The History of Middlesex County 1635-1885
J. H. Beers & Co., 36 Vesey Street, New York
Pages 282-320


(The writer is under obligations to Messrs. Henry Hart and Daniel C. Spencer, for the loan of valuable books and papers, and for assistance and information. He is also indebted to many others in the same way to whom he wishes to return thanks.) .

[transcribed by Janece Streig]


In the spring of 1614, Adrien BLOCK ascended the Connecticut River to the rapids at the head of navigation. He names the beautiful stream the "Versch," or Fresh Water River, from a strong downward current that was perceived a short distance above its mouth. By the native savages it was called the "Connittecock" or "Quonehtacut," and the aboriginal appellation survives to the present day, the name of the river and the State of Connecticut.

BLOCK was thus the first European navigator of the river, and probably the first to set foot on the site of what is now the town of Old Saybrook. Not long after this, the Dutch traders began to visit the country every year, and soon established a large trade with the natives; buying annually, it was said, not less than 10,000 beaver skins, beside such other commodities as the country could furnish.

Amsterdam ships continued their voyages to the New Netherlands, and the trade in peltry was industriously prosecuted, not only on the North and South Rivers, but on the "Fresh," or Connecticut River. In 1623, "two families and six men" were sent to the mouth of "Fresh" or Connecticut River, by the Dutch at Manhattan Island, to commence the actual occupation of that part of the Dutch province. It is probably that they did not remain long.

Probably no more Dutch settlements were made at Saybrook till 1633. In the summer of that year the Dutch traders on the Connecticut were directed to arrange with the native Indians for the purchase of "most all the lands on both sides of the river." This was accomplished and Hans den SLOYS, an officer of the company, also purchased at the same time, the "Kievets Hook," [So called by the Dutch from the cry of a species of bird called by the English "Pewit" or "Pewett," supposed to be a sand piper. In Holland, its eggs are considered a great delicacy in the spring.] afterward called Saybrook Point, at the mouth of the Connecticut, where the arms of the States General were "affixed to a tree in token of possession." [A cooper box with a cover, and about the size of a snuff box, having a roughly engraved picture of TSTAT HUYS on the cover, and a view of Amsterdam on the bottom is still preserved in Saybrook as a Dutch relic. It washed out of an Indian grave in the gale of September 1815.]

In October 1635, Governor Winthrop arrived in Boston, with men, ammunition, ordinance, and £2,000 in money, for the purpose of erecting fortifications at the mouth of Connecticut River. Very soon after his arrival, he learned that the Dutch were preparing to take possession of the mouth of the river, so on the 9th of November, he dispatched a small vessel of 30 tons, with about 20 men, carpenters and others, under command of Lieutenant GIBBONS and Sergeant WILLARD, to take possession of the mouth of the river, and erect some buildings. This was the first regular English occupation of the territory comprehended within Lord WARWICK's grant. The officers of the Dutch West India Company, who had bought this land of the Indians three years before, had affixed to a tree the arms of the State's General, in token of possession of Kievets Hook, and the river above, but the Englishmen contemptuously tore down this shield, and carved a grinning face in its stead. [Bryant's H. N. Y., p. 550 N. Y. H. S. coll. 11,277 in Brodhead, p. 260.] WINTHROP's party took possession of the mouth of the river on the 24th of November, and early in the following December, a sloop which the Dutch Governor, Wouter VAN TWILLER, had sent from Manhattan to take possession of Kievets Hook, and erect fortifications to secure the possession of the river by the Dutch, arrived at the mouth of the river. The English, however, had been in possession long enough to get two pieces of cannon on shore, and they would not permit the Dutch to land. Governor WINTHROP arrived soon after, bringing with him Lion GARDNER, who had been an engineer and master workman in the service of the Prince of Orange, and who had married a Dutch wife, and who was expected to build a fort, and lay out a city. GARDNER brought with him 12 men and two women. [HUBBARD's History New England.] The Dutch having been repulsed, the English changed the name of Kievet's Hook to Saybrook, out of compliment to the leading English proprietors of Connecticut-Lord SAY and Lord BROOK. The original Indian name of Kievet's Hook and the land near it was Pattaquassett. Some of the principal events which occurred at Saybrook during the four years that Lieutenant GARDINER remained there, can be best related in his own words.


Robert CHAPMAN and Thomas HURLBURT, having desired Mr. GARDINER 'to consider, and to call to mind the passages of God's Providence at Seabrooke, in and about the time of the Pequit war," he wrote a letter, from which the following extracts are taken:

"In the year 1635, I Lion GARDNER, Engineer and Master of works of Fortifications in the legers of the Prince of Orange in the Low Countries, through the persuasion of Mr. John DAVENPORT, Mr. Hugh PETERS, with some other well affected Englishmen of Rotterdam, I made an agreement with the forenames Mr. PETERS, for £100 per annum for four years, to serve the company of patentees, namely the Lord SAY, the Lord BROOKS, Sir Arthur HAZELRIG, Sir Matthew BONNINGTON (BONINGTON), Sir Richard SALTINGSTONE (SALTONSTALL). Esquire FENWICKE, and the rest of the company, (I say) I was to serve them, only in the drawing, ordering, and making of a City, Towns, or forts of defence. And so I came from Holland to London, where I was appointed to attend such orders, and Mr. John WINTHROP Esquire, the present Governor of Conectecott was to appoint, whether at Pequit river or Conectecott, and, that we should choose a place, both for the convenience of a good harbor, and also for capableness and fitness for a fortification. But I, landing at Boston the latter end of November, the aforesaid Mr. WINTHROP had sent before one Lieut. GIBBONS, Sergeant WILLARD, with some carpenters, to take possession of the River's mouth, where they began to build houses against the spring, we expecting according to promise, that there would have come from England to us 300 able men, whereof 200 should attend fortification, 50 to till the ground, and 50 to build houses. But our great expectations at the River's mouth came only to two men viz. Mr. FENWICK, and his man, who came with Mr. Hugh PETERS and Mr. OLDHAM and Thomas STANTON, bringing with them some Otterskin coats and Beaver, and skeins of wampum which the Pequits had sent for a present, because the English had required those Pequits that had killed a Virginean, one Capt. STONE with his Bark's crew, in Conectecott River; for they said they would have their lives and not their presents; then I answered Seeing you will take Mr. WINTHROP to the Bay, to see his wife, newly brought to bed of her first child, and seeing though you say he shall, yet I know if you make war with these Pequits, he will not come hither again, for I know you will keep yourselves safe, as you think in the Bay, but myself, with these few, you will leave at the stake to be roasted or for hunger to be starved; for Indian corn is now 12s. per bushel, and we have but three acres planted, and if they will now make war for a Virginean and expose us to the Indians, whose mercies are cruelties; they, I say, they love the Virginean better than us; for have they stayed these four or five years, and will they begin now, we being so few in the River, and have scarce holes to put our heads in?" "I pray ask the magistrates in the Bay if they have forgot what I said to them, when I returned from Salem? For of Mr. WINTHROP, Mr. HAINES, Mr. DUDLEY, Mr. HUMPHREY, Mr. BELINGAM, (Bellingham) Mr. CODDINGTON, and Mr. NOWELL;---these entreated me to go with Mr. HUMFRY and Mr. PETERS to view the country, to see how fit it was for fortification, and I told them that nature had done more than half the work, already, and I thought no foreign potent enemy would do them any hurt, but one that was near. They asked me who that was, and I said it was Capt. Hunger that threatened them most, for (said I) War is like a three footed stool, want one foot, and down comes all; and these three feet are, men, victuals, and munitions; therefore seeing in peace you are like to be famished, what will or can be done if War? Therefore I think, said I, it will be best only to fight against Capt. Hunger, and let fortification alone awhile; and, if need hereafter require it, I can come to do you any service; and they all liked my saying well. Entreat them to rest awhile, till we get more strength here about us, and that we hear where the seat of war will be, may approve of it, and may provide for it, for I had but twenty-four in all, men, women, and boys and girls, and not food for them for two months, unless we saved our cornfields, (At Cornfield Point) which could not possibly be if they came to war, for it is two miles from our home. Mr. WINTHROP, Mr. FENWICK, and Mr. PETERS promised me that they would do their utmost endeavor to persuade the Bay men, to desist from war a year or two, till we could better provided for it; and then the Pequit Sachem was sent for, and the present returned, but full sore against my will. So they three returned to Boston."

After recounting an unsuccessful trading expedition to Pequit, on which Mr. Steven WINTHROP, Sergeant TILLE (TILLY), Thomas HURLBURT and three other men went, he continues: "And suddenly after came Capt. TURNER and Capt. UNDRIL (UNDERHILL), with a company of soldiers, well fitted to Sea Brook, and made that place their rendezvous, or seat of war, and that to my great grief, for said I, you came hither to raise these wasps about my ears, and then you will take wing and fly away; but when I had their commission I wondered and made many allegations against the manner of it, but go they did to Peuit, and as they cam without acquainting any of us, in the River with it, so they went against our will, for, I knew that I should lose our cornfield. Then I entreated them to hear what I would say to them, which was this: Sirs, seeing that you will go, I pray you if you don't load your barks with Pequits, load them with corn, for that is now gathered with them and dry, ready to put into their barns, and both you and we have need of it, and I will send my shallop, and hire this Dutchman's boat, here present, to go with you, and if you cannot attain your end of the Pequits, yet you may load your barks with corn, which will welcome to Boston and me."

After relating how he sent 12 men with the Dutchman, and three dozen new bags, how they skirmished with the Indians, killing one of them, and obtaining "a pretty quantity of corn," he says:

"I was glad of the corn. After this I immediately took men and went to our cornfield to gather our corn, appointing others to come about with the shallop and fetch it, and left five lusty men in the strong house with long guns, which house I had built for the defence of the corn. Now these men not regarding the charge I had given them, three of them went a mile from the house a fowling, and having loaded themselves with fowl they returned. But the Pequits let them pass first till they had loaded themselves, but, at their return, they arose out of their ambush and shot them all three; one of them escaped through the corn, shot through the leg, and the other two they tormented. Then the next day I sent the shallop to fetch the five men and the rest of the corn that was broken down, and they had found but three as above said, and when they had gotten that, they left the rest; and, as soon as they were gone a little way from shore, they saw the house on fire. Now so soon as the boat came home, and brought us this bad news, old Mr. MITCHELL was very urgent with me to lend him the boat to fetch hay home from the six mile Island, but I told them they were too few men, for his four men could but carry the hay aboard, and one must stand in the boat to defend them, and they must have two more at the foot of the Rock, with their guns, to keep the Indians from running down upon them. And in the first place, before they carry any of the cocks of hay, to scour the meadow with their three dogs-to march all abreast from the lower end up to the rock, and if they found the meadow clear, then to load their hay; but this was also neglected, for they all went ashore and fell to carrying off their hay, and the Indians, presently, rose out of the long grass, and killed three, and took the brother of Mr. MITCHELL who is the minister of Cambridge, and roasted him alive; and so they served a shallop of his coming down the river in the Spring, having two men, one whereof they killed at Six mile Island, the other came down drowned to us ashore at our door, with an arrow shot into his eye, through his head. In the 22d of February, (1637) I went out with ten men and three dogs, half a mile from the house, to burn the weeds, leaves, and reeds upon the neck of land, because we had felled twenty timber trees, which we were to roll to the water-side to bring home, every man carrying a length of match with brimstone with him, to kindle the fire withal. But when we came to the small of the neck, the weeds burning, I having before this set two sentinels on the small of the neck, I called to the men, that were burning the weeds, to come away, but they would not, until they had burnt up the rest of their matches. Presently there starts up four Indians out of the firy reed, but ran away, I calling to the rest of our men to come away out of the marsh. Then Robert CHAPMAN and Thomas HURLBURT, being sentinels, called to me, saying there came a number of Indians out of the other side of the marsh. Then, I went up to stop them that they should not get to the woodland; but Thomas HURLBURT cried out to me that some of the men did not follow me, for Thomas RUMBLE and Arthur BRANCH threw down their two guns and ran away; then the Indians shot two of them that were in the reeds, and sought to get between us and home, but durst not come before us, but kept us in a half moon, we retreating and exchanging many a shot, so that Thomas HURLBURT was shot almost through the thigh, John SPENCER in the back, into his kidneys myself through the thigh; two more were shot dead. But in our retreat I kept HURLBURT and SPENCER still before us, we defending ourselves with our naked swords, or else they had taken us all alive, so that the two sore wounded men, by our slow retreat got home with their guns, when our two sound men ran away, and left their guns behind them.

