote was passed, June 14th 1884, to appropriate about $9,000 for the erection, in Deep River, of a suitable building for a graded school. This act involves the substitution for all the primary schools in the town, except that in Winthrop, of a system of graded departments in one building. Provision was also made at the same time for the erection of a new and improved school house in Winthrop. The new building in Deep River, now in process of erection, is eligibly located on an elevation commanding a picturesque view of Connecticut River, and is surrounded by ample and pleasant school grounds. It will ha a depth of 54 feet and a width of 68 feet, and exclusive of the basement, will be two stories high, with gothic roof and a belfry. Commodious class rooms will provide for five or six graded departments. When finished, it will be an ornament to the place, and with liberal equipment and efficient management, will furnish far better opportunities for a good, practical education than the children and youth of the town have ever enjoyed.

          The present board of Education is constituted as follows: Horace P. DENISON, president; George F. SPENCER, secretary; Lozel J. PLATTS, Joseph C. FARGO, Dwight S. SOUTHWORTH, Simeon H. JENNINGS, Ansel D. PLATTS, H. Christopher KINGSLEY, Rev. William H. KNOUSE, Rev. A. F. PERRY, Emery C. PARKER, and J. Lockwood LAMB.

          The acting school visitors are Rev. William H. KNOUSE and George F. SPENCER.

          The number of children and youth in attendance at the schools is about 259.


INDUSTRIES OF THE TOWN.

          Though the original settlers were almost universally farmers, agriculture long ago ceased to be the prevailing and most important industry of the town, which is now chiefly dependent upon manufacturing for its prosperity. The rocky character of the land in the eastern pat, which rendered it unprofitable for farming, provided, however, at an early period and for a number of years, a more lucrative business, that of

          QUARRYING.-This business from small beginnings, grew at length to be so thriving that at one time there were at least a s many as eight quarries in more or les successful operation, in different parts of the surrounding hills, which collectively employed about 100 men,. The stone was shipped, for use in the construction of bridges and gutters, principally to the cities of New York and Philadelphia, and even as far as New Orleans.

          The quarry most extensively worked was owned and carried on by Messrs. Jabez SOUTHWORTH and Joseph SMITH. It was opened June 13th 1821. Mr. Smith came to Deep River, from Haddam, in 1818. From Haddam cane, also, other residents of the town who were originally quarrymen. The business continued to b a prosperous one for about 20 years or more, when it was arrested by the opening of new sources of supply on the Hudson river, which were in easier communication with the market, and supplied a better quality of stone. For a short time after the general demand ceased, the quarries were occasionally worked for the supply of local needs. The business is now entirely at an end.

          THE IVORY BUSINESS.-This, in its different branches constitutes the principal business of Deep River, and by its steady increase, it has contributed more than anything else, to the growth and prosperity of the place.

          It egan in a small way, in the manufacture, by hand, of ivory combs, which were first made by Phineas PRATT, as early as the year 1809. His father, Deacon Phineas PRATT, of Centerbrook, it is claimed, "was the inventor and maker of any machinery that would enable the manufacturer to compete with the English, a part of the same being indispensable at the present day."* [Vide "PRATT Family." Page 353.] After Mr. PRATT had begun the manufacture of ivory combs, as stated, Mr. George READ became associated with him. They continued together until 1816, when Mr. REED withdrew, and united with the firm of Ezra WILLIAMS & Co. Mr. PRATT was subsequently associated in 1824 to 1825, with Mr. Alfred WORTHINGTON, under the name of PRATT & WORTHINGTON. When by the death of Mr. WORTHINGTON, this connection was dissolved, and it was succeeded in 1830, by Mr. PRATT's sons, Ulysss and Alexis, under the name of U. & A. PRATT, for the manufacture of ivory turnings.

          In 1844, they were succeeded by PRATT, SPENCER & Co., and in 1850, this form was changed to PRATT Brothers & Co. In 1856, this last mentioned company erected a new factory, which, from its location, came to be know as the West Factory. The manufacture of combs was transferred to the new building, while the old building on Main street was used exclusively for the manufacture of ivory veneers, for pianos. The company had previously discontinued the business of ivory turning, and sold the turning machinery to Mr. Calvin B. ROGERS. The firm of Ezra WILLIAMS & Co., which, as stated, was form in 1816, began the business of ivory comb making in a small factory, on the west side of north Main street, a few rods south of the PRATT factory. This unpretentious building was the precursor of the larger factories which have since been required by the rapid growth of the business, and it was still standing, though not on its original site, until about 1877, when it was demolished. The new company, when organized, consisted of Ezra WILLIAMS, George READ, Alpheus STARKEY, and George SPENCER (all of whom were then residents of Deep River) and Thomas HOWARD, of Providence, R. I., who imported and furnished the ivory.

          In 1819, more than twenty men were employed, and 50,000 combs were annually manufactured.

          In 1829, the name of the firm was changed to George READ & Co., who continued the manufacture of combs until a period prior to February 1839, when they commenced the cutting of piano keys. The business was carried on in the old red shop, with various enlargements, from 1816 to 1851, when it gave place to a new factory on the site of the present one.

          In 1822, an ivory comb company was established in Meriden, Conn., under the name of HOWARD, PRATT & Co., and subsequently Julius PRATT & Co., one-half of whose capital was owned by George READ & Co., in Deep River. On the 6th of October 1863, the three companies, viz., Julius PRATT & Co., of Meriden, and George READ & Co., and PRATT Brothers & Co., of Deep river, were consolidated into a single company, under the name of PRAT, READ & Co., which has continued to the present time. Before the consolidation of the companies, Julius PRATT & Co., were engaged in the manufacture of key boards, consequently this branch of the business was assumed by the consolidated.