"But, when I saw the cowards that left us, I resolved to let them draw lots which of them should be hanged (for the articles did hang up in the hall for them to read, and they knew they had been published long before). But, at the intercession of old Mr. MITCHELL, Mr. HIGGISSON [HIGGINSON], and Mr. PELL, I did forbear. Within a few days after, when I had cured myself of my wound, I went out with eight men to get some towl for our relief, and found the guns that were thrown away, and the body of one man shot through, the arrow going in at the right side, the head sticking fast half through a rib on the left side, which I took out and cleansed it, and preserved to send to the Bay, because they had said that the arrows of the Indians were of no force. Anthony DIKE, master of a bark, having his bark at Rhode Island, in the winter, was sent by Mr. VANE, then Governor ANTHONY came to Rhode Island, and from thence he came with his bark to me, with a letter, wherein was desired that I should consider and prescribe the best way I could, to quell these Pequots, which I also did, and with my letter, sent the man's rib as a token. A few days after, came Thomas STANTON down the river and staying for a wind; while he was there came a troop of Indians within musket shot, laying themselves and their arms down behind a little rising hill and two great trees; which I perceiving, called the carpenter whom I had shown how to charge and level a gun, and that he should put two cartridges of musket bullets, into two sakers guns that lay about, and we leveled them against the place, and I told him that he must look towards me, and when he saw me wave my hat above my head, he should give fire to both guns; then presently came three Indians creeping out and calling to us to speak with us; and I was glad that Thomas STANTON was there, and I sent six men down by the Garden Pales, to look that none should come under the hills behind us, and having placed the rest in places convenient, closely, Thomas and I, with my sword, pistol, and carbine, went ten or twelve pole without the gate to parley with them. And when the six men came to the garden pales, at the corner, they found a great number of Indians creeping behind the fort, or betwixt us and home, but they ran away. Now I had said to Thomas STANTON, whatsoever they say to you, tell me first, for we will not answer them directly to anything, for I know not the mind of the rest of the English. So they came forth, calling us nearer to them, and we them nearer to us. But I would not let Thomas go any further than the great stump of a tree, and I stood by him; then they asked who we were, and he answered, Thomas and Lieutenant, But they said he lied, for I was shot with many arrows; and so I was, but my buff coat preserved me; only one hurt me. But when I spake to them they knew my voice, for one of the had dwelt three months with us, but ran away when the Bay-men came first. Then they asked us if we would fight with the Niantecutt Indians, for they were our friends and came to trade with us. We said we knew not the Indians, one from another, and therefore would trade with none. Then they said have you fought enough? We said we knew not yet. Then they asked if we did use to kill women and children? We said they should see that hereafter. So they were silent a small space, and then they said we are Pequits and have killed Englishmen and can kill them as Musquetoes, and we will go to Conectecutt, and kill men, women, and children, and we will take away the horses, cows, and hogs. When Thomas STANTON had told me this, he prayed me to shoot that rogue, for, said he, he hath an Englishman's coat on, and saith that he hath killed three, and these other four have their clothes upon their backs. I said no, it is not the manner of a parley, but have patience, and I shall fit them ere they go. Nay, now or never, said he; so when he could get no answer but this last, I bid him tell them that they should not go to Connecticutt, for if they did kill all the men, and take all the rest as they said, it would do them no good, but hurt, for English women are lazy, and can't do their work; horses and cows will spoil your corn-fields, and hogs their clam-banks and so undo them; then I pointed to our great house, and bid him tell them there lay twenty pieces of trucking cloth, of Mr. PINCHEONS, with hoes, hatchets and all manner of trade, they were better fight still with use, and so get all that, and then go up the river after they had killed us. Having heard this they were mad as dogs, and ran away; then when they came to the place from whence they cane, I waved my hat about my head, and the two great guns went off so that there was a great hubbub amongst them. Then two days after, came down Capt. MASON and Sergeant SEELEY, with five men more, to see how it was with us; and whilst they were there, came down a Dutch boat telling us the Indians had killed fourteen English, for, by that boat I had sent up letters to Conectecott, what I heard and what I thought, and how to prevent that threatened danger, and received back again rather a scoff, than any thanks for my care and pains. But as I wrote to it fell out to my great grief and theirs, for the next or second day after (As Major MASON well knows) came down a great many canoes, going down the creek beyond the marsh, before the fort, many of them having white shirts; then I commanded the carpenter, whom I had showed to level great guns, to put in two round shot into the sackers; and we leveled them at a certain place, and I stood to bid him give fire; when I thought the canoe would beet the bullet and one of them took off the nose of a great canoe wherein the two maids were that were taken by the Indians, whom I redeemed and clothed, for the Dutchmen, whom I sent to fetch them, brought them almost naked from Pequit, they putting on their own linen jackets to cover their nakedness; and, though the redemption cost me ten pounds, I am yet to have thanks for my care and charge about them; these things are known to Major MASON. There came from the Bay Mr. TILLE, with a permit to go up to Hartford and, coming ashore, he saw a paper nailed up over the gate, whereon was written, that no boat or bark should pass the fort, but, that they came to anchor first, that I might see whether they were armed and manned sufficiently, and they were not to land anywhere after they had passed the fort, till they cam e to Wethersfield; and this I did because Mr. MITCHELL had lost a shallop, before coming down from Wethersfield, with three men well armed. This Mr. TILLE gave me ill language, for my presumption (as he called it), with other expressions, too long here to write. When he had done I bid him go to his warehouse, which he had built before I came, to fetch his goods from thence, for I would watch no longer over it. So he knowing nothing went and found his house burnt, and one of Mr. PULMS, with others, and he told me to my face that I had caused it to be done; but Mr. HIGGISSON, Mr. PELL, Thomas HURLBURT, and John GREEN can witness that, the same day that our house was burnt at Cornfield point, I went with Mr. HIGGISSON, Mr. PELL, and four men more, broke open a door and took a note of all that was in the house, and give it to Mr. HIGGISSON to keep, and so brought all the goods to our house, and delivered it all to them again, when they came for it without any penny of charge. Now the very next day after I had taken the goods out, before the sun was quite down, and we altogether in the great hall, all them houses were on fire in one instant. The Indians ran away, but I would not follow them. Now, when Mr. TILLE had received all his goods, I said unto him, I thought I had deserved for my honest care both for their bodies and goods, of those that passed by here, at the least better language, and am resolved to order such malpert persons as you are; therefore, I wish you and also charge you to observe that, which you have read at the gate, 'tis my duty to God, my Master, and my love I bear to you all which is the ground of this had you but eyes to see it; but you will not till you feel it. So he went up the river, and when he came down again to his place which I called TILLE's folly, now called TILLES point, in our sight in despite, having a fair wind he came to an anchor, and with one man more, went ashore, discharged his gun, and the Indians fell upon him, and killed the other and carried him alive over the river in our sight, before my shallop could come to them, for immediately I sent seven men to fetch the Pink down, or else it had been taken and three men more. So they brought her down, and I sent Mr. HIGGISSON and Mr. PELL aboard, to take an invoice of all that was in the vessel, that nothing might be lost. Two days after came to me, as I had written, to Sir Henerie VANE, then governor of the Bay, I say came to me, Capt. UNDRILL [UNDERHILL], with twenty lusty men, well armed to stay with me two months, or until something should be done with Pequits. He came at the charge of my masters. Soon after came down from Hartford, Major MASON, Lieut. SEELEY, accompanied with Mr. STONE and eighty Englishmen, and eighty Indians, with a commission from Mr. LUDLOW and Mr. STEELE, and some others; these came to go fight with the Pequits. But when Capt. UNDRILL and I had seen their commission, we both said that they were not fitted for such a design, and we said to Major MASON, we wondered he would venture himself, being no better fitted, and he said the magistrates could not or would not send better; then we said that none of our men should go with them, neither should they go unless we, that were bred soldiers from our youth, could see some likelihood to do better than the Bay men with their strong commission last year. Then I asked them how they durst trust the Mohegin Indians, who had but that year came from the Pequits. They said they would trust them, for they could not well go without them for want of guides. Yea said I, but I will try them before a man of ours shall go with you or them; and I called for Uncas, and said unto him, you say you will help Major MASON, but I will first see it, therefore send you now twenty men to the Bass River, for there went yester-night six Indians in a canoe thither; fetch them now dead or alive, and then you shall go with Major MASON, else not. So he sent his men who killed four, brought one a traitor to us alive, whose name was Kiswas, and one ran away. And I gave him fifteen years of trading cloth, on my own charge, to give unto his men according to their desert. And having staid there five or six days before we could agree, at last we old soldiers agreed about the way and act, and took twenty insufficient men from the eighty that came from Hartford, and sent them up again in a shallop, and Capt. UNDRILL with twenty of the lustiest of our men when in their room and I furnished them with such things as they wanted, and sent Mr. PELL, the surgeon with them, and the Lord God blessed their design and way, so that they returned with victory to the glory of God, and honor of our nation, having slain three hundred, burnt their fort, and taken many prisoners. Then came to me an Indian called Wequash, and I by Mr. HIGGISSON, inquired of him, how many of the Pequits were yet alive that had helped to kill Englishmen; and he declared them to Mr. HIGGISSON, and he writ them down as may appear by his own hand and I did as therein is written * * * *

"Thus far our tragical story; now to the comedy. When we were at supper in the great hall they (Pequits) gave us alarm to draw us out three times before we could finish our short supper, for we had but little to east, but you know that I would not go out; the reason you know 2ndly. You Robert CHAPMAN, you know that when your and John BAGLEY were beating samp at the Garden Pales, the sentinels called you to run in for there was a number of Pequits creeping to you to catch you; I hearing it went up to the redoubt and put two crossbar shot into the tow guns that lay above, and leveled them at the trees and boughs and gave order to John FREND had his man to stand with handspiked to turn them this way or that way, as they should hear the Indians shout, for they should know my shout from theirs, fir it should be very short. Then I called six men and the dogs, and went out running to the place, and keeping all abreast in sight close together. And when I saw my time I said, stand! And called all to me saying, Look on me; and when I hold up my hand, then shout as loud as you can, and when I hold down my hand then leave; and so they did. Then the Indians began a long shout, and then went off the two great guns and tore the limbs of the trees about their ears so that divers of them were hurt, as may yet appear, for you told me when I was up at Hartford this present year '60 in the month of September, that there is one of them that lyeth above Hartford, that is fain to creep on all fours, and we shouted once or twice more; but they would not answer us again, so we returned home laughing.

"Another pretty prank we had with three great doors of ten feet long and four feet broad, being bored full of holes and driven full of long nails, as sharp as awl blades, sharpened by Thomas HURLBURT. These we placed in certain places where they should come, fearing lest they should come in the night and fire our redoubt or battery and all the place, for we had seen their footing, where they had been in the night, when they shot at our sentinels, but could not hit them for the boards; and in dry time and a dark night they came as they did before and found the way a little too sharp for them; and as they skipped from one, they trod upon another, and left the nails and door dyed with their blood, which you know we saw the next morning laughing at it. And this I write that young men may learn, if they should meet with such trials as we met with then, and have not opportunity to cut off their enemies; yet they may with such pretty pranks preserve themselves from danger-for policy is needful in war as well as strength."


When the English first entered the river, to take possession of Kievet's Hook, the first land on the west side of the river that met their gaze, was the "Neck," or LYNDE's Point," as it was afterward called. This Neck was about two miles long, and nearly half a mile wide at its greatest breadth, and was bounded by the Sound on one side, and a cover, known as the South Cove, which is about a mile and a half long, and three-fourths of a mile wide, on the other side. North of this cove, and about a mile from the mouth of the river, was "Kievet's Hook," or Saybrook Point proper, which was formed by another cove putting up from the river, and known as the North Cove. This point was about a mile in length and about half a mile in breadth, the Neck where it joined the main land probably not being over an eighth of a mile in width, including the marsh. At the present time, the upland at the Neck, which is low, is only about ten or twelve rods wide, but there is quite a stretch of salt marsh, which has been, and is constantly encroaching upon the coves. The tides probably flowed across the neck, at every season of spring tides, as they do over the marshes on each side at the present time, but the road has been raised so much above its former level, that it has not turned the point into an island for several years. In fact it had not done so for many years, except when a heavy easterly storm occurred on the high course of tides. These coves are shallow, except in the channels which are narrow, and which extend but a short distance from the mouth, there being about four feet of water at high tide, and often almost none at all at low tide. The coves are constantly filling up, and the marshes which surround them on nearly all sides have extended considerably into them, within the memory of a generation, but there was undoubtedly quite a tract of marsh when the English took possession. It was the reeds and grass upon these marshes at this Neck that Lieut. GARDINER went out to burn on the 22d of February 1637. At this place afterward a row of palisades was extended across from cove to cove, a ditch was dug, and some kind of a fortification erected, with, of course, a guard to watch for hostile Indians. The gate through the palisades is several times mentioned in old deeds as "the Neck gate anciently so called." The North Cove as its mouth, where it joins the river, is quite deep, and forms what is called the "anchoring ground," where 50 vessels may anchor at once. An English book published early the history of the colony, and giving some account of Saybrook, says that on each side of the point are two bays, in which several hundred sail of vessels may ride at anchor. The bays probably had not been sounded, at least by the writer of the book. These coves abounded with bass, chequit, eels, and crabs, and were the feeding ground of numerous flocks of wild ducks and geese in their season, while the flats west of Cornfield Point furnished an abundant supply of clams. The river, and even the creeks, were alive with shad and salmon, and it is no wonder that it was a favorite resort of the Indians. Back from this neck, and from the sea coast, a plain, nearly level, and from one to two miles wide, stretched to the first tier of low hills, which abounded in the other sections of the town. The first stream west of Connecticut River was called Oyster River, from the natural beds of oysters that were found in it near its mouth. It rises near the northern boundary of the present town of Old Saybrook and empties into the Sound about half a mile west of Cornfield Point. Like many of most of the Connecticut towns, a large part of its surface is broken and hilly, but the plain upon which the principal part of the village stands is fertile and easy of cultivation. The soil on Saybrook Point, that on LYNDE's Neck at the mouth of the river, and that in the village near the center is light, as it that in the Ferry District, but in Oyster River District the soil is a little heavier, and the farms are equal to any in the state.


While most of the histories of Connecticut, including DE FOREST's History of the Indians, have very little to say about the Indians that inhabited this town, there is no doubt that it was as densely populated as any part of this State. Heaps of shells, flint arrow heads, and stone hatchets, which are found occasionally even now, after two and half centuries of cultivation show that the clams, fish, and game that abounded here, induced many of the savages to make it their home. The ancient burying ground on Saybrook Point, which is only about an eighth of a mile from the fort, was used for that purpose by the Indians before the English arrived, as their skeletons, which are found occasionally even now, attest. The lower part of this cemetery is bounded upon the South Cove; the bank next the cove being about ten or twelve feet high, and in the early part of the present century the waters of the cove came to the foot of this bank, where there was a sand beach. In the "September gale," 1815, so much of this bank washed away as to disclose some of the Indian graves, and some of their treasurer that were buried with them. The copper box, evidently of Dutch manufacture, before mentioned in a note, a little copper pail, and some bottles were found, which are still preserved. At the mouth of Oyster River, in the western part of the present town, was probably another settlement, as Robert CHAPMAN, who settled there after the Indians had been partially subdued, found that a part of his farm had been dis-forested and cultivated by them. A few years ago the skeleton of a gigantic Indian warrior (as was supposed) was disinterred on the grounds of G. H. CHAPMAN Esq., in a good state of preservation. The frame was found in a sitting position, but there were not weapons buried with it. The skull was found to have been fractured, probably with a tomahawk in some battle. The skeleton was sent to New London or Norwich.

There also seems to have been another settlement about a mile above Saybrook ferry, and not far from the river, for arrows, pestles, axes, etc., have been found there. DEFOREST, in his "Indians of Connecticut," claims that the Indians in Saybrook and vicinity, were of the Nehantic (now called Naintic) tribe, who had been subdued by the Pequots, but that author afterwards speaks of them as Pequots, and that is the name given them by most historians. In 1634, the year previous to the settlement of Pattaquassett by the English, Captains STONE and NORTON, in a small vessel, with a crew of eight men, came into the river on a trading voyage. Captain STONE was from St. Christopher's, in the West Indies, [GARDINER calls him a Virginian.] and intended to trade with the Dutch at Hartford. After he entered the river, he engaged a number of Indians to pilot two of his men up the river to the Dutch, but that night they went to sleep, and both were murdered by their guides. The vessel, at night, was made fast to the shore. Twelve of those Indians who had several times before traded with the captain, apparently in an amicable manner, were on board. Watching their opportunity, when he was asleep, and part of the crew on shore, they murdered him secretly in his cabin, and cast a covering over him to conceal it from his men. They then fell upon them, and soon killed the whole company, except Captain NORTON. He had taken the cook room, and for along time made a brave and resolute defense. That he might load and fire with greater expedition, he had placed powder in an open vessel close at hand, which in the confusion of the action took fire, and so burned and blinded him that he could make no further resistance. Thus, after all his gallantry, he fell with this hapless companions. The vessel was then plundered, burned to the water's edge, and sank. Part of the plunder was received by the Pequots, and part by the Eastern Nehantics. Sassacus and Nimgrat, the sachems of those Indians, were both privy to the affair, and shared in the goods taken from the vessel. [Trumbull, 1, p. 60] This massacre took place about half a mile above Saybrook Point, and it is said that some of the timber and plank were found as late as 1785, together with a quantity of bar iron and a few other articles [FIELD's History of Middlesex County]. It was for this murder that the Indians brought the beaver and otterskin coats and skeins of wampum mentioned in the first part of Lieutenant GARDINER's narrative. In the narrative of Lieutenant GARDINER, mention is made of old Mr. MITCHELL's expedition to Six Mile Island after hay in 1636, of the killing of three men by the Indians, and the capture of "the brother of Mr. MITCHELL who is the minister of Cambridge," who was roasted alive. WINTHROP's Journal speaks of him as "a godly young man named BUTTERFIELD." [Possibly a brother-in-law of Mr. MITCHELL.] The place where this occurred is supposed to be on the east side of the river, at what is now called Calves Island, formerly called BUTTERFIELD's Meadow. The capture of TILLY is supposed to have occurred at what is now called Ferry Point, about half a mile above the ferry between Saybrook and Lyme, and which has sometimes been called TILLY's Point. It is supposed that TILLY's warehouse, which was burned by the Indians, stood near the same place. After they had killed his companion, they carried him across the river in plain sight of the English, who could not assist him, where they cut off his hands and his feet, thrust hot embers between the flesh and the skin, and put an end to his life by lingering tortures. As all their cruelties could not extort a groan, the ferocious Pequots themselves pronounced him a stout man. During two winters (those of 1635 and 1636) the fort was almost in a state of siege. In the winter of 1646, their outbuildings, stacks of hay, and almost everything of the kind that was not inside the palings around the fort were burned, and some of their cattle were killed, and other came home with arrows sticking in them. At the time of the skirmish at the Neck leading to the point, when Lieutenant GARDINER had been out to burn the marsh, the Indians pursued them to the fort, where they challenged the English to come out and fight, and mocked them with shrieks and groans, in imitation of those whom they had tortured. They boasted that they could kill Englishmen "all one flies." A few charges of grape shot from the cannon dispersed them. Of the three men who came down the river in a shallop, one of them being shot through the head, as mentioned by GARDINER, the other two were ripped by the Indians from the bottom of their bellies to their throats, cleft down their backs, and hung up by their necks upon trees by the side of the river, that the English, as they passed by, might behold these objects of their vengeance.


When Lion GARDINER was hired by the patentees as "engineer and master of works of fortifications," he was to serve them, also, "in the drawing, ordering, and making of a city." Accordingly, after the Indians had been subdued, the Point was laid out in lots, streets were surveyed, and preparations were made for "the reception of gentlemen of quality" from England.

Colonel George FENWICK was probably the only one of the patentees who ever visited the colony. Her arrived in May 1636-a few months after GARDINER took possession. How long he remained is know known, but he probably returned to England in the autumn of the same year. In July 1639, Colonel FENWICK came again to Connecticut, this time accompanied by his wife and family. The came in one of two ships that arrived at Quinnipiac, direct from England, after a passage of seven weeks. These are said to have been the first European vessels that ever anchored in New Haven Harbor.

We catch only an occasional glimpse of the daily life of the FENWICKs, at the fort, and that through a contemporary correspondence. Thomas LECHFORD, a London attorney, who lived in Boston for a few years, and returned to England in 1641, tells, in his "Newes from New England," that Master "FENWICK, with the Lady Boteler," were living at the mouth of Connecticut River, "in a fair house and well fortified; and on one side Master HIGGINSON, a young man, their chaplain." "The Lady was lately admitted of Master HOOKER's church [in Hartford] and thereupon their child was baptized." The exact date of Colonel FENWICK's departure for England has not been ascertained.

Mr. FENWICK was present with the magistrates at the sessions of the court, October 8th and 9th, and one writer [John Hammond TRUMBULL] thinks that he sailed for England soon after, as among the proceedings of the General Court, December 1st 1645, was an order that "the noats that should be sent by ech vessel to Seabrooke shalbe sent in to Mr. HOPKINS as Mr. F. assigne." If so, he again returned to Connecticut, as he was present among the magistrates at the session of May 20th 1647, and that of May 18th 1848, the latter being the last time that his name appears among the list of magistrates. At the session of the court, December 6th 1648, the treasurer was directed to send out warrants to the constables of each town upon the river for the gathering of corn for Mr. FENWICK, in payment of the "Fortt Rate," by the 1st of Marc, "that it may be in readiness, when called for, according to order and covenant, by Mr. FENWICKE or his assigne." In the proceedings of the court in 1652, Capt. CULLICK is spoken of as Mr. FENWICK's agent, so that there is nothing between 1648 and 1652, in the Colonial Records, by which to determine the date of his departure. Tradition finds the cause of his return in the death of his wife, and the necessity of finding a more suitable home for his infant children. Tradition has given 1648 as the date of the death of Lady FENWICK, but J. Hammond TRUMBULL says that "his wife's death must have occurred shortly after the birth of her daughter, Dorothy, November 4th 1645."

The most distinguished personage connected with the early history of Saybrook is John WINTHROP, the younger. Having accepted the commission to build the fort and begin a plantation at Saybrook, he came with his wife to this country in October 1635. This commission was only for one year, and there is no account of its renewal.

Capt. John MASON, who made Saybrook his home for 12 years, will always be remembered as one of its most prominent characters in the olden times. When the fort at Saybrook was transferred by Col. FENWICK to the jurisdiction of the colony, MASON was appointed to receive the investment, and at the special request of the inhabitants he removed to that place, and was made commander of the station.

The name of Lion GARDINER is almost indissolubly connected with the early history of Saybrook. On the fly leaf of an old Bible which belonged to Lion GARDINER, and which was in possession of the family a few years ago, the following is written:

"In the year of our Lord 1635 the 10th of July, came I Lyon GARDNER & Mary my wife, from Worden, a town in Holland, where my wife was born. We came from Worden to London, & from thence to New England, and dwelt at SayBrook fort four years-it is at the mouth of Conn. River-of which I was commander, & there was born unto me a son named David, 1636 the 29th of April, the first born in that place, & 1638 a daughter was born named Mary, 30th of August, & then I went to an island of my own, which I had bought and purchased of the Indians, called by them Monchonack, by us, Isle of Wight, & there was born another daughter named Elizabeth, the 14th September 1641, she being the first child of English parents that was born there.

Robert CHAPMAN was another of the early settlers who was prominent in public affairs. According to family tradition, he came from Hull, in England, to Boston, in 1635, from which place he sailed in company with Lion GARDINER for Saybrook, November 3d, as one of the company who were sent to take possession of the mouth of the river under the patent of Lord SAY and SEAL. He is supposed to have been at this time about 18 years of age.

He was one of the particular friends of Mr. FENWICK, and a man of influence in the town, as is evident from the fact that for many years he held the office of town clerk, and clerk of the Oyster River Quarter, and filled many other important stations. He was for many years commissioner for Saybrook, and was its deputy to the General Court 43 times and assistant 9 times, between the years 1654 and 1684. The records also show that each of his three sons were representatives to the Legislature: the eldest 22 sessions; the second, 18 sessions; the third 24 sessions. He was also a large land holder in the towns of Saybrook and East Haddam. Robert CHAPMAN, after the Indians were subdued, settled on a tract of fertile land nearly three miles west of the fort, known as Oyster River, which has descended in the line of the youngest son of each family, never having been bought or sold, and it is now occupied by Robert CHAPMAN Esq., who is the youngest of the sixth generation. According to the family tradition, Mr. CHAPMAN was born in 1616, and died October 13th 1687.

Mr. John CLARKE was an early settler at Cambridge, Massachusetts, as noted by WINTHROP in his journal, as early as 1632. We learn from the will of his brother, George CLARKE, of Milford, that he came from Great Mundon, Hertfordshire, England, to America. He (John) came from Cambridge to Hartford, Connecticut, about 1636, probably with Rev. Thomas HOOKER's company. In the first division of lots at Hartford, in 1639, he drew for a house lot, No. 138, on the west side of Bliss street. He had 22 acres of land assigned to him as his portion, and he was one of the committee to apportion of land. He was a juror of Hartford, in 1641, and was a soldier in the great battle with the Pequot Indians at Mystic, in 1637. He was one of the petitioners to Charles II, for the charter of Connecticut. The precise time of his removal from Hartford to Saybrook is not known. He was recognized by the General Court as deputy from Saybrook as early as 1644, and was nominated commissioner for Saybrook, in 1664. In 1647, he and "Capt. John MASON were directed to carry on the building of the fort at Sea Brook." He and Robert BIRCHARD were appointed by the court to view the lands then granted to Captain MASON's soldiers. John CLARKE was a large landholder in Saybrook, but he removed to Milford where his brother George resided probably several years before his death. His will was made at Milford, January 19th 1673, and it is found in the New Haven Probate records. The name of his wife is not certainly known, but she was probably a Miss COLEY. The order of the birth of his children is not known. Their names were: John, married Rebecca Porter, October 16th 1650, and probably did not remove to Milford at all; Joseph, who had a wife but no children, and was lost at sea; Elizabeth, who married William Pratt, of Saybrook; and Sarah, who married Mr. HUNTINGTON. [The HUNTINGTON mentioned above was probably Dea. Simon HUNTINGTON, of Norwich, who, Miss CALKINS says, in her history, married Sarah, daughter of Joseph CLARKE, of Saybrook, in October, 1653. The Joseph was probably a misprint, as there was no CLARKE but John in the town at that time, except his son Joseph. Deacon HUNTINGTON and his wife lived together 53 years, she dying in 1721, aged 88.] The estate of John CLARKE at Milford amounted to £207; at Saybrook, £227; total, £434, 10s. 6d.


In 1644, a committee, consisting of the governor and others, was appointed by the General Court of Connecticut to treat with George FENWICK Esq., relative to the purchase of Saybrook fort, and of all guns, buildings, and lands in the colony, which he and the lords and gentlemen interested in the patent of Connecticut might claim. In December they came to an agreement as follows:

"Articles of Agreement, made and concluded betwixt George FENWICK Esq'r of Sea Brooke Fort, on ye one part, and Edward HOPKINS, John HAYNES, John MASON, John STEELE and James BOOSY, for and on ye behalf of ye Jurisdiction of Connecticutt River, on ye other part, ye 5th of December 1644.

"The said George FENWICKE Esq'r, doth by these presents convey and make over to ye use or for ye behoffe of ye Jurisdiction of Connecticott River aforesaid, ye Fort att Saybrooke with ye appertenances hereafter mentioned, to be injoyed by them for euer.

"Two demiculvening cast peeces, with all ye shott thereunto appertaining, except fifty w'ch are reserved for his own use.

"Two long Saker cast peeces, with all ye shott thereunto belonging: one Murderer with two chamb'rs, and two hammered peeces; two barrels of gunpowder, Forty muskets with Bandaleers and rests, as also foure carabines, swords, and such irons as there are for a drawbridge; one row of lead and irons for the carriages of ordinance; and all ye housing withing ye Palisade:

"It is also provided and agreed betwixt ye said parties, yt all ye land upon ye River of Connecticott, shall belong to ye said Jurissdiction of Connecticott, and such lands as are yet undiscovered shall bee ordered and given out by a Committee of five, whereof George FENWICK Esq'r, aforesaid is always to bee one.

"It is further provided and agreed yt ye Towne of Sea Brooke shal be carried on according to such agreements, and in yt way which is already followed there attended betwixt Mr. FENWICK and ye Inhabitants there.

"It is also provided and agreed betwixt ye said parties yt George FENWICK Esq'r shall have liberty to swell in and make use of any or all ye howsing beloning to ye Fort, for ye Spence of ten years; hee keeping those whc he makes use of in sufficient repaire, (extraordinary casualties excepted;) and in case hee remove his swelling to any other place yt hee give half a yeare's warning thereof yt provision may be made accordingly; onely it is agreed yt there shall be some conventient part of ye howsing reserved for a Gunner, and his family, to live in if ye Jurissdiction see fitt to settle one there.

"It is further provided and agreed betwixt ye said parties that George FENWICK Esq'r shall injoye to his own proper use, these prticulers following:--

          "1. The house neare adioyning to ye wharfe, with ye wharfe and an acre of ground thereunto belonging, provided ye said acre of ground take not up above eight rodd in breadth by ye water side.

          "2The point of land and ye marsh lying under ye barne already built by ye said George FENWICK.

          "3. The Island commonly called Six Mile Island, with ye meadow thereunto adjoining on ye east side ye River.

          "4. The ground adjoining to ye Towne-field w'ch is already taken of an inclosing w'th 3 rayles by ye said George FENWICK; onely there is liberty granted to ye said jurisdiction, if they see fitt, to build a Fort upon ye westerne point, whereunto there shall be allowed an acre of ground for a house lot.

"It is also provided and agreed that ye said George FENWICK Esq. shall have free wanen in his owne land and liberty for a fowler for his owne occasions, as also ye like liberty is reserved for any other of ye Adventurers yt may come into these parts, with a double howse lott, in such place where they may choose to settle their abode.

"All ye forementioned grants (except before excepted) ye said George FENWICK doth ingage himselfe to make good to the jurisdiction aforesaid, against all claymers h't may be made by any other to ye premises by reason of any disbursements made upon ye place.

"The said George FENWICK doth also promise yt all ye lands from Managansett River to ye fort of Seabrooke, mentioned in a Pattent granted by ye Earle of WARWICKE to certain Nobles and Gentlemen, shall fall in under ye jurisdiction of Connecticut, if it come into his power.

"For and in regard of ye premises and other good considerations, ye said Edward HOPKINS, Jno. HAYNES, Jno. MASON, Jno. STEELE and James BOOSY, authorized thereunto by the Generall Courte for ye jurisdiction of Connecticott, doe in behalf of ye said Jurissdiciton promise and agree to and with ye said George FENWICKE Esq'r, yt for and during ye space of ten full and compleate yeares, to begin from ye first of March next ensuing ye date of these presents, there shall be allowed and payd to ye said George FENWICKE or his assignes, ye perticuler sums hereafter following:--

          "1. Each bushel of Corne of all sorts, or meale yt shall passé out att ye River's mouth, shall pay two pence pr. bushel.