          In 1866, PRATT, READ & Co. erected an enlarge factory in Deep river, 128 by 38 feet, consisting of two stories and basement. The building erected in 1851 was turned around and attached as an L to the rear of the new factory. The consolidated company owned also the West Factory, formerly belonging to PRATT Brothers & Co. Previous to 1871, the business was about equally divided between Deep River and Meriden, but in that year the manufacture at Meriden was discontinued, the property was sold, and the entire business was transferred to Deep River.

          Early on Sunday morning July 31st 1881, the factory which had stood unharmed for 15 years, caught fire, and in a short time, with all its contents, was entirely destroyed. The safe, containing the records, etc., of the company, was about the only property that was saved from the flames. No misfortune, except a devastating epidemic, could have apparently been more disastrous. The whole community felt the shock, and every interest of the town was, for the time, depressed. While, by the prompt energy of the superintendent, Mr. John G. EDMONDS, many of the employes found temporary work in the factories of Ivoryton, the prospect of the future seemed gloomy enough. Moreover, it appeared doubtful whether the company would deem it expedient to rebuild.

          The town, with an intelligent appreciation of the gravity of the situation, unanimously voted, at a special meeting, held August 6th 1881, to abate for five years thereafter all taxes on the property of the company that should be in excess of $25,000 assessment, provided the factory should be rebuilt and the business retained in Deep River.

          In about nine months after the burning of the factory a new and larger one was completed, nearly all the machinery was replaced, and the first shipment of new goods was made.

          This new factory, occupying the site of the previous one, is constructed of brick and iron, consists of four stories, is 150 by 50 feet, with a projection from its center in the rear, 100 by 38 feet, and is as handsome as it is substantial. It is supplied with an engine of 75 horse power, with an additional water power of 25 horse. He company employs, in both factories, about 140 men, more or less, and pays directly to its help $70,000 per year.

          The company owns approximately 50 acres of land, of which about one-third is occupied by the various buildings necessary for the prosecution of the business. These comprise, besides the factories, three bleach houses, measuring together about 1,000 feet in length, dry houses, sorting houses, machine shop, blacksmith shop, storage vaults, lumber sheds and barn.

          It also owns three dams, and controls, by perpetual lease, the main reservoir in the town.

          The ivory is sawn entirely in the west factory, where also the combs are manufactured, for which 16 cutting machines are employed.

          The new factory is used for the exclusive manufacture of key boards. The ivory is mostly imported from Zanzibar, in Africa, in tusks, the average weight of which is 170 pounds. They have been known to weigh even 200 pounds. The factories in Deep River and Ivoryton receive three-fourths of the prime ivory that is exported from Zanzibar, prime ivory being that which is of the best quality and heaviest weight.

          The entire waste of the material in this business is utilized for some purpose. The ivory dust makes a powerful fertilizer; the smaller scraps are burnt for the manufacture of ivory black, and the largest fashioned into a variety of trinkets or small articles.

          DENISON'S STOP KNOB FACTORY.-One an elevation, just south of River street, about midway between the village and Connecticut River, stands a modest looking frame building, occupied by the Messrs. DENISON Brothers, who do an extensive business in the manufacture of stop knobs for church and parlor organs. The knobs are made mostly of wood, wile the circular piece which fits into the top is made of ivory or celluloid. On them are engraved the names of the stops. An improvement in this line has recently been made by the DENISON Brothers, which greatly facilitates the work of the organist in manipulating the keys. This consists of right and left oblique knobs, which enables the organist to se at a glance the names of the stops. The business of the firm is principally with organ manufacturers. They use steam power, about six to ten horse, and employ from 15 to 25 hands. The size of the factory is 25 by 60 feet, two stories high.

          ROGERS' FACTORY.-Situated on the Deep River stream, near the junction of Elm and Union streets, is the bone and ivory factory of Mr. Calvin B. Rogers. He was formerly of the firm of George READ & Co., in the same business, but has been established in this location about 20 years. The building is of wood, 75 by 30 feet, two stories high, with a capacity for the employment of about 30 hands. Water power is the main reliance, but in case of short supply the factory is provided with a 10 horse power engine. The sudden and unexpected death, on the 30th of June last, of Mr. Rogers, was justly regarded as a great loss to the entire town, and whose interests he had been prominently identified for many years, as his father, Mr. John C. ROGERS, had been before him.

          It is believed that provision will be made for the permanent continuance of the business; meanwhile it is temporarily under the general direction, for the estate of Mr. Rogers, of is son-in-law, Mr. James A. Jones.

          BOX FACTORY.-The immense business done by ivory and bone manufacturers in the locality requires other industries, among which is the manufacture of paper boxes for packing the goods.

          The business, commenced by Mr. Joseph FRENCH in 1853, has been carried on until very recently in a small factory on Main street, near PRATT, READ & Co. For brief periods, subsequent to Mr. FRENCH, it was conducted by Richard WEB and Samuel C. GLADING. The latter was succeeded, in 1857, by Mr. J. S. WILCOX, who managed it successfully for 24 years, when he retired, and transferred it in 1879 to the present owner, Mr. H. C. KINGSLEY.

          In September of the present year (1884), Mr. KINGSLEY removed from the old stand, and established himself in more commodious quarters, on the second floor of Union Block, on Main street.

          The business, though dependent chiefly on local demand, is remunerative and growing, and requires the employment of four cutting machines, operated by hand. As the work is comparatively light and easy, the labor of females, of whom about nine are employed, is generally sufficient.