          "2. Every hundred of Biskett yt shall in like manner passé out att ye River's mouth, shall pay six pense:

          "3. Each milch cow, and mare of three years ould or upwards, within any of ye Townes or farmes upon the River shall pay twelve pence pr. annu: during ye fores't terme:

          "4. Each Hogg or Sow yt is killed by any particular p'rson within ye lymitts of ye river and the Jurissdiction aforesaid, to bee improved eyther for his owne p'rticular use, or to make markets of shall in like manner pay twelve pence pr. annu:

          "5. Each hogshead of Beaver traded out by this Jurissdiction, and past by water downe ye River, shall pay twenty shillings.

          "6. Each pound of Beaver traded within ye lymitts of ye River shall pay two pence, only it is provided yt in case the generall trade with ye Indians now in agitation pr'ceed, this tax upon Beaver, mentioned in this and the foregoing article shall fall:

          "7. The sayd Committee doe, by the power aforesaid consent and agree to and with ye said George FENWICKE yt hee ye said George FENWICKE and his heires shall bee free of any imposition or customers yt may hereafter by the Jurissdiction be imposed att ye Fort.

At a session of the General Court, February 5th 1644, the articles of agreement with Mr. FENWICK are again recited, and some penalties are affixed for evasions, and non-compliance with the terms agreed upon with him and it was ordered by the court "that all the Inhabitants of this river doe take spetiall notice of the said agreements, and doe pay to George FENWICK Esqr at Seabrooke, or his assignes, att or before the first day of March, 1645, and so every year, att, or before the first day of the said month of March, until the tearme of tenn years be expired, such soms as shalbe due from them vppon any of the foregoing prticulers."

In consequence of the burning of the old fort at Saybrook in 1647, a new one was begun in 1648 at a place called New Fort Hill.


A heavy drain was made on the population of Saybrook by the removal of Rev. Mr. FITCH, and a large part of his congregation to Norwich. From his long familiarity with Uncas, and his frequent explorations of the Indian country, it is very probable that the project of establishing a plantation in the Mohegan country originated with Captain MASON. At what period the plan of this new settlement was broached is uncertain.

Probably it was for several years under consideration. A large proportion of the inhabitants of Saybrook entered into it; a few names from other places were added to the list, and in May 1659, application was made to the General Court for permission to begin the work. The petition granted as follows:

"Hartford May 20 '59. This Court haueing considered the petition presented by the inhabitants of Seabrook doe declare yt they approue and consent to what is desired by ye petitioners, respecting Mohegin, proided yt within ye space of three years they doe effect a Plantation in ye place pr'pounded."

A list of the names of those who signed this petition would be interesting, but no copy of the petition has been preserved. The records speak of the signers as "the inhabitants of Seabrook," implying that a majority of the people proposed to remove to the new settlement; and this coincides with the current opinion that the company consisted of Mr. FITCH and the major part of his church. What could have induced them to abandon their comfortable homes, and the improvements they had labored so long to obtain, is not known. Tradition has it that, being mostly farmers, they were driven from Saybrook by the crows and blackbirds. These were a great nuisance in the early days of the country, and did much damage, and in Saybrook, as well as in other towns, as the records show, bounties were offered for their destruction, and in some towns, it is said, penalties were imposed if a certain number were not brought in by each inhabitant every year. This story is doubtless a pleasant satire rather than a fact. The following list comprises most of the original proprietors of Norwich, the names of nearly all of them being found in the earlier records of the town of Saybrook: Rev. James FITCH, Major John MASON, Thomas ADGATE, Robert ALLEN, William BACKUS, William BACKUS jr., John BALDWIN, John BIRCHARD, Thomas BLISS, Morgan BOWERS, Hugh CALKINS, John CALKINS, Richard EDGERTON, Francis GRISWOLD, Christopher HUNTINGTON, Simon HUNTINGTON, William HYDE, Samuel HYDE, Thomas LEFFINGWELL, John OLMSTEAD, John PEASE, John POST, Thomas POST, John REYNOLDS, Jonathan ROYCE, Nehemiah SMITH, Thomas TRACEY, Robert WADE.

The removal of Mr. FITCH and his friends, though it weakened Saybrook, by no means left it desolate, and in a few year the vacancies were filled by new purchasers. Mr. FITCH was not the only minister that Saybrook furnished to Norwich. In 1716, after the dismissal of Mr. WOODWARD, their pastor, Mr. Benjamin LORD was called "on tryal." He was a native of Saybrook, and then about 24 years of age.


"A list of the Names of the Freemen already made in the Town of Say Brooke, ye 4th 8th '69:

"Mr. Robert CHAPMAN, Wm. BUSHNELL, Mr. Wm. PRATTE, Alexander CHALKER, Mr. Thomas BUCKINGHAM, Wm. LORD Senior, Mr. John WASTOLL, John CLARKE, Frances BUSHNELL, Abraham POSTE, Wm. PARKER Senior, Samuell JOANES, Thomas DUNKE, John PARKER, Robert LAY, John BUSHNELL, Wm. BEAMONT, Edward SHIPMAN, Richard JOSELAND, Joseph INGHAM, John CHAPMAN, Robert CHAPMAN jr., Thomas NORTON.

          "Richard RAIMOND Sen'r is approbated by the Corte, but not yet sworne.

          "This is a true List of those who are already in ye Town of Say Brooke, as witnesse or hands, 4th, 8th, '60.

          "Say Brooke.

                    Wm. PARKER,

                    Joseph PECKE, Townes men.

                    Samuel JONS, Constable."


In 1675, Saybrook was the scene of an attempt on the part of Governor ANDROSS, of New York, to take possession of the fort and town. On the morning of 8th of July in that year, to the surprise of the people of that town, he arrived off Saybrook. They had received no intelligence of the affair, nor instructions from the governor and council. But the fort was manned, and the militia of the town were drawn out for its defense. During the day, Gov. ANDROSS addressed a letter to the governor at Hartford, announcing his arrival, and Mr. Robert CHAPMAN, one of the townsmen of Saybrook, and captain of the train band, also wrote to Gov. WINTHROP for orders and advice. On the same day, or the day after, Capt. Thomas BULL and his command arrived at the fort, prepared to defend it against Gov. ANDROSS, if necessary. On the 11th, Gov. ANDROSS, with his armed sloops, drew up before the fort, hoisted the King's flag, and demanded the surrender of the fortress and town. Capt. BULL raised his majesty's colors and refused to surrender. Gov. ANDROSS did not like to fire upon the king's colors, and perceiving that he could not reduce the fort without bloodshed, judged it expedient not to fire upon the troops. He nevertheless lay all that day, and part of the next, off the fort.

On the morning of Monday the 12th, the instructions of the council reached Say Brook by post, and the next morning the protest of the Council was received in the same manner, as Major ANDROSS with his retinue was landing. He was met by the officers of the fort, who informed him of their instructions, which were: "to tender him a treaty by meete p'rsons deputed to that purpose in any place of this colony where he should chuse." The Major rejected the proposal, and forthwith commanded in his Majesty's name, that the duke's patent, and his commission should be read, "which notwithstanding that they were required in his Majestyes name to forbeare, was done." [TRUMBULL says that Captain BULL commanded him in His Majesty's name to forbear reading. When the clerk persisted in reading, the captain repeated his command with such energy in his voice, and meaning in his countenance, that the Major was convinced that it was not safe to proceed. The captain then read the protest. Governor ANDROSS, pleased with his bold and soldier-like appearance, said: "What's your name?" He replied, "My name is BULL, sir." "BULL," said the governor, "it is a pity that your horns are not tipped with silver."

"Wee withdrew a little, declaring wee had nothing to do to attend it. Which being done, then Major ANDROSS manifested, that he had now done, and should saile immediately, unlesse we desired him to stay. Wee told him that wee had no order to desire him to stay, but must now read something else; and forthwith the protest ws read in his presence. He was pleased to speake of it as a slander, and so an ill requital for his kindnesse; and by and by desired a copy, which wee declared that wee had no order to give; but yet parted peaceably. His Honour was guarded with the Towne soulders to the water side, went on board, and pr'sently fell down below the Ford, with salutes on both sides." [Letter of Robert CHAPMAN and Thomas BULL July 13th to General Assembly.]

Governor DONGAN, the successor of Governor ANDROSS, at New York, found in 1678, some papers in the Secretary's office, in which ANDROSS acknowledges that "hee himself went with some soldiers to surprise them, intending when he had done it, to keep possession by a Fort he designed to make at a place called Seabrook, but was prevented by the opposition of two companies of men then lodged there ready to goe out ag'st the Indians, with whom they were at Warr." [Col. Rec. 11 Ap. No. XIX]

The Narragansett war followed in the winter of the same year, and eight men were drawn from Saybrook for that service. Tradition says that Alexander CHALKER was one of these men, and that he was killed. His sword is still preserved by his descendants. The names of the others have not been preserved.


Letter in regard to Saybrook Fort, to Col. John ALLYN, Hartford. [Copied from the original letter in State Library at Hartford.]

"Saybrook ye 30 of August 1693.

"Honour'd S'r,

"Yours dated ye 20th Instant I have Rec'd, and in observants to your orders and instructions have this day taken a view of ye effort, Mr. William DUDLEY, and Mr. John PARKER being with mee, and we find that such are the Ruinous decays of ye said ffort, that the small matter of charge by your honor proposed, will be altogether insignificant and worthless both to their majesties and this colony's Interest, the Gate are all down but one, and one of them gone, both wood and iron three of ye hooks of ye grate gate stole; most of ye Iron and one of ye Carriages, with all of the iron taken away, the Platforms all Rotten and unserviceable, part of ye stone wall y't supports ye mount falten down, most of ye mud wall decayed, with the Palisades ag't itt, about ffour Rodd of plank Wall on the north, that never was done, and Lyes now most of ye great shott pilfered and gone, and according to our faborable judement doe compute ye Charge to be no less than fify pounds to pit it in a defensive posture, all which we att ye Request of ye Capt. Signifies to your honours, and subscribe ourselves your honoured servants.

          "John CHAPMAN Sen.
          "Will'm DUDLEY, Sen.
          "John PARKER Jun'r/"


While the inhabitants and churches in Connecticut were constantly increasing, the demand for a learned ministry to supply their churches became more and more urgent, and a number of ministers conceived the purpose of founding a college in Connecticut, as Cambridge was at so great a distance as to render it inconvenient to educate their sons there. The design was first concerted in 1698, by the Rev. Messrs. PIERPONT, of New Haven, ANDREW, of Milford, and RUSSELL, of Branford. It was talked over among the ministers of the colony, till finally tem of them were agreed upon for trustees to found, erect, and govern a college. Doubts arising about their capacity to hold real estate, application was made to the Legislature for a charter of incorporation. In October 1701, the General Assembly incorporated the trustees, granted the charter, and voted them the sum of £60 annually. November 11th the trustees met at Saybrook and chose Rev. Abraham PIERSON, rector of the college, and Rev. Samuel RUSSELL, trustee, to complete the number of the corporation. At this meeting, Saybrook was fixed upon as the place for the college, and the rector was requested to remove to that town.

Till this could be done, they ordered that the scholars should be instructed at, or near the rector's house in Killingworth. The corporation made various attempts to remove the rector to Saybrook, but it was not effected. The ministers had been several years in effecting their plan, and a number of young men had been preparing for college, under the instructions of one and another of the trustees. As soon as the college was furnished with a rector and tutor, eight of them were admitted, and put into different classes, according to the proficiency that each one had made. Some in a year or two became qualified for a degree. The first commencement was at Saybrook, September 13th 1702, when the following persons received the degree of M. A.: Stephen BUCKINGHAM, Salmon TREAT, Joseph COIT, Joseph MOSS, Nathaniel CHAUNCEY, and Joseph MORGAN. Four of them had previously graduated at Cambridge. They all became ministers of the gospel, and three of them, Messrs. MOSS, BUCKINGHAM, and CHAUNCEY were afterward fellows of the college. From motives of economy, the commencements were private for several years. Mr. Nathaniel LYNDE, of Saybrook, generously gave a house and land for the use of the college so long as it should remain in the town. This house stood on the road leading from the fort to the village, a few rods west of the old cemetery on Saybrook Point. Tradition says that Mr. LYNDE lived on the street running through the middle of the Point, known as the "Middle Lane" or Church street, and near the church, and the house of Rev. Mr. BUCKINGHAM. In 1704, Rev. Mr. PIERSON died, and Rev. Mr. ANDREW, of Milford, was chosen rector pro tempore, and the senior class was removed to Milford, Mr. ANDREW acted as moderator at the commencements, and gave general directions to the tutors, while Mr. BUCKINGHAM, the minister at Saybrook and one of the trustees, had a kind of direction and inspection over the college. In this state it continued till about 1715. In 1713, a valuable addition of books was made to the college library at Saybrook.

From 1702 to 1713 inclusive, 46 young men were graduated at Saybrook. Of these 34 became ministers, and two were elected magistrates. Mr. John HART and Mr. Phineas FISK were tutors. As the objects for which the college was established were considered highly important, the collegiate school attracted the special attention both of the Legislature and clergy. Though generous donations had been made for its support, it was far from flourishing or happy. The senior class was at Milford under Mr. ANDREW, the rector, and the other classes at Saybrook, under the two tutors. The books were necessarily divided, and exposed to be lost. At the same time the scholars were dissatisfied, both with the place, and manner of their instruction. They complained that Saybrook was not sufficiently compact for their instruction, some of them being obliged to reside more than a mile from the place of their public exercises. There had also from the beginning been a disagreement among the people of the colony, as to where the college should be fixed. Some were for continuing it at Saybrook, others wished to remove it to Hartford or Wethersfield, and a third party were equally zealous for its removal to New Haven. The trustees met a t Saybrook, April 4th 1716. When the scholars came before them, they complained of the insufficiency of their instruction, and the inconveniences of the place. It has been the tradition, that most of the complaints were suggested to them by others, with a view to cause a general uneasiness, and by this means effect the removal of the college. After a long debate on the circumstances of the school, it appeared that the trustees were no better agreed than the students, and leave was finally given to the Hartford and Wethersfield students, who were the most uneasy, to go, till commencement, to such places of instruction as they pleased. The consequence was that the greater part of them went to Wethersfield, and put themselves under the instruction of Rev. Elisha WILLIAMS, pastor of the church in Newington, some went to other places, and a number continued at Saybrook, but the small-pox soon after breaking out in the town, these generally removed to East Guilford, and were under the tuition of Rev. Mr. HART and Mr. RUSSELL till commencement. While the school was in this state people in different parts of the colony began to subscribe for the building of a college, hoping by this means that the trustees might be induced to settle the matter according to their wishes. About £700 was subscribed for its establishment at New Haven, £500 for fixing it at Saybrook, and considerable sums for the same purpose at Hartford and Wethersfield. The trustees met again at commencement, September 12th 1716, but could not agree any better than before, and they adjourned till the 17th of October, to meet at New Haven. When they met at that date, after discussion, they voted, "that considering the difficulties of continuing the collegiate school at Saybrook, and that New Haven is a convenient place for it, for which the most liberal donations are given, the trustees agree to remove the said school from Saybrook to New Haven, and it is new settled at New Haven accordingly."

Five of the trustees voted for New Haven, Mr. WOODBRIDGE and Mr. BUCKINGHAM were for Wethersfield, while Mr. NOYES did not see the necessity of removing the school from Saybrook, but preferred New Haven, if it must be removed. The trustees at this meeting received £250 from the General Assembly, which with £125 in the treasury, and the subscription for building the college at New Haven, encouraged them to vote to build a college, and a rector's house at New Haven, and they appointed a committee to accomplish the work. At the same time they appointed Mr. Stephen BUCKINGHAM, of Norwalk, one of the trustees. They sent orders to the scholars to come to New Haven, but only those at East Guilford complied. Such was the obstinacy of those at Wethersfield, and such the countenance that others gave them, that they continued their studies there till the next commencement. The trustees met again at New Haven, April 5th 1717. Seven were present, including Stephen BUCKINGHAM. The acts of the former meeting were read and voted by all the members present, except Mr. BUCKINGHAM, who, on the account of his friends in Saybrook, judged it expedient not to act. The people in other parts of the colony were strongly opposed to its establishment in New Haven, and the matter was taken up several times and warmly debated in the General Assembly. The trustees held the commencement at New Haven. The number of students was 31, of whom 13, the past year, had studied at New Haven, 14 at Wethersfield, and four at Saybrook. Soon after the commencement, the building was raised at New Haven; but, nevertheless, Messrs. WOODBRIDGE, BUCKINGHAM, and their party, persisted in their opposition, and the October session of the Assembly presented a remonstrance, which was answered by the other trustees. After a full hearing, the upper house resolved: "That the objections against the vote of the trustees, were insufficient." The lower house, after a long debate, resolved nothing relative to the subject. This shows how deeply the colony felt interested in the affair, and how unhappily it was divided. Further votes were passed by the trustees to strengthen those already passed, and their reasons were assigned for fixing it at New Haven, which were the difficulties of keeping it at Saybrook, arising partly from the uneasiness of the students, and partly from continued attempts to remove it to Hartford. They thought Hartford too far from the sea, and that it would not as well accommodate the southern and western colonies, in most of which, at that period, there were no colleges. The Assembly then passed an act advising them to finish their building and granted them a hundred pounds to be distributed among the instructors of the college. Notwithstanding the college seemed to be fixed at new Haven, there were some who still wished to have it at Wethersfield. They encouraged the students who had been instructed there the last year-about 14 in number to continue their studies at the same place. At the session in May, the lower house voted "to desire the trustees to consent that the commencement should be held alternately at Wethersfield and New Haven, till the place of the school be fully determined." The upper house was of the opinion that the matter was fully determined already, and therefore they did not concur. Gov. SALTONSTALL was supposed to be in favor of its establishment at New Haven, and his influence might have had some effect on the upper house. About this time (1718) they received several donations, that of Gov. YALE being the most considerable, and it was voted at commencement in September to call it Yale College. On the same day on which commencement was held in New Haven, a dissatisfied party held a kind of commencement at Wethersfield, in presence of a large number of spectators, in which five scholars performed public exercises. When the Assembly met in October, they passed a series of resolutions, among which was one appropriating 50 pounds from the sale of lands, to be given to the town of Saybrook "for the use of the school in said town." Another gave the governor and council power, "at the desire of the trustees, to give such orders as they shall think proper, for the removing of the books belonging to the said college, left at Saybrook, to the library provided for them at New Haven." Upon the desire of the trustees, the governor and council met at Saybrook in December, and granted a warrant to the sheriff authorizing him to deliver the books to the trustees, but notwithstanding the pacific measures which the Assembly had adopted, there was opposition to their removal. The sheriff, when he came to the house where they were kept, found it filled and surrounded with men, determined to resist him. Nevertheless, he, with is attendants, forcibly entered the house, took the books and secured them under guard during the night. In the morning it appeared that the carts provided for carrying them to New Haven were broken, and the horses turned away. New provision being made, they were conducted out of the town by the major part of the county; but some of the bridges on the road were broken down, and when they arrived at New Haven it was discovered that about 250 of the most valuable books, and several important papers were missing, and no discovery was ever made of them afterward. After this unhappy struggle, the heat of men's spirits began to subside, and a general harmony was gradually introduced among the trustees, and in the colony. FIELD says that after the first meeting of the trustees, in April 1716, two of the trustees, at the succeeding session of the Legislature, without the consent or knowledge of their brethren, petitioned that the college might be removed to Hartford. "This surprising and ungentleman-like proceeding caused passions, which had long been kindling, to burst forth, and from this time to the permanent establishment of the college at New Haven, the subject of its location produced more debate and division in the Legislature, and in the Corporation, among civilians and clergymen, and the people at large, than almost any other subject which has ever been agitated in Connecticut." It is idle to speculate upon what Saybrook might have been, had the college remained here, but it doubtless would have been as large as New Haven.


In 1704 Saybrook, as well as a few other towns, received a patent from the Legislature. This patent confirmed the grants made in a previous one, defined accurately the boundaries of the town, and conferred the usual rights and privileges with the usual verbiage and formality. It was issued to "Robert CHAPMAN, John CHAPMAN, William PARKER, William BEAUMONT, John CHAPMAN, Abraham POST, John PRATT, John CLARKE, William PARKER jr., Robert LAY, and Zachariah SANDFORD of the town of Saybrook in the county of New London in the colony aforesaid, Gents., and to the rest of the proprietors thereof."

The original document is in possession of Henry HART Esq., who bought it some year since from a man in the town of Griswold. Though prizing it highly, he offered it to the town for the small sum paid for it, but the selectmen, with that penny-wise economy not uncommon in town officers, declined to take it, and the opportunity of placing this valuable document among the archives of the town was lost.


The Cambridge Platform, which for about sixty years had been the general plan of discipline and church fellowship in New England, made no provision for the general meeting of ministers, or for their union in associations or consociations, yet at an early period they had a general meeting both in Connecticut and Massachusetts, and began to form associations. Their annual meetings were at the times of the general election at Boston and Hartford. At these times they had handsome entertainments made for them at the public expense. At these meetings they consulted together respecting the general welfare of the churches, the ministerial supply, and gave general directions regarding candidates for the ministry. But these associations and meetings were only voluntary, countenanced by no ecclesiastical constitution, attended only by such ministers as were willing to associate, and could bind none but themselves. There was no regular way of introducing candidates to the churches, by the general consent, either of themselves or the elders. When they had finished their studies, if they imagined themselves qualified, and could find some friendly minister to introduce them, they began to preach, without any examination or recommendation from any body of ministers or churches. Besides, it was generally conceded the state of the churches was not satisfactory with respect to their general order, government, and discipline. A great majority of the Legislature and clergy in Connecticut were for the association of ministers, and the consociation of churches. In this state of the churches, the Legislature passed an act, at their session in May 1708, requiring the ministers and churches to meet and form an ecclesiastical constitution. This act, after reciting the purpose and necessity of such a meeting, directed the ministers of the several counties, with the messengers or delegates of their churches, to meet at the county towns on the last Monday in June,

"There to consider and agree upon those methods and rules for the management of ecclesiastical discipline, which by them shall be judged agreeable and conformable to the word of God, and shall at the same meeting appoint two or more of their number to be their delegates, who shall all meet together at Say Brook, at the next commencement to be held there, where they shall compare the results of the ministers of the several counties, and out of and from them to draw a form of ecclesiastical discipline, which by two or more persons delegated by them shall be offered to this court, at their session at New Haven, in October next, to be considered of and confirmed by the: And the expense of the above mentioned meetings shall be defrayed out of the public treasury of this colony."

According to this act, the ministers and delegates met at the several county towns, made their respective drafts for discipline, and chose their delegates for the general meeting, which was held at Saybrook, September 9th 1708.

Present-From the council of Hartford county, the Revs. Timothy WOODBRIDGE, Noahdiah RUSSELL, Stephen MIX; messenger, John HAYNES, Esq. From Fairfield county, the Revs. Charles CHAUNCEY, John DAVENPORT; messenger, Deacon Samuel HOIT. From New London county, the Revs. James NOYES, Thomas BUCKINGHAM, John WOODWARD; messengers, Robert CHAPMAN, Deacon William PARKER. From New Haven County, the Revs. Samuel ANDREW, James PIERPONT, Samuel RUSSELL.

Revs. Thomas BUCKINGHAM and James NOYES were chosen moderators, and Revs. Stephen MIX and John WOODWARD, scribes. At this council it was agreed-

"That the confession of faith owned and assented unto by the elders and messengers assembled at Boston, in New England May 12th 1680, be recommended to the general assembly, at the next session, for their public testimony thereunto, as the Faith of the churches of this colony." [This was the SAVOY confession, with some slight alterations.]

The council also made rules for the consociation of the churches, for the settlement of disputes, and for proceedings in the matter of discipline. President STILES observes:

"I have been told that the model from New Haven county, said to have been draughted principally by the Rev. James PIERPONT, was that which, with some amendments, passed the Synod." When the Platform was adopted, there were 41 churches in what was at that time regarded as the territory of Connecticut; excluding the one in Rye, there were 40, and about as many ministers. [Hist. Acct. Saybrook Platform. 1843.] The platform consists of two parts: "A Confession of Faith," and "Heads of Agreement, and Articles for the administration of Church Discipline."

These having been unanimously passed and signed, there were presented to the legislature the succeeding October, and adopted, with this proviso:

"That nothing herein shall be intended or construed to hinder or prevent any society or church, that is or shall be allowed by the laws of this government, who soberly differ or dissent from the united churches hereby established, from exercising worship and discipline, in their own way, according to their consciences."

The Saybrook Platform, [In 1710, Thomas SHORT, of New London, issued "the Saybrook Platform of Church Discipline," the first book printed in the colony of Connecticut. He died in 1712, aged 30.] thus unanimously recommended by the elders and messengers of the churches, and adopted by the Legislature as the religious constitution of the colonies, met with a general reception, though some of the churches were extremely opposed to it. The confession of faith, having been adopted by the churches and Legislature, was also adopted by the college, and its trustees and officers, upon their introduction to office, were required to give their assent to it, and to the Westminster confession and catechisms.


A large part of the land in the present town of Old Saybrook was owned and held in common for about a hundred years by proprietors, rights being set off to them according to the amount of money invested. At a town meeting, April 13th 1695, the preamble recites that on the 24th of December last, by an act of the town, the northern part of the Commons was put into the hands of the original proprietors for division, and they having met, recommended to the town that not only the northern part, but all undivided lands in town commons, should remain a perpetual common for the use of the inhabitants of the town. The town, therefore, voted "that form this time and hereafter forever, these lands commonly known by the name of the town commons, which are bounded on the northern and westerne sides by potapauge, and oyster River Quarters , on the easterne part by the greate river, and on the southern part by the highway to the mill," such as were not already granted, should not be subject to general distribution. At one time the town commons were set in the list at £7,000.


Early in the history of the colony a tract of salt meadow, bounded on the east by Connecticut River, and south by the North Cove, was set apart for the use of the ministry, and it is still held and owned by the Congregational society. The tract is called "parsonage Meadow," and the point at the mouth of the cove, "Parsonage Point." The following are some of the town votes on the subject, as copied from Vol. 1, Saybrook Town Acts, by Henry L. PRATT:

"Dec. 8th 1687 At the same Meeting John BULL pretending a claim to a certain Island of Meadow being compassed around with water, so with the Great River, Ragged Rock cove, & the North cove-but making nothing appear of any title, the Town being satisfied that he hath neither honest or legal title unto said Island of Meadow do agree and by Vote determine said Island to be and belong to the Town, and to be absolutely at their disposal."

"At a Town Meeting May 25th 1688, being the third Monday in May. It was agreed and voted that the Island of Meadow that Lyeth the West side of the Great River below Ragged Rock-and four acres of upland lying in the Town Plat between Mr. Nathaniel LYND's land and James READFIELD's shall for the present be at the Townsmen's disposing; the benefit thereof, and for the future to be for the use of the ministry."

"July 23d 1691 At a Town Meeting orderly warned, It was agreed and ordered that the present townsmen in the Towns' behalf, should vindicate & manage the Town's Interest about a certain Island of Meadow lying betwixt the town and the Ragged Rock."

"March 21: 1677-8 It was voted & agreed that the fields should be cleared [the Common fields] by the next Tuesday the 26th of this Instant March, and then the Pinnyer [Pound keeper, who "pinned" the pound] to search the fields."

"December 3d 1678 the Town did agree and Vote to add to Mr. BUCKINGHAM's maintenance ten pounds in order to the supplying him with wood at three shilling a load, proportioning a load to a hundred pounds Estate to be paid at or before the last of December yearly."

At the same meeting Samuel MURRAIN, of Milford, desired to be presented "to the town to come & set up the trade of a tanner in Town, do grant to him for that and ye piece of land at the Neck gate, it was formerly granted to Thomas JOHNSON" "Joseph PARKER was chosen Pinner for ye year ensuing."

"At the same meeting Ensign Abraham POST Senior John CHAPMAN, Mr. John TULLY shall be established measurers of Land for the future."

"Feb. 7 1678 The Town agreed that the Souldiers that went out of the Town in the Indian war shall have five acres apiece of Land-those fields that were surveyed by Wm. PARKER Sen., and Wm. LORD Sen. And Insign POST, on these conditions, viz.: that they shall not sell their several parcels of Land to any within the Term of 4 years from the date hereof, but to such as the Town shall approve of, and the Town do expect these Lands shall be fenced in for improvement within the terms aforesaid,--the names of the soldiers that the Town have given Land to, are as followeth, viz.: Wm. PARKER Jun., John CLARKE, John LARGE, John PRATT (TAILOR), Samuel OLLICOTT, Samuel PRATT, Isaac HASOLBERG, Andrew BUGERT, John LEES, Samuel CHALKER, Steven BUSHNELL, Thomas MORRALL, Edward SHIPMAN, Joseph INGHAM, John LORIN, John TILLOTSON, John BULL, Nathaniel RUDD."