          JENNINGS' AUGER BITS.-Rev. Russell JENNINGS, who was previously well known in the town as one of the early and successful Baptist pastors, assumed, in 1851, the business formerly conducted by his deceased brother, the manufacture of auger bits. In 1855, he patented an important improvement, in these goods, which, by the aid of machinery subsequently invented and patented by himself, laid the foundation for a large and lucrative business. Rom 1865, when the manufacture first reached the point of successful operation, the business has continued to grow rapidly; so that at the present time, such is the reputation of the Russell JENNINGS Extension Lip BITS" for their effectiveness and ease of operation, and the uniform excellence of their workmanship, that there is a constant and increasing demand for them from all parts of the United States, and large orders are yearly received from Europe and other foreign countries. The manufacture is carried on in five factories, three in the neighboring town of Chester, and two in Deep River, under the superintendence of Mr. Henry SHALER. The office for correspondence and for the sipping of the goods is located in Deep River, where he is noted for his public spirit, and for his liberal and unassuming charities.

          THE A. J. SMITH MANUFACTURING COMPANY.-A short distance west of the depot of the Connecticut Valley Railroad are the works of the A. J. Smith Manufacturing Company, for the manufacture of button hooks, wire and metal novelties, and small patented articles. The business has been established some fifteen years, but the present factory has been occupied about three years. The factory is a frame building, 110 by 30 feet, two stories high, and is run by steam of about 30-horse power. Thirty hands, more or less, are employed, and several tons of wire are consumed annually in the manufacture of these goods.

          WILLIAM & MARVIN, WOOD TURNING.-This factory, located some distance up the Deep River stream, on the so-called Iron Mines road, not far to the west of the village, is an old manufacturing stand, dating as far back as 1832. The present business of wood turning was established in 1851, by the late Mr. Nehemiah B. PRATT, who manufactured also velocipedes and carpet sweepers. After Mr. PRATT's decease, in 1881, the business passed into the hands of Messrs. WILLIAMS & MARVIN, who are manufacturers of mallets, tool handles, and variety wood turnings. The buildings are of wood, the main building being 25 by 60 feet, three stories high; a second building, nearly adjoining, is 30 by 35 feet, and two stories high. The water power is about 20-horse and the steam power 15-horse. About 15 skilled and ordinary hands are employed. The firm deals principally with hardware jobbers and turners. The names of the partners are F. W. WILLIAMS and C. R. MARVIN.

          CARRIAGE MANUFACTORY.-This business was established in 1860 by Mr. George S. HEFFLON, who came to Deep River from East Haddam. It is carried on in three frame buildings, which are located on the north side of Village street, a little to the west of Main. The carriage factory proper is 25 by 65 feet, and two stories high; the adjoining blacksmith shop is 20 by 40 feet. Detached from these, is the wood shop, with lumber room above, 25 by 25 feet. By hard work and honest workmanship, Mr. HEFFLON has built up a good business in carriage and wagon making. He also does general repairing.

          MACHINE SHOP.-On the old Winthrop road, a short distance from the junction of Union street, is the machine shop of Mr. Charles W. DOANE, who does the repairing for most of the large factories in this vicinity, there being no other jobbing or repairing shop within several miles of Deep River. The factory is a frame building, 25 by 40 feet, two stories high, and is run by steam power. He has been established here since 1870, and owns the property.

          THE NEW ERA PRINTING OFFICE.-Over the machine shop is the printing office of Mr. Francis SHELDON, publisher and editor of the paper called the New Era, which was started in Chester, in April, 1874, as a monthly, and in April 1876 was changed to a weekly. In 1879, Mr. SHELDON removed his printing business to Deep River, and about that time, the paper was enlarged to a seven column folio sheet. Now long after this he formed a copartnership known as the New Era Steam Printing Co., and the paper was again enlarged to its present size. The company was but short lived, and Mr. SHELDON again became the sole owner. When the enterprise had at length reached a point at which it success was reasonably assured, Mr. SHELDON, already enfeebled by overwork, was prostrated by disease, and, after a brief illness, died May 26th 1884, aged 42. He had shown no little mental activity and literary ability, as well as general journalistic skill, and by his own editorial talent, aided by a usually well chosen corps of local correspondents, had succeeded in making the New Era a vivacious and readable sheet, with a growing circulation in this and the surrounding towns. From 350 copies the first year, the circulation had increased, at the time of Mr. SHELDON's death, to 1,500 copies. Notwithstanding the loss caused by his untimely decease, the New Era will be continued. For the time being it is under the efficent editorial and business management of Mr. Frederick Hammond, who has for several years been associated with the late editor. The paper has a subscription list, and an advertising and job patronage that is equaled by few county papers in the State. Its advertising patronage covers most of the territory below the city of Middletown. The New Era is printed on a Campbell power press, run by steam. For job work a Universal press is used.

          DENISON'S FACTORY.-In the western part of Winthrop, just south of the Killingworth road, is the DENISON Factory, run by steam, for the manufacture of joiners' planes, which was established about 1832, by Messrs. John and Lester DENISON.

          It is now owned and carried on by Mr. Gilbert DENISON. The business has been in the DENISON family continuously for fifty-two years. JONES; FACTORY.-In the eastern part of Winthrop, on what is called "the plain," is the water privilege belonging to Mr. H. Goodrich JONES, whose factory for the manufacture of axles was unfortunately destroyed by fire a few years since. Though the business is now carried on elsewhere, it is hoped that at no distant day the factory in Winthrop will be rebuilt, and the business conducted there as successfully as before.