"Sept 22 79 At a Town meeting called at Saybrook it was voted and agreed that Capt CHAPMAN, William PARKER Sen. and Liftenant BUSHNELL shall draw up a righting in way of a plea to the court's demand concerning the land twixt the fort and the burying plot."

At the next meeting, September 29th, it was voted that the above writing "be presented to the court as the Town Act, and have ordered the Selectmen to subscribe to it." "1681 It was agreed & voted concerning the pasture lands lying about adjoining to the Stone Pits now under the improvement of the said pasture by cattle by way of pasturage, as lying within that fencing, till the land be sufficiently fenced according to law, and so judged by the fence viewers to be made and maintained, and in case this be not allowed, the town declareth for the future, that they will not allow any pastureage in the said fields."

"At a Town meeting Jan. 30th 1681 It was agreed and voted,--That for as much as sundry complaints have been made this day by sundry Inhabitants Proprietors of the West side, commonly called the thousand acres, Respecting damages yearly substained by reason of the insufficiency of the Ox-pasture fence having considered these complaints, do find them to be real & insufferable, do therefore see cause at this meeting, by town act and voat to appoint & decide that for the future the ox-pasture shall be well found with a good sufficient four rail fence or other fence equivalent, to be yearly viewed by the fence viewers, as by oath they are bound to doe in any other the common fences---And furthermore do order there shall be no oxen or horses or any other cattle put into the aforesaid ox pasture until it be sufficiently fenced as aforesaid, & what cattle are found in the said field shall be accounted damage feasant.---And the Pinners are hereby ordered to take cognizance of this field, as any other of the fields belonging to the town. The town do hereby order that the aforesaid fence shall be done at or before the tenth of May annually and the fence viewers to go out to view it the eleventh of May, and what is proved insufficient the townsmen are hereby ordered to take care that it be done as the Law doth direct in other common fences."

"At a town meeting 11th Jan. '76 it was voated and agreed that the fortification both palisades and age all but the ditch the carge [charge] thereof shall be pay'd, the half of it by the whole town, the other half of the charge of the premises to be pay'd by those that dwell within the neck gate."


The Ferry between Saybrook and Lyme was established in 1662 as the following extract from the proceedings of the General Court for that year shows: "This court grants Sea Brooke Inhabitants liberty to set up a ferrey at TILLEYES Point, and to take 12d. for a man & horse and 6d. for a single person."

In October 1696, the ferry rates were fixed at "twelve pence pay or eight pence money" for man, horse and load, "fower pence pay or three pence money" for a single man, and "eight pence pay or five pence money" for a single horse; and 1698, the court ordered that "one shilling in money pr time" might be charged for horse and man in the months of December, January, and February.

Travellers who were obliged to cross the river were put to great inconvenience on account of there being no wharf on the Saybrook side and "by reason of the uncertainty and alterations frequently made" in the road leading to the ferry. The court, in October 1719, appointed John HAMLIN and Richard CHRISTOPHERS, a committee to view the ferry, to fix a place where a wharf should be built and to determine where the highway leading to the ferry should run. The committee having reported, the General court took the following action (October 1720):

"This Assembly taking into consideration the report of John HAMLIN and Richard CHRISTOPHERS, Esq'rs, a committee appointed to view the ferry place between Seybrook and Lyme, and to consider how the ferry there may be best ordered and improved, and also what has been offered by Mr. Stephen WHITTLESEY and Mary DUDLEY concerning the same: It is thereupon ordered and resolved, that the wharf begun by Mary DUDLEY and her son shall be completely finished, and the causeway made and highway laid open from the said wharf and from the WHITTLESEY's house according to the return of the said HAMLIN and CHRISTOPHERS; and the one-half of the just cost which the said Mary DUDLEY and her son have been at, in building the said wharf so far as it be done, shall be allowed and paid unto them by the said WHITTLESEY; the account of it to be adjusted and determined by Mr. Nathaniel CHAPMAN and Mr. Daniel BUCKINGHAM, of Seybrook; and the said WHITTLESEY shall have liberty, if he desires it, to do what remains to be done to the said wharf for the finishing thereof, and also to make the causeway, one-half of the charge whereof shall be allowed him by the said DUDLEYs in part of his half of the cost they have been at in what they have done to the said wharf as abovesaid; the account of which shall also be adjusted by the aforenamed persons. And the said WHITTLESEY and DUDLEY shall keep the said ferry jointly and together until the first day of March next or as now they do; and from the said first day of March next it shall be kept by the said Mary DUDLEY and her son William for the space of one year, and then the said Stephen WHITTLESEY shall take it and keep it for the like space, and so it shall be kept by the said DUDLEYs and WHITTLESEYs, their heirs, etc., by turns, by the year, for the future, until this Court shall otherway determine. And when it is the said WHITTLESEY's time, he may, if he will keep it at the creek on the north side of his house, provided he build a wharf there according to what is mentioned about it in the return of the aforesaid committee."

In 1732, the ferrymen at Saybrook, William DUDLEY and Ambrose WHITTLESEY, petitioned the court to exempt them from carrying the officers of the government free of charge, or to increase the ferry rates, and in response to this petition the court ordered that the fare should be "thirteen pence money" for man, horse, and load in the months of December, January, and February, and nine pence during the rest of the year.

In may 1744, the General Court ordered the ferrymen at Saybrook "to erect and repair the wharf at said ferry place on the west side, and also provide and constantly maintain good and proper boats, well manned with sufficient tackle and furniture," etc., and Samuel LYNDE Esq., Capt. Jedadiah CHAPMAN, and Capt. Elisha SHELDEN were appointed to see that the order of the court was complied with and the fares were again changed to four pence for man, horse, and load, three pence for each footman, three pence half penny for each horse, lawful money, except from November to April, inclusive, when the fares were fixed at six pence, four pence, and five pence, respectively, "the above fare to be accounted at the rate of four pence in old currency for one penny lawful money." In case the ferrymen should at any time be deficient in any of the particulars mentioned, the committee was empowered to impose a suitable fine not to exceed five pounds.

For some time prior to 1752 complaints were made that the ferry was much neglected, and the passage over the river difficult and dangerous, and in the May session of this year the General Court appointed Samuel LYNDE and Richard LORD to investigate the matter, and report to the court at its next session. The substance of this report is unknown, but the two gentlemen were voted 12 shillings each for their labor.

No further notice of the ferry seems to have been taken by the General Court until October 1760, when the following act was passed:

" * * * The ferrymen or tenders of the ferries at New London and Saybrook shall carefully and diligently attend the convenience of passengers, and to that end they shall not at either of said ferries suffer said two boats to lie at the same time on the same side of the river, but from time to time as soon as either of said boats have crossed said river, whether there be any passengers ready to go over or not, unless the ferryman who last arrived to the shore where the other boat shall be lying shall immediately return to the shore from whence he came as soon as he can unload his passengers or freight. And when it shall so happen when either of the said boats shall have put off from the shore, any passengers shall be waiting or come before such boat shall arrive at the other shore, the ferryman on the opposite side shall immediately put off and carry over such passengers, and the far shall belong to that ferryman on that side from whence they pass. And if any such ferryman or ferrymen shall neglect to conform to the true intent and meaning of this act, he or they, for every such offence shall forfeit and pay the sum of twenty shillings. * * * "

At the same time the fares were fixed at 8d. for man, horse and load, 3d. for foot man, 6d. for led horse, 8d. for ox or other neat kine, and one penny each for sheep, swine and goats, from October 1st to April 1st, and during the rest of the year 6d., 2d., 4d., 6d., and 3 farthings respectively.

After the Indians were subdued, some of them were servants to the whites, and others lived near them and became partially civilized, many of them taking English names. They gradually decreased, however, till at the beginning of the present century, only a few stragglers remained. The tradition has come down to us, that Obed, one of these Indians, sacrificed a deer to the Great Spirit on a hill about half a mile north of the head of Main street. The hill is still known as "Obed's Alter Hill," though the exact rock on which the sacrifice took place is not known. It was, however, one of the high rocks on the east side of the hill, and it is not visible from the turnpike. Who this Obed was is not known, but an Indian of that name was a servant of Colonel FENWICK, and it is probable that he was the one. Years afterward he laid claim to a piece of land, which the following entry in the town acts explains:

"The Teste of William HIDE and Morgan BOWERS, who certife & say that wee do well Remember that Obed the Indian was a servunt of Mr. FENWICK the space of four years, & we are able to say he was a faithful servant to him, & that for his service, Mr. FENWICK Did Ingage a parcel of Land to him, We cannot Justly Say what Quantity, But we Do conclude it was not less than four acres, and that Obed's father Did Possess the Land before the Serviss of the said Obed was out. To this we Can Safely take our oaths.

          "This was given in before me, John MASON, the 19th of May 1673."

On the town records is a deed from Uncas and Awaneco his son, October 17th 1681, to Thomas DUNK of land at Salmon Brook, the tract being about three miles long by two in breath.

          "Uncas appeared & acknowledged the aboue Written Deed before mee."

                    Samuel MASON, com'r.

          New London June ye 9th 1682.

                    "Uncas, his + mark.

                    "Awaneco, his + mark."

Indians were sometimes apprenticed to the English as follows:

          I Ephraim Indian of Saybrook son to Black Jo, Deceasd Do hereby In consideration of money --- In hand recd of Mr. John KIRTLAND of sd Saybrook in the County of New London, &c Putt and bind myself Apprentice Unto the Above sd John KIRTLAND, His Heirs &c: During the whole term and time of three months from the first day of April 1735, Untill the first of July next Ensueing the Date hereof, During all which time ye sd Ephraim shall faithfully perform his sd Master's Business:--His sd Master Allowing ye sd Ephraim the sum of two shillings & sixpence for Each Day the sd Ephraim shall work for his sd Master, and If anything of ye Above mentioned wages for Each Day be Due to ye sd Ephraim at ye Expiration of sd time his sd Master is then to pay the sd Ephraim. And If his sd Master Shall Give Leave to ye sd Ephraim to Go from him for fishing or hunting; or any of the sd Ephraims business, ye sd Ephraim is to pay day for Day after the Expiration of sd term for Each Day he is So Gone. In Witness whereof the sd Ephraim hath sett to his hand this twenty eighth day of February A: D: 1734/5

          "Ephraim Indian his + mark
          "Witnesses John TULLY
                    Abigail TULLY."


The following is from Samuel TULLY's diary in regard to the "September gale"-the severest ever known here-Friday, September 22d 1815:

"Stormy last night, with fresh N. E. wind, but little rain this forenoon, but storm increased in the afternoon, abating a little about sunset, but seems to close up soon after like a continued storm." Saturday 23d-"Storm has continued during the night, and this morning rages with wasting violence, wind blowing very powerfully, and rain falling in sheets. By 8 A. M. it blows a most tremendous and awful gale, tearing up the strongest trees by the roots, or breaking them off, blowing down many buildings and raising the tide higher than was ever known in the memory of any person living, flowing into the cart path opposite the east garden. The water on the causeway by the windmill was nearly deep enough to touch a horse's belly, and extended in the road from Mrs. NEWELL's barn to the DUNK house, the distance of 30 or perhaps 40 rods."

The DUNK house stood not far from the corner where the old school house stood, and on the south side of the road.


Among the early settlers of Saybrook was John TULLY, son of John TULLY, of the parish of Horley, in the county of Surrey, England. He was baptized September 9th 1638, and with his mother and younger sister, and his mother's two brothers, Arthur and William FENNER, cane to this country in either 1646 or 1647. At a proper time one of the FENNERS, in behalf of John TULLY, made a voyage to England for the purpose of obtaining possession of his property, but by some means now unknown was unsuccessful. John himself now undertook it, but neglecting to take his deeds, his uncle, William TULLY (who, with a man by the name of John TIRREL, had charge of his property) denied his right, and asserted that he was an imposter, and that they had ample proof of the death of the real heir. Thereupon, he was forced to return to America in order to produce proof of his descent, and obtain the writings that would entitle him to the estate. On reaching the house of his mother, who not long before had married Mr. Robert LAY, of Saybrook, he found the deeds, so essential to the case in question, cut into narrow strips and attached to a lace pillow, but, with much difficulty, they were no nicely pasted together as to answer the purpose. After reaching England he recovered the estate, which he sold, and then returned to this country. The deeds of the property, which seems to have been valuable, are dated 1665. In 1671 John TULLY married Mary Beaumont. In March 1676 he, with John CLARK and Edward SHIPMAN, were townsmen, and there was granted to him one-half acre in the town plat, "on the south end of Matthew BELLAMY's lot, provided he begins to build within the year." It is probably that he did not build, for in 1680 he bought of his step-father, Robert LAY, a house and lot in the town plat on Saybrook Point, about half a mile west of the fort on the Middle Lane, near the head of the salt meadow, across which the main road passes, in which house he resided till his death, October 5th 1701. As he had not been bred a farmer, he disposed of his property in lands, [In a list of 46 proprietors of the town commons, he was the largest owner, his interest amounting t £608, 6 s. 8 d. John Ayer was next, £350.] which, it seems, was very considerable, and supported his family by teaching arithmetic, navigation, and astronomy. In addition to this he furnished New England with almanacs from 1681 to 1702, the last of which was published in Boston after his death. He was also town clerk for several years. The family record quaintly says: "So greatly superior was this man's education to most of his cotemporaries in America, and so superstitious and ignorant were the common people in this country, that with them he was reputed a conjurer." This strange reputation, however, was acquired, as appears, merely by exercising what at the present day would be termed common sagacity.

He died, October 5th 1701. His place of burial is not exactly known, but a family tradition says that it is in what is now the street, in front of the burying ground on Saybrook Point.

The title page of one of his almanacs reads as follows:

"An Almanack For the Year of our Lord, MDCXCIII. Being first after Leap Year. And from the Creation 5642. wherein is contained, Astronomical Observations from the Sung Ingress into Aries, and the other Cardinal Points, with an Account of the Eclipses, conjunctions, and other Configurations of the Celestial Bodies. With a brief discourse of the natural causes of Watry Meteors, as Snow, Hail, Rain, & c. Calculated for an fitted to the Meridian of Boston in New England, where the North Pole is Elevated 42 gr. 30 min. but may indifferently serve any part of New England. By John TULLEY. Boston, Printed by Benjamin HARRIS at the London-Coffee-House, 1693."