          SAW MILLS.-In Winthrop there are, or have been, several saw mills. The BUSHNELL Saw Mill, located nearest the source of Deep River, once did a good business, but is now disused. BULKELEY's saw mill, on the same stream, is in operation, and further down the river, is the saw mill known formerly as the old POST Mill, which is now owned and operated by WILLIAMS & MARVIN, as an adjunct to their factory in Deep River. These three last mentioned mills are believed to occupy, with the exception, possibly, of that of the Deep River Lumber Co., the oldest water privileges in the town.

          DEEP RIVER LUMBER COMPANY.-Near the head of the river is the large saw mill belonging to the Deep River Lumber Company. The water privilege at the mouth of the river is said to have been included in the royal grant, which was given in 1662, to Governor WINTHROP, of Connecticut. The first saw mill was located further up the stream, near where the factory of PRATT, READ & Co. now stands, and was owned in 1758, and probably a number of years earlier, by Lieut. Andrew SOUTHWORTH, as appears from a deed, recorded in the town records, by which he gave to his, Nathan, 30 acres of land, with house and barn, in Deep River, but reserved the "privilege of a highway to his saw mill on Deep River." It subsequently came into the possession, by inheritance or purchase, of his grandson, William SOUTHWORTH, who removed the mill to its present location, probably about 1810. The latter's sons, William and Charles, succeeded their father in the business. About 1830, Deacon Gilbert STEVENS became a co-partner with Charles SOUTHWORTH, and they were succeeded by STEVENS & STARKEY. In 1867, after the decease of Mr. Felix STARKEY, the business passed into the hands of the Deep River Lumber Company, which was organized under the general laws of the State, governing corporations, with a capital of $25,000. The officers were: Russell JENNINGS, president; Henry L. SHAILER, vice-president; James A. JONES, secretary and treasurer; Simeon H. JENNINGS, auditor.

          The present officers are: Ansel JONES, president; and James A. JONES, secretary. The business consists of the manufacture and sale of hard and soft wood lumber, ship timber, etc. The factory is a fame building, 40 by 160 feet, run by water and steam, with about 25 horse power for the former, and 40 for the latter. About 20 hands are usually employed to run the mill and handle the lumber.

          E. E. NETTLETON.-Mr. E. E. NETTLETON, who has been engaged in the timber, lumber, and wood business, for the last nine years, located early in 1883, in Deep River, where he has invested a considerable capital, and has usually employed a large number of men. His business consists more particularly in the purchase of timer lots in various parts of this and other towns, and the conversion of the timber, chiefly by means of portable saw mills, into lumber, wood, and railroad ties. In connection with the business Mr. NETTLETON keeps also a lumber yard in Deep River.

          DEEP RIVER FUIT EARM.-Early in the present year (1884) the Connecticut Valley Orchard Company, the headquarters of which are in Berlin, Conn., purchased 130 acres of land located just west of Deep River, on the northeast side of KELSEY Hill. Under the efficient scientific and practical management of Mr. John B. CLARK, late of the Massachusetts State Agricultural College at Amherst, already about 30 acres have been put under cultivation, and 30,000 fruit trees, consisting of apple, pear, plum, peach, cherry, and quince trees, have been planted. Under the continuance of the careful management with which it has been so far carried on, there is every reason to expect the ultimate and complete success of this large enterprise.


MERCHANDISE.

          The first merchants in Deep river were MATHER, READ & Co., who occupied the so-called "Green Store." This was built about the year 1827 on its present site, on the northeast corner of Main and River streets.

          The building, which consisted at first of one and a half stories, was, at a later date, enlarged to two stories and a half. The original firm has had the following successors:, viz.: SNOW & STARKEY, SNOW & MARVIN, Sedley SNOW, and, lastly, the present merchant, Frederick L'HOMMEDIEU, who began in 1874.

          Prior to 1835, a general store was established near the Connecticut River by BARUCK & BECKWITH. They were succeeded by Jabez SOUTHWORTH jr., and finally by the present occupant, Mr. John S. LANE.

          Between the years 1835 and 1837, Mr. BECKWITH removed from his location at the river, and opened a new store in the village, opposite MATHER, READ & Co. After his decease the business passed into the hands of SHAILER & KINGLSEY. They were succeeded by the following firms, viz.: Asa F. SHAILER & Co., I. H. SOUTHWORTH & co., RICHARDS & GIRSWOLD, GRISWOLD & SMITH, SPENCER Brothers, in 1865, and finally, on the decease of the younger brother, Mr. Dwight SPENCER, in 1882, Mr. George SPENCER became the sole owner.

          In storekeeping, as in some other things, Deep River was antedated by Winthrop, where a country store was kept by Mr. Bani DENISON as early as 1797. On is removal to Chester in 1806, or a few years thereafter, he was succeeded by DENISON & WATROUS, who continued the business for a number of years. After numerous changes, the business came in the hands of the present owner, Mr. George T. CARR.

          Principal merchants and tradesmen: Frederick L'HOMMEDIEU, general merchandise, 1874; George SPENCER, general merchandise, 1875; John S. LANE, general merchandise; SHAILER & PRATT, general merchandise, 1884; I. I. BUSHNELL, general merchandise, 1870; George T. CARR, general merchandise; Thomas P. DIXON, harness maker, trunks, etc., 1852; Joseph B. BANNING, boots and shoes, 1834; Charles D. SMITH, furniture and undertaking, 1841; William O. POST, clothing, 1882; Thomas L. PARKER, druggist, 1883; S. S. WILLIAMS, stoves, tinware, etc.

          Statistics: Grand list for 1883: $566,952; value of dwellings, $249,362; mills, stores, and factories, $33,837; number of dwellings, 280; number of stores, mills, and factories, 30.


CHURCHES.