After the calendar comes a notice "Of the Eclipses this present Year." The first being of the moon:

"It is celebrated in 3 degrees of Leo, in a sign of the fiery triplicity, and as it is said, that generally after an Eclipse or male-configuration of Planets in the fiery Trygon, it hath been observed that Wars have succeeded, Slaughter of Men, Rapines, Murders, towns, Castles, Forts, Besieged, depopulation sometimes of whole Countries, Villages and Provinces; and these are signified to be more violent, if an Eclipse happened in time of present War. If such a defect happen in a peaceable time, it incites many dangerous Contentions, many tedious Law-Suites, much variance amongst vulgar persons, even concerning trivial grounds. Sometimes Tumults happen. Insurrections in several Counties or Countries against their Magistrates, when little or no cause is given."

A list of cities and countries under different signs is given. Among them are "Under Sagitorius of Kingdoms, Spain, Hungary; Countries, Motavia, Dalmatia, Slavonia, some parts of the Low countries; Cities, Rhems, Rattisbon, worms, in many of these Kingdoms, Countries, or cities, the Effects of the aforesaid Conjunction and Oppositions of the three Superior Planets may be manifested in one kind or other more or less." After explaining the causes of rain, hail, snow, etc., he touches upon earthquakes:

"Plenty of Winds, gotten in the Bowels, holes and Corners of the earth, bursting out of the Earth, and the earth closing again causeth the shaking, or Earthquake, and is a token of ensuing War."

His last almanac was published in Boston after his death in 1702.

John TULLY, grandson of JOHN TULLY, the settler, was born in 1702, and was for many years town clerk and justice of the peace. He was also a large landholder and farmer.


Among numerous cases tried before John TULLY, as justice of the peace, were the following:

"To John TULLY one of his Majestes Justices of ye peace for ye County of New London,--I the subscriber one of the Tything men for the first society in the Town of Saybrook, in s'd County, do on my office Oath, Complain and Present, that Hannah PARKER and Ann BUCKINGHAM both of s'd Saybrook were on the 11th day of January Last past (it being the Sabbath or Lord's day), at the meeting house in ye first Society in s'd Saybrook, and in the time of Divine service were then and there Guilty of the prophanation of said Sabbath or Lord's day by laughing and talking in a prophane manner, to ye Disturbance of Publick worship of God, contrary to ye Good Laws of this Gov'r'ment in that case provided. Given under my hand this 9th day of February 1746/7.

          "James BUSHNEL, tything man.

"for Evidences take Timothy PRATT

          Daniel INGRAHAM

          Lydia KIRTLAND."

On the back of the subpoena is the following return of the constable:

          "Saybrook February ye 11th 1746/7.

"then this Summons Was Red in ye hearing of the Within named timothy PRATT and Daniell INGRAHAM By me Nath'l JONES, Constable of Saybrook.

          "fees -00 -04 -2."

The result of the trial is not known.

"To John TULLY Esq. a Justis of ye Pease for ye County of New London, Comes Martin KIRTLAND one of the Tything men for ye Town of Saybrook in Said County, and on Oath Informs against one John BUCKLE of Wethasfeild in Hartford County that he s'd BUCKLE on Lords day the 13th day of September Last being Master of a Vessle then Lieing in the Harbour in s'd Saybrook in Connecticut River within two miles of ye meeting House in ye first Parish in s'd Saybrook where the Publick worship of God was then maintained, and being on Board s'd Vessle Did then sail up Connecticut River without s'd master haueing obtained order or License from any magistrate or Justice of the Peace which is contrary to the Laws of this Colony in that Case made & Provided. Dated at Saybrook the 11th Day of October A. 1761.

          "Martin KIRTLAND Tything man."

          Take for witnesses

                    James HARRIS,
                    Josiah FARNAL."

"John TULLY one of the Justas of the peace for Saybrook in the County of New London, I Stephen CHALKER, in the town and County aboues'd do inform and present upon my office oath to your worship, that upon the 11th day of this instant September, which was on the Lord's day or the Sabeth, that Daniel WETMORE of Mideltoune, did sayl out of our harbour of Saybrook in ye County of New London for Long Island, Which act is Contra to our good and Wholesome laws of this gouvrment which we find in our lawbook page 105.

"Dated Sept'r 21 1743.

          Stephen CHALKER.

Evidences Capt. John BURROS with his wife and his eldest son, and two eldest
          Daughters and Mr. Sam'l KIRTLAND.

"Mr. Daniel WETMORE Confessed Guilty Nov'r 16th 1743."

"To John TULLY Esq'r one of his Maj's Justices of ye Pease for the County of New London, Whereas I the subscriber one of His Maj's Grand jurymen for s'd County would hereby inform your worship against and Complain of Sarah TOOKER of Saybrook in s'd County, wife to Taber TOOKER of s'd Saybrook said County that whereas shee ye said Sarah TOOCKER hath not for this three Saboths or Lord's Day Last past, and particularly the Last Sabbath or Lord's Day being the 26th of this Instant January, applied herself or attended Publick worship by Law a Lowed in any Church or Congregation what Ever which neglect of her ye s'd Sarah TUCKER is abreach off and Contrary to the good and Wholesom Laws of this government as at Large appears by our colony Law book in ye (139) page of ye Same, and Instil'd an act for ye Due Observation and keeping the Saboth or Lord's Day, &c. Now I the Subscriber here prays that Shee ye s'd Sarah TUCKER may be sent for and Dealt with as ye Law Directs. Dated at Saybrook the 31 day of Jeneary Ad 1765.

         "Stephen NOTT

"For half a day for prosecuting 1s Prov'l mony."

The above complaint is in a different handwriting from the date and signature. It will be noticed that the same work or name is spelled differently in different places in the same document, something not at all uncommon in ancient writings.

A similar complaint was made against Joseph CLARK, of the parish of Chester, by Andrew SOUTHWORTH, grand juror, the warrant being dated April 19th 1744. The following return and memorandum is on the back of the warrant:

"Saybrook april ye 20th 1744. according to this precept ye within mentioned prisoner is arrested and brought before ye worship by me Hex. WHITTLESEY Constable of Saybrook.

                    "fees 0-9-0

         "Saybrook April 20th 1744.

         "Jude'mt Given for ye fine & Costs.

         "Test: J. T., Justice.

                    "In Behalf of our Lord
                    "the King.
                    "The writt 0-6
                    "Serving & Return 2---0
                    "Attend'ce 1---0
                    "Judg'mt 2---0
                              5---6 Lawfull money.

          "All paid by a note
          & to ye constable. 1---2---0 old tenor.

"to John TULLY Esq'r of Saybrook one of his Magesties Justices of ye peace for ye County of New London, whereas it is enacted in one Parragraft of a Law of this colony, entitled an act for licensing and Regulating Houses of Publick entertainment or Traverns, and for Suppressing unlicensed Houses, that if any Person or Inhabitant Belonging to any town shall be found in any Tavern or Licensed House in any such Town any time in the Night Next before in ye Night next after ye Lord's Day, or after nine of ye Clock in any other night (except Such Person Shall Satisfy ye authority before whom they may be Brought that their was a Proper Reason or Extraordinary occasion for their bein gther at such time) and be thereof Convicted before such authority, Shall Incur ye Penalty of three shillings-yet nevertheless, Epaphras NOTT, Charles WILLIAMS, Elijah SCOVEL, Ebenezer WILLIAMS, Ebenezer PARKER, Will'm WATEROUS, Stephen BUCKINGHAM, Sarah DUNK Junr., Hannah LAY Junr, Diana WILLIAMS, Temperance HEYDEN Junr, & Lucy PARKER Junr, all of Saybrook in ye County afores'd the Pains & Penalties of ye Law afores'd not in ye least Regarding, were on ye night next following after ye 6th Day of Jan'ry Last Past found in ye Dwelling House of Capt. Ed'wd BULL in s'd Saybrook it being a Tavern or licensed House of Publick entertainment after nine of ye clock on said night Contrary to & against the form and Effect of ye Law of this Colony afores'd in our Law Book at Large to be seen in Page 129 &c-and thereof, under my office oath I hereby Complain & Inform you worship, that they may be Delt with, according to Law in the Case.

          Dated Saybrook Feb'ry 18th A. D. 1756.

                   "Edward BEEBE, graniuerman.
                   "Doc'tr David WILLIAMS
                   Gid'n BUCKINGHAM
                   Will'm CLARK
                   Sara WILLIAMS. Evidences."

          "To either of the Constables of the Town of Saybrook in ye county of New London in ye Colony of Connecticut, Greeting,

"Whereas Information & Complaint hath been duly made unto me the Subscriber hereof, of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace for ye county afores'd by the Selectmen of said Saybrook; That one Samuel EMMES hath Left his wife & family at Stamford in the County of Fairfield in s'd colony and hath Removed himself into this said town of Saybrook & hath Continued to Reside here for this two or three months Last past, against the mind of a considerable number of the Inhabitants of s'd town; and without the approbation of the authority in and selectmen of said town of Saybrook-and whereas the said Selectmen have also desired and Requested me the Subscriber to Issue out a Warrant according to the Direction of ye Law in such case; to warn ye s'd Sam'l EMMES to Depart out of the s'd town of Saybrook.-Therefore in Complyance with ye Request of s'd Selectmen, These are in his Majesty's name to Requite & Command you to warn the said Sam'l EMMES, forthwith to Remove himself, and to Depart out of this s'd Town of Saybrook, & not continue to live here any Longer; & that on going out; he do not Return to reside in said Town of Saybrook any more.-Otherwise let him know that if he does not depart out of this s'd Town of Saybrook, but continue to reside herein without Leave of the Selectmen of the Town afores'd, He may Expect to be treated and Dealt with according to the direction of the Law in such Case provided.-Hereof fail not, & Make due return of this writt, with your doings thereon according to Law.

          "Dated in Saybrook this 15th day of February in the 6th year of his Majesty's Reign, A. D. 1766.

                    "John TULLY Jus'ce of the Peace,"

          Return on the back of the warrant:

                    "Saybrook February 17th AD 1766.

          "Then this within warrant was Red in ye hearing of Sam'll AMES within Named.

                    "Test. Justus BUCK Constable of Saybrook."

          "Fee 2. 10d."

"Whereas Mr. Stephen CHALKER of s'd Saybrook one of the Grand Jurors of Sovereign Lord the King for s'd Town and County under Oath, Hath Complained to me the Subscriber that on ye night following the 12th day of this Instant September, John a Negro Man Servant to Col. Sam'll WILLARD, Ens'n Sam'll Lord, and Cipio a Negro Man Servant to ye worshipfull Sam'll LYNDE Esq'r, And Jacob an Indian Man Serv't to Mr. Joseph LYNDE.-Did in Saybrook in the first Parish of s'd Town meet together in the street, and there continued till after nine of ye clock, and did there make a Rout & Disorder, and Likewise Curse & Sware phophanely & utter Blasphemous words, all which is Contrary to ye good & wholesome Laws of this Colony-page 86 & 99 of our Law book."

Then follows the warrant dated September 16th 1743.

"John TULLY Justice of ye Peace."

"Please to Let the Masters or Mistresses have notice of their Servants being taken to answer ye above s'd."

John & Lunnon were found not Guilty of ye facts & were dismissed as Delinquents"-"Jacob not having sufficient to answer ye Charges was Disposed on in Service to Mr. Joseph LYNDE, 36 working days next ensuing this 24 of October 1743" Jacob's fine, £1 10s. 0d., and costs, £2 5s. 4d., amounted to £3 15s. 4d. The account was given to Mr. LYNDE for Jacob to work out. Midnight roysterers fared hard in those days. The witnesses were Mr. Isaac CHALKER, Thomas INGHAM, John SHIPMAN, and John GRIFFING, and the Constable was John PARKER.

It was common for the surveyor of highways to make complaint of those who neglected to work their road tax. In 1745, William Parker, surveyor, complained of "Daniel LORD jun'r of s'd Saybrook being legally warned to work at the Highways in ye first Society in s'd Saybrook on the first day of November Instant, Refused or neglected so to do, & c." The complaint was dated November 4th. The result is given in one word on the back-"Satisfied."

The following is Andrew WARNER's account against the Town: "April-1756, the town of Saybrook indebted to Andrew WARNER for notifying haddam to preamelate the line -0-2-0 for going on the line my self and a man with me -0-4-- ase HARRIS one wild Cat gaines WARNER two wild cats -5-0

11---0 Voted

"A List of both Officers & Souldiers in ye first company or Train band in Saybrook made this 26th of March 1745 being training."

Capt. Samll WILLARD,           Corpll Jonathan BUTTLER,
Lt Andrew LORD,           Corpll John WHITTLESEY,
Ensn Samll LORD,           Corpll John KIRTLAND,
Sergt Danl BUCKINGHAM,           Drum'r Samll KIRTLAND,
Sergt John PARKER,           Drum'r Nathl JONES,
Sergt Abram PARKER,           Drum'r Isaac PRATT,
Sergt Benjam CHAPMAN,           Richd DICKINSON,
Joseph WHITTELSEY,           William DUDLEY,
Josiah DIBBLE           Timothy PRATT,
Jedediah DUDLEY,           Elias TULLY,
Stephen HARRIS,           Abiel LORD,
Danll SANFORD,           Saml DUNK,
Isaac JONES,           Jonathn DUNK,
James JONES,           Samll WILLARD,
Caleb CHAPMAN,           Levi CHAPMAN,
Saml WEBSTER,           Simeon CHAPMAN,
Gideon JONES,           Benjamin INGRAHAM,
Willm PARKER,           John DICKINSON,
Nathl SANFORD,           Jeseph BORDEN,
Joseph BUCKINGHAM,           Josiah BUSHNELL,
James CLARK,           Samll INGRAHAM,
Danll LORD,           Danll DUDLEY,
John WATERHOUSE,           James BUSHNELL,
William TULLY,           Phinehas BUSHNELL,
Ebenezer INGHAM,           John SHIPMAN,
John LOVELAND,           Lemuel BUSHNELL,
Daniel INGRAHAM,           David REEVES,
Jonathan BUSHNELL,           Abraham CHALKER jr.,
Moses DUDLEY,           John PARKER jr.,
Samuel TULLY           John WISE,
George LEE,           Christopher JONES,
Charles DICKINSON,           Elisha AYER,
Humphrey PRATT,           Gideon CHALKER,
Joseph WHITTLESEY jr.,           William BEAMONT,
Samuel SANFORD,           Josiah DIBBLE jr.,
Thomas BUSHNELL,           Benjamin SHIPMAN
Ephraim BEBEE,           Benjamin CHAPMAN jr.,
James PRATT,           Daniel TOWNER,
Nathaniel SHIPMAN,           James INGRAHAM,
Daniel JONES,           John BURROWS,
Azariah MATHER,           John WHITTLESEY jr.,
Samuel CLARK jr.,           George WILLARD,
Daniel INGRAHAM,           Abner Lee,
Christopher LORD,           Samuel SHIPMAN,
Travis AYER,           Stephen CLARK,
John GRIFFING,           Jedidiah BUCKINGHAM,
Elijah LORD,           John STOW,
Ira BUSHNELL,           Jedidiah HARRIS,
Giles BLAGUE,           Elnathan BUTTLER,
John CORBIT,           Henry BROOKS,
Samuel WRIGHT,           Nathaniel BUSHNELL jr.,
Edward Doty,           Stephen CHALKER jr.,
Elisha SPENCER,           Daniel SANFORD jr.,
Wm. BURROWS,           Prince DONE jr.,
Prince Done,

A similar list of May 7th, probably same year, as the names are identical, contains in addition a list of those who were deficient in equipments, as follows:

          "Phineas BUSHNELL wants powder.
          "Stephen CLARK hath only Gun.
          "John BURROWS has only Gun.
          "Ephraim BEBE has only Gun.
          "Daniel LORD has only Gun.
          "Daniel TOWNER wants Sword.
          "Theo. WHALEY has no ammunition.
          "Caleb CHAPMAN wants ½ lb. Powder.
          "Simeon CHAPMAN hath no ammunition, but hath all at home.
          "David REEVES wants powder.
          "Christopher JONES wants ½ lb. Powder.
          "Benj. SHIPMAN has only Gun.
          "Ebenezer INGHAM wants powder.
          "John GRIFFING no Gun nor Belt.
          "Gideon JONES has only Gun.
          "Samuel CLARK has only Gun.
          "Josiah DIBBLE has only Gun.
          "Samuel Dunk no Sword."
What proportion of men Saybrook furnished in the first expedition against Canada in the early summer of 1755, history does not relate, but at the second call for troops by a special session of the Assembly, August 27th, Saybrook furnished its quota, as seen in original documents.