          The inhabitants of the original town of Saybrook, were for more than a century, universally Congregationalists. "They appear," says FIELD, "to have maintained public worship from the beginning, though circumstances prevented the organization of churches and the settlement of ministers." In the progress of its settlement and the growth of its population, the town became divided into four parishes. These, in chronological order, were the following:

          I. The First Parish of Saybrook (now Old Saybrook), where the church was organized and the first meeting house erected in 1646. The second meeting house was built in 1726.

          II. The Second Parish, which embraced originally the entire Potagaug Quarter, was organized about 1722. The first meeting house was erected in 1727, and was followed, in 1792, by a second, which still stands, unchanged externally, on its original site, and is now the oldest church edifice in Middlesex county.

          III. The Third Parish, in Westbrook, was organized in 1726, and its first meeting house was built in 1727.

          IV. The Fourth Parish, in Pattaconk, now Chester, was organized in 1740, and the first meting house was erected in 1742.

          As the present town of Saybrook was originally included in the Second or Potapaug Parish, its inhabitants, excepting a few Baptists in the western part, were, until the beginning of the present century, accustomed to attend public worship at the old Congregational meeting house in Centerbrook; and most of them continued to do so until the erection of the churches in the village of Deep River, in 1832 and 1833.


BAPTIST CHUCH, WINTHROP.

          Before giving an account of the churches in Deep River, it is necessary to notice the Baptist Society in Winthrop, which preceded them by at least 75 years. As early as 1729, several persons in the vicinity of Winthrop embraced Baptist sentiments, and were occasionally supplied with preaching by Baptist ministers from the eastern part of the State and from Rhode Island. As they increased in numbers, it is said that they began to excite the jealousy of the magistrates, and that in February 1744, 14 persons were arrested on the charge of "holding a meeting contrary to law on God's holy Sabbath day."

          They were arraigned, tried, fined, and driven on foot to New London, where they were imprisoned, without fire, food, or beds, for several weeks. Making allowance for whatever exaggerations may possibly have gathered about a tradition more than 100 years old, the main fact may nevertheless be received as substantially true, tat these conscientious dissenters were the victims of a grossly unjust, though technically legal persecution; which, however, it may well be believed, was not regarded with favor by the great mass of their fellow Christians, from whose religious doctrines and practices they so heroically dissented.

          "The prisoners were released in the spring of 1744, and on the 15th of July following a church was formed, consisting of seventeen members. From this time till 1776, being few in numbers, and poor as to this world's goods, they had no stated pastor; their deacons, William WILCOX and Amos POTTER, generally conducted their meetings, and Rev. Joshua MORSE (then residing in Montville) administered the ordinances to them, and labored with them as often as his duty to his own flock would allow." In 1776, Rev. Eliphalet LESTER was ordained pastor of the church, and continued his ministry (with the exception of two years) till 1796, when he resigned. During his ministry, the church passed through many trials, yet his labors were very successful. Soon after his resignation, Rev. William WELCH became the pastor, and continued till 1801. During the ministry of Rev. George ATWELL, from 1802 to 1806, about 70 members were added to the church. Following him, during the next seven years, the pastors were Rev. Asa SPENCER and Rev. William WITTER. In 1814, Rev. Samuel WEST became the pastor, and remained for eight years, during which period 36 were added to the church. After Mr. WEST's removal, the pastors of the church from 1825 to 1854 were: Rev. Joseph GLAZIER, Rev. Russell JENNINGS, Rev. William DENISON (during whose ministry, of three years, 69 members were dismissed to form the fourth church in Saybrook, now Chester), Rev. Baruck BECKWITH, Rev. John H. BAKER, Rev. Frederick KETCHAM, Rev. H. S. HAVEN, Rev, Pierpont BROCKETT, Rev. Albert E. DENISON, Rev. B. K. MILLS, Rev. Harmon ELLIS, an Rev. Ralph H. MAINE.

          During the following 10 years, that is until 1864, the church was chiefly supplied by Rev. William DENISON.

          It was during this period that Mr. DENISON had charge, as before stated, of the "Winthrop Institute for Young Ladies." For the next four years, the church was supplied by Rev. Russell JENNINGS and Rev. Sidney S. CARTER.

          In 1867, the old meeting house, erected in 1773, gave place to the present one. This, after having been used for several years by the Methodist society of Deep River, was removed to Winthrop and rebuilt under the superintendence of Rev. William DENISON. It was dedicated January 28th 1868, after which the church was supplied for a short time by Mr. R. E. WHITTEMORE, a licentiate of the church in Essex.

          In April 1869, Rev. William DENISON again became pastor, and continued for about eighteen months. After the church had been supplied by Rev. M. A. CUMMINGS and Rev. George W. GORHAM, Rev. Fenner B. DICKENSON was called, in November 1872, to become pastor, and closed his labors November 1874. He was followed by Rev. William A. BRONSON, in 1875, who remained nearly three years. Rev. Asa A. ROBINSON came I April 1879, and continued about three years. The present pastor, Rev. George H. LESTER, began his labors in April 1883.

          The present deacons of the church are George W. BUSHNELL and Gideon K. HALL. The membership of the church is 86. Several members have aided the church by the gift of real or personal estate. The names of these donors are William WILCOX, Nathaniel NEWBURY, Stephen UTTER, Jedediah HARRIS, and Wilbur F. ARNOLD. Rev. Russell JENNINGS, of Deep River, after, after having been for more than ten years a very efficient helper of the church in financial matters, has given them a fund of $5,000, which, with the munificient gift of Wilbur F. ARNOLD, recently deceased, has enabled the church to purchase a good parsonage, and places it in a better financial condition than any former period in its history.

          The church in Winthrop is not only the oldest in this town, but is belied to be the oldest Baptist church, with one exception, in the State of Connecticut.


THE BAPTIST CHURCH IN DEEP RIVER.

          Previous to the year 1829 only two or three Baptist families had resided in the village of Deep River.

          In the winter of 1829 and 1830, Rev. Russell JENNINGS, then the pastor of the Baptist church in Winthrop, and Rev. N. E. SHAILER held a series of evening meetings in the village, which resulted in an interesting revival, and the addition of quite a number of converts to the membership of neighboring churches.

          At the same time the question of organizing a Baptist church was agitated, and the way being open, it was decided to take measures for the accomplishment of this object. Accordingly, on the22d of April 1830, an ecclesiastical council assembled at the house of Mr. George READ, and unanimously voted to constitute the church, consisting of 27 members, 13 male and 14 female.

          The public services of recognition were held in the afternoon of the same day, in a school house, which stood near the present location of the meeting house. They were as follows:

          On the 6th day of June, George READ and Gilbert STEVENS were elected deacons. Until July, the church was supplied with preaching chiefly by Revs. S. SHAILER and R. JENNINGS, with meetings being held regularly at the school house above mentioned.

          In September following, Rev. Orson SPENCER, of West Stockbridge, Massachusetts, became, by unanimous request of the church, its first pastor.

          In the year 1831, the erection of a house of worship, 38 feet by 50 feet, was begun, and completed in the spring of 1832. Mr. SPENCER continued his labors until November 1834. During his ministry, 26 were added to the church by baptism.

          After the dismission of Mr. SPENCER, the pulpit was supplied by Mr. Henry WOOSTER, a licentiate, who was then employed as a teacher in the village. He was born in Oxford, Connecticut, November 8th 1808, and had removed to Deep River from Hamilton, New York. On the 30th of April 1835, he was publicly ordained by the council to the pastoral office. He continued as pastor of the church until the close of 1839, when failure of his health compelled his resignation. Thirty-thee converts were added to the church during his ministry. He was succeeded, April 1st 1840, by Rev. Russell JENNINGS, who had previously been pastor of the Baptist church in Norwich. In this year the church erected a parsonage.

          Mr. JENNINGS closed his pastorate April 1st 1844, during which 39 converts were received in the church.

          In June 1844, Rev. Lawson MUZZY, of Williamsburgh, N. Y., assumed the pastoral care of the church.

          The parsonage, erected in 1840, was this year sold to Rev. R. JENNINGS, who remained as a resident of the village; and a site, adjacent to the lot on which the meeting house stands, having been donated to the church by Deacon George READ, a new parsonage, with out buildings, was completed in the following year. In the same year also (1845), the meetinghouse was enlarged by the addition of 17 feet to its length, and in other respects much improved, at an expense of about $1,700.

          In January 1847, Mr. MUZZY terminated his labors, and subsequently became the pastor of the Baptist church in Greenville. Twenty-five members were received into the church by baptism during his ministry. In March 1847, Rev. Elisha CUSHMAN began his ministry, which continued for 12 years, and resulted in the addition to the church of 125 converts. He resigned, in the spring of 1859, to become the pastor of a new church in West Hartford; subsequently, he assumed the editorship of the Christian Secretary, which he retained until his death.

          His ministry was followed, October 1st 1858, by that of Rev. John N. CHASE, of the Rochester Theological Seminary, who was ordained on the 30th of November following. The closing month of this year was rendered memorable by the death of the beloved senior deacon, George READ. From the organization of the church, during a period of 30 years, his means and influence had been most freely and conscientiously devoted to its welfare. His life, replete with acts of benevolence, was marked for its childlike simplicity. His death, at the age of 72, occasioned deep lamentation. Mr. Gideon PARKER was subsequently chosen as his successor in the office of deacon.

          In 1864, the meeting house was thoroughly repaired and newly furnished, at an expense of about $3,000. The year 1866 was sadly eventful to the church by the death of an unusual number of its members, among whom was Rev. Henry WOOSTER, formerly a pastor, and always a faithful servant of the church, till he was suddenly called away, the 58th year of his age. During the pastorate of Mr. Chase, which closed November 26th 1871, 72 converts were received into the church.

          During the pastorate of Rev. Robert MCGONEGAL, from May 1872 to November 1873, 27 were added by baptism, and during that of Rev. William GILKES, from December 1873 to July 1875, four were received.

          Rev. William H. PENDELTON, D. D., became the pastor in December 1875, and continued until April 1879, I which period 19 were received by baptism.

          Rev. Robert M. MARTIN, of Providence, Rhode Island, a graduate of Brown University, and of the Rochester Theological Seminary, began his labors July 1879, and closed them December 1881. Four were added to the church by baptism during his pastorate.

          The present pastor is Rev. A. F. PERRY, who was settled in June 1882. Thirty-six have been added to the church since he began his labors.

          Four members of this church have been licensed as preachers of the Gospel, viz., Amos d. WATROUS, William H. SHAILER, Joseph H. MATHER jr. (deceased) and Fenner B. DICKENSON.


THE CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH.

          The residents of Deep River who united in forming the Congregational church were previously connected with the adjoining parishes of Saybrook Second (at Centerbrook) and Chester, chiefly the former. They loved the mother church at Centerbrook, venerable as it was for its age and sacred associations, and for having a history which extended back to the ante-Revolutionary period; and they could give no better evidence of their action than to organize and build anew, when the religious wants of themselves and their children required, after the pattern of the fathers.

          Early in the year 1833, steps were accordingly taken toward the realization of this object. A house of worship was completed in December of the same year, on land which was donated for the purpose by Captain John PLATT. On the 12th of the same month, the ecclesiastical society was legally formed, four months before the organization of the church.

          Worship was held in the meeting house as soon as it was completed; it was not publicly dedicated until it was entirely paid for.

          "On Sabbath, the 30th of March following (1834) a meeting was called for the organization of the church, and at an adjourned meeting, the confession and covenant were adopted, and have continued unchanged to the present time.

          "At this meeting members of neighboring churches present wishing to be formed into a church in this place, signed letters requesting dismission and recommendation from their respective churches with a view of having their design accomplished.

          "The organization of the church was completed at a meeting held on the afternoon of Sabbath, April 13th 1834."

          Mr. George SPENCER was chosen deacon. As such he acted alone until November 6th 1836, when Mr. Ezra SOUTHWORTH was chosen as his colleague.

          Deacon SPENCER, who on his election was in the prime of life and vigor, served the church with wisdom and fidelity for 44 years, until his death, July 24th 1878, in the 91st year of his age.

          Deacon Ezra SOUTHWORTH, about 31 years old when elected, served the church 23 years, until his death, August 22d 1859, aged 56.

          Mr. John Marvin, elected to fill his place, November 1859, served as deacon about 14 years, until his death, September 26th 1873, aged 80.

          The election of these members as office bearers in the church falls within the first half of its history.

          The constituent members of the church numbered 49. The majority of them came by letter from the mother church in Centerbrook, known as the Second Congregational Church in Saybrook, and a few from the church in Chester, or the Fourth Congregational Church of Saybrook. Of the original 49 members, 34 are now, September 1st 1884, dead. Additions to the church on confession of faith began to be made soon after its organization. Two weeks thereafter, three converts were received. During the first year of its history, 19 in all were added, of which 17 were by confession.

          It was not until a year after its confirmation that the church was supplied with a settled pastor.

          Rev. Darius MEAD, the first pastor, was born in Greenwich, Connecticut, and graduated at Yale College in 1828. He was installed pastor, May 27th 1835, and wad dismissed on account of his ill health, October 3d 1837. His brief pastorate was memorable for a remarkable religious interest, as the result of which, 79 were received into the church by confession, May 1st 1836.

          The ministry of Mr. MEAD was speedily followed by that of Rev. Zabdiel R. ELY, a native of Lyme, Conn., and a graduate, in 1833, of Yale College, who was ordained as pastor, December 1st 1837. He wad dismissed on account of ill health, May 29th 1839, and died in November, of the same year, at Watertown, N. Y. On the same day that Mr. ELY was dismissed Rev. Frederick W. CHAPMAN, a native of Canfield, Ohio, and a graduate of Yale College, in 1828, and the Theological Seminary, in New Haven, in 1832, was installed as the third pastor. He continued with the church about 12 years, and was dismissed, September 14th 1850. During his ministry there were several seasons of special ingathering, the aggregate result of which was an addition to the church membership of 82 on confession of faith. Mr. CHAPMAN died of paralysis, July 21st 1876, at Rocky Hill, Conn., in the 70th year of his age. For a number of years before his decease, he was widely and favorably known throughout this and other States, as a family historian and genealogist. He was a member of the New England Historical and Genealogical Society, the Connecticut Historical Society, and other similar bodies. His remains repose in the Fountain Hill Cemetery, of Deep River, among the people whom he never ceased to love.

          More than four years elapsed after Mr. CHAPMAN's resignation, before the church was favored with a settled ministry. On the 24th of December 1854, Rev. George W. CONNITT was ordained as the fourth pastor. His brief ministry was terminated July 1st 1856, and was signalized by the immediate withdrawal from the church of twenty-one members, who were in sympathy with the stalwart Calvinism of the dismissed pastor. This event involving the loss of some of the most prominent and influential members of the church, had special importance as the first division in its history, and the first serious check to its almost continuous growth. The seceders immediately organized themselves into a Presbyterian church, with Mr. CONNITT as their pastor, and continued to hold worship in the town hall for some years, when adverse circumstances compelled the removal of Mr. CONNITT, and ultimately, the disbandment of his weakened flock; most of whom, eventually, returned to the fellowship of the Congregational church. For nearly two years after Mr. CONNITT's dismission, the church was pastorless, but on the 1st of December 1858, Rev. Henry WICKES, of Guilford, Conn., already favorably known among the churches and ministers of the State, was installed as pastor. By this time, the condition and prospects of the church had begun to improve; a revival in the early months of 1858, had strengthed and encouraged it by the accession, April 1st 1858, of 30 converts.

          From time to time, during the ministry of Mr. WICKES, additional converts were received. In 1865 fifteen were admitted, and in 1868 as many more.

          After nearly eleven years of faithful and fruitful work, Mr. WICKES felt constrained, largely by impaired health, to tender his resignation October 6th 1869, and removed to another field in Western New York. He was succeeded by the present pastor, Rev. William H. KNOUSE, a graduate of New York University, and of the Union Theological Seminary in the same city, who was installed pastor July 27th 1870.

          Previous to the beginning of Mr. KNOUSE's ministry the interior of the meeting house was reseated, refurnished, and otherwise improved, at an expenditure of $2,000. During the past fourteen years of the present pastorate, 131 have been added to the church, including 80 converts. The membership is now 205. The Sunday school has about 200 members. Mr. Felix A. DENISON for two years past has been its efficient superintendent.


THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH.

          In addition to the foregoing account of the churches now existing in the town, it is proper to notice, as forming no unimportant part of its ecclesiastical history, the Methodist Episcopal society; which though now extinct, contributed effectively throughout the 12 years of its existence to the religious and moral character of the community. For several years before its organization, a few residents of Deep river, belonging to the Methodist Episcopal church in Essex, were formed into a class, and were favored with the occasional ministrations of the preacher in charge at Essex. In 1850, the New York East Conference appointed Rev. Samuel H. SMITH to have the pastoral care of Saybrook Ferry, Chester, and Deep river; and subsequently Rev. W. W. HURD, a local preacher, received the same appointment. In 1856, the Methodists in Deep river, then numbering 23, with one probationer, were organized into a church, and by appointment of the conference Rev. Joseph VINTON became the first regular pastor. At this time the meetings were held in the North District school house. In 1857-8, a small but neat meeting house was erected on the east side of Main street, in the northern part of the village, where the society continued to worship for about 10 years. Mr. VINTON remained for two years, and was followed by Rev. Wilfred DEAN, who labored for one year, and was the last pastor. The church, never strong in membership and means, now began to decline, and finally becoming unable to bear the expense of self-support, were obliged, in 1868, to disband, and sell their house. It was bought by the Baptist church of Winthrop, and in 1870 was removed to that place.

          At the time of the dissolution the members were transferred to the Methodist Episcopal church in Essex; subsequently some of them united, by letters from Essex, with the Congregational church in Deep River, and have added materially to its strength and prosperity.


CEMETERIES.

          In the remoter periods of the history of the town, and in fact up to a comparatively recent time, provision was made for the interment of the dead in grounds that were connected with the original parishes, and located not far from the meeting houses.

          The oldest cemetery within the present limits of the town is that in Winthrop, which dates as far back as the year 1750. The land was donated by Mr. Jeremiah KELSEY, one of the earliest settlers in that vicinity. The first interment was that of Mr. Job BUCKELEY. The recent erection of a neat and substantial gateway to the cemetery was largely the result of the efforts of the public spirited ladies in that part of the town.

          When the churches in the eastern part of the town were organized, two small inclosures were set apart for the burial of the dead, and these continued to be used until the year 1851. By that time it was apparent that additional ground would ere long be required, and the expediency of securing a single cemetery large enough for the needs of the village and its vicinity began to be seriously considered. The agitation of the subject resulted in the opening, during the year 1851, of the


FOUNTAIN HILL CEMETERY.

          A joint stock company was formed, June 17th 1851, with the corporate name of the Fountain Hill Cemetery Association, with a capital stock of $3,000, divided into shares of $25.00 each. In 1874, the stock of the company was increased to $6,000. The original directors were: Sedley SNOW, Ezra S. WILLIAMS, Ulysses PRATT, Niles P. STARKEY, Calvin B. ROGERS, Arba H. BANNING, and Henry WOOSTER. The president was Alpheus STARKEY, and the treasurer was Henry WOOSTER.

          The land, which was purchased of Mr. Harry SOUTHWORTH, is admirably located on a gently sloping elevation, a little to the east of the village, and it consisted originally of 40 acres. The stock was soon sold, and measurers were taken to inclose and lay out the ground. As the work of improvement proceeded it became evident that by careful and liberal management the town would have a cemetery, which for the convenience of its location, the extent and diversity of its surface, it capability of adornment, and the varied beauty of its own and the surrounding scenery, would be unsurpassed outside the cities of the State. That this expectation has been fully realized is due to the liberality and taste of its originators; especially Deacon George READ and Ulysses PRATT, who, until they found a resting place within its pleasant grounds, gave freely of their time and means to its improvement. Rev. Russell JENNINGS has also been a generous friend and donor.

          In 1882, he caused to be erected, at his own expense, a substantial and ornamental gate at the main entrance; and, in the following year, enlarged the cemetery by the free gift of eight acres of land adjoining it on the east, thereby securing an unobstructed and beautiful prospect of Connecticut River.

          The first interment in the cemetery was that of Mrs. Mary TOWNER, who was buried December 14th 1851, aged 75 years at her death. The remains of the dead who were previously interred in the village church yards have nearly all been transferred to the new cemetery. Its reputation for extent and beauty has attracted not a few residents of neighboring towns and elsewhere, who have bought family plots, and, in several instances, have erected costly monuments. But the special attractiveness of Fountain Hill Cemetery consists not in its monuments, but in itself, in its own natural beauty as heightened by art. Its park-like spaces, shaded with a variety of deciduous and evergreen trees; its umbrageous ravines; its soft and graceful slopes, broken here and there with picturesque masses of rock, and the frequent glimpses of diversified scenery that everywhere gratify the eye, unite in making a scene of summer or autumnal beauty that is rarely found in association with the dead, and cannot fail to have an elevating and refining influence upon the living.

          The interments, to date, number 803, but the capacity of the cemetery is sufficient to provide ample room for burial for an indefinite length of time.

          The present officers of the Cemetery Association are: Richard P. SPENCER, president; Felix A. DENISON, vice-president; James A. JONES, secretary and treasurer. The directors are H. G. LOOMIS, C. B. ROGERS, Russell JENNINGS, Joseph BANNING, Samuel F. SNOW, Henry R. WOOSTER, James A. JONES.

          The town owns a hearse of modern style and construction for the free use of all interments that occur within its limits. Mr. Charles D. SMITH, undertaker, has had, by authority of the town, the charge of it since 1856.


PROMINENT MEN.

George SPENCER.
George READ.
Dr. Edwin BIDWELL.
Rev. Russell JENNINGS.
Hon. Richard Pratt SPENCER.
Harlan Page HUBBARD.
Hon. Alpheus S. WILLIAMS

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