"An account of what was Delivered out of Saybrook Town Stock of ammunition to Capt. James HARRIS's company, Sept. 12th and 13th pr me John TULLY.

"Out of one Cask took out of Mr. BLAGUE's warehouse, which weigh'd by Capt. HARRIS's Stilly' ds 57 lbs. Before opened after substracting ye weight of ye rope it was weigh'd with.

Lb. Powd'r Lb. Bull'ts Flints.
To Reuben CHAPMAN 1

Capt. HARRIS ½




William BUSHNELL 1

Paybody GRENNEL 1

Josiah NOTT 1


Simeon PRATT 1

Ebenez'r GLADING 1


Joshua WHEELER 1

Ezek'll HILL 1

Sam'll PRATT 1

Dan'll PRATT 1

Abner BUSHNELL 1 2 6
Wm. GIDINGS 1 2 6
Wm. HOUGH 1 2 6
Aaron CONE 1 2 6
Capt. LEET & John TULLY equally divided 1 2 6
Stephen CHALKER 1 1
Eliud GRAVES 1 2 6
Josiah DIBBLE 1


John DUGLAS 1 2 6

Andrew CLARKE 1 1
Adonijah BUCKING'M 1 4 6

David REEVE 1 4
Simeon CHAPMAN 1


Silvanus DUDLEY 1

Edw'd TRYON 1


Tho's PIERCE 1

James CLARKE 1

Benj. PRATT 1

Gideon WEBB 1



Total 41 24 4

Sundry papers; extracts from Town Records &c.

"October 1763 paid Joseph LENEW 29 and 4d In full for my Unckel William COCHRAN his Rate for the Ox pasture Dam.
          Pr John COCHRAN."

"November ye 22 1763. Then Received of Andrew LORD Collector for the Rate to Defray the Charge for Erecting the Dam two Shillings and nine pence half penny.

          pr me
                    Charles LENEW His + Cross."

"November the 24th 1763, Mr. Elias TULLY, Mr. Sam'll CLARK, Mr. Sam'll LYNDE Cometty men for the meaddo dam please to pay or Answer to Humphrey PRATT the sun of £1 10s. 10d. and in so doing you will Ablige ye Humble Searvents Mr. LENNEW Jo LENEW John LENEW.
                    Joseph + LENEW."

                    "Saybrook, Sept. 4th 1857.
          "Town of Saybrook Dr.
"To 34 Persons watching on Guard one night by order of Authority £3--- 8---0
"To Constable's fees for warning and Guard 0--- 6---0
"Paid Mr. WOLF in full £3--- 14-0
"Acc't Exhibited for the whole
          Pr Nathan DEWOLF, Constable.

At a town meeting, February 22d 1676, it was voted that no man be allowed to sell a gun without permission from the Selectmen.

The following extracts from the town records are interesting, as showing where some of the residents of Saybrook Point were located, April 30th 1694.

"Joseph BLAGUE Bought of Rev. Mr. Thomas BUCKINGHAM of Say Brook & the Rev. Mr. Moses NOYES of Lyme Executors to the last will & Testament of Edward LOREY late of Saybrook deceased, one Dwelling House lying & being in Saybrook aforesaid, near adjoining unto the North cover & on the other side of the Highway Westerly of his Own House, known by the name of the said Edward LOREY's House & being part of the said LOREY's Estate."

February 9th 1802-3.-"At the same meeting there was voted and given to Mr. Joseph BLAGUE liberty to erect a wharf into the waters from the Warehouse that was formerly Mr. Edward LOREY's, & to build a warehouse thereon if he pleases, provided he no ways endangers the Channell." [Probably "BLAGUE wharf," which is under the present wharf of H. POTTER & Son.]

December 22d 1713.-"There was also liberty given by vote to Mr. Samuel DOTY to Build a wharf north of his ware house thirty feet in Breadth if he sees cause."

December 21st 1714.-"The town granted to Maj. John CLARKE two Rods wide of land one on the East of his warehouse & one on the West & to run as far South as his other land laid out before & to the River."

December 30th 1717.-"Same meeting the Town granted to Mr. John BURROWS thirty feet Square of land on the bank between Capt. Samuel DOTY's Warehouse and that what was Mr. Edward LOREY's, to be laid out by Daniel BUCKINGHAM & Stephen WHITTELSEY, & Bounded North on the edge of the bank, East on Capt. Samuel DOTY his land."

April 24th 1742.-Gideon James borrowed of the Town "Eighteen pounds in currant Lawful money of this Colony being part of the Legacy Given by Mr. Edward LORIE Late of s'd Saybrook Dec'd for ye maintenance of above s'd School in s'd town which I have in hand Rec'd of Sam'l WILLIAMS, Francis BUSHNELL, & Joseph BLAGUE Select men of ye s'd town & trustees for improving s'd Legacy for ye use & benefit of s'd School." Secured by mortgage of four acres of land.

Mr. Elias TULLY kept school in the school house near his house after the Revolutionary war, and S. EMMONS probably in 1801. He was at Pompey, N. Y., in 1802. Ira KILBORN kept in 1800. Mrs. FAIRCHILD kept a private school for girls for a short time previous to 1800, in a room in Mrs. NEWELL's house. Samuel TULLY taught at different times, at his own house, quite a number of boys, who studied arithmetic, navigation, and surveying.

December 25th 1704.-"The Rev. Mr. BUCKINGHAM being pleased to offer to the Town that his Rate should be made Five pound short this year, upon the consideration of the great Public charge, Was excepted by the Town, and Deacon Nathaniel CHAPMAN was chosen to return thanks to Mr. BUCKINGHAM for the same."

January 29th 1707.-"It was agreed and voted, that if any of the pews be relinquished, that Mr. Nath'l LYNDE shall have it for himself and family, --otherwise, if he see cause, shall have liberty to build a pew at the west end of the meeting house, and south of the place Sergt. Nath'l PRATT has for himself and family, the present seaters allowing the quantity of room for said pew."

December 29th 1707.-It was also granted to the proprietors of the pews next the Door on the south side of the Meeting House, and the proprietors of the pew granted to Wm. TULLY, liberty to make and maintain a window against their several pews if they see cause."

There having been some doubt cast upon the title of the Congregational society to the triangular plot of ground opposite their church, known as the "Green," being the site where the former church stood for 114 years, an extract from the ancient town records, volume 3, page 334, under date of February 17th 1724, seems to be conclusive on that point. After the usual form of conveyance in use at that time from the grantors to the "Presbyterian or Congregational Society," the boundaries are given as follows:

"Twenty rods of land on the S. E. corner of our home lot, six rods East on great highway, and seven rods S. W. on highway called Pennywise Lane, and Northerly on the remaining part of the homestead aforesaid.
          "John PRATT and
          "Isaac PRATT."

December 17th 1776.-"Voted that a premium of 2-6 be given for every full grown wild cat, and 1-6 for every fox."

March 1777.-"Voted that the Committee for collecting subscriptions for the fort, be desired forthwith to layout the sums they may have gathered toward completing said fort. Also that selectmen divide the town into districts for keeping watch on the sea coast, and that a small guard house be built on ye Neck at ye expence of the town, with a fire place therein as cheap as may be."


The increase of population in the second and third societies of the original town made it necessary to hold the town meetings in the most central location, and that was Potapaug. When they were first held there is not certainly known, but probably some years before the Revolutionary war. After Westbrook and Chester were formed into new towns, the preponderance of population was still with Potapaug and Deep river, and the town and electors' meeting were still held there. In 1852, an effort having a political signification, was made to divide the town, Hon. Samuel INGHAM, of Essex, being the leading spirit in the matter. It was strongly opposed by the people in the present town of Old Saybrook through their representative for that year, Mr. Ozias H. KIRTLAND, and by their committees, but the efforts of the people of Essex, before a Legislature in sympathy with the political views of the petitioners, were successful, and the town was divided. Saybrook and Potapaug being set off from Deep river, that remained as the original town, and retained the name of Saybrook, together with the ancient records. The remaining part having to adopt a new name, and not willing to relinquish the old one entirely, took that of Old Saybrook. Deep River is still the post office address of the town of Saybrook, and Saybrook is the post office address of the town of Old Saybrook. The first town meeting was held in Potapaug, and Capt. John BUSHNELL was appointed moderator by the Legislature. As the records and the name were gone, there was no particular object to be gained by remaining with Potapaug, so in 1854 the people of the present town of Old Saybrook petitioned to be set off, which was granted by the Legislature, and they became a town by themselves, retaining the name of Old Saybrook, while Potapaug adopted that of Essex-part of it having been incorporated for several years as a borough. The first town meeting under that name was held July 10th 1854, in the academy, Samuel M. TULLY being appointed moderator by the Legislature.


Representatives.-The town of Old Saybrook has been represented in the State Legislature by the following named persons:

James PHELPS, 1853, 1854; Henry POTTER, 1855; William R. CLARKE, 1856, 1865; William J. CLARKE, 1857, 1858; Sumner BULL, 1859; Gilbert PRATT, 1860; James TREADWAY, 1861; R. C. SHEPARD, 1862; Richard E. INGHAM, 1863, 1864; E. M. LYNDE, 1866; James RANKIN, 1867; John J. DOANE, 1868; Ozias H. KIRTLAND, 1869, 1870; John S. DICKINSON, 1871; Edwin AYRE, 1872, 1873; Robert CHAPMAN, 1874; Frederick A. CHALKER, 1875; Robert B. CHALKER, 1876, 1877; David W. CLARKE, 1878, 1879; Corydon M. WHITTLESEY, 1880, 1881; Ozias H. KIRTLAND, 1882, 1883; Rufus c. DENISON, 1884.

Town Clerks.-The clerks of the present town of Old Saybrook have been: William J. CLARK, 1854-1861; Edward SANDFORD, 1861 to 1862; Augustus PRATT, 1862 to 1864; Ocias H. KIRTLAND, appointed in 1864, still in office.


Among the property owned by Mr. George FENWICK was the entire "western neck," or LYNDE's Point, as it was afterward called, extending from the mouth of the river beyond Cornfield Point, the eastern end of which is now called "FENWICK," and is the site of the light house, Fenwick Hall, and numerous cottages. This property, by a codicil added to his will, March 9th 1656-7, was given to his sister, Mrs. Elizabeth CULLICK, wife of Captain John CULLICK, from whim it descended to her daughter Elizabeth, wife of Benjamin BATTEN, of Boston. This property, containing about 800 acres, was one of the most valuable farms in Saybrook, on account of the sea weed and fishing privileges, by which large quantities of valuable fertilizers could be easily be obtained. In 1674, the property was sold by Benjamin BATTEN and wife to Simon LYNDE, of Boston, and possession was given by turf and twig.

Simon LYNDE came to New England from London in 1650, and was a prominent citizen of the colony of Massachusetts for more than 30 years. In 1686, he was one of the assistant justices of the court of Pleas and Sessions, and in the following year one of the justices assistant of the Superior Court. He died in 1687, possessed of a large estate in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut, and leaving 12 children, of whom six survived him. Nathaniel LYNDE, his fourth son, born November 22d 1659, after serving as apprentice to his father, who was a merchant, married in 1683, Susannah, only daughter of Deputy Governor WILLOUGHBY, of Charlestown, and removed to Saybrook, Connecticut. Here he became possessed of several hundred acres of land, which his father deeded to him on the 16th of April 1685. This was a part, and probably only a part, of the Neck farm, as his brother, Benjamin, speaks of visiting "my Neck" as early as 1720. Mr. LYNDE held many offices of trust, and was, for a time, associate judge of the Quorum. On the 9th of September 1703, himself and wife gave, by deed, for the use of the college, so long as it should be continued at Saybrook,

"A certain dwelling house and house Lott Lyeing & Being in Say Brook containing by estimation Two acres & 58 rods, with an addition of upland & meadow adjoining to the House Lott, Bounded E. with the Common, S. by cover, W. partly by N. LYNDE, & partly heirs of Capt. Robt. CHAPMAN, N. highway & lands of N. LYNDE, & heirs of R. CHAPMAN, House lot with additional land, in the whole 10 acres more or less. Delivered same day to Rev. Nodia RUSSELL, Rev. Samuel RUSSELL in behalf of trustees."

Mr. LYNDE, who two years earlier (1701), had acted as treasurer of the infant college, was a man of high character and large public spirit, and was devoutly religious. [LYNDE family.] He died October 5th 1729, in the 70th year of his age, having survived his wife a little more than nineteen years. His remains, and those of his wife and his son Samuel, lie under three tabular monuments of stone, at the west side of the burying ground on Saybrook Point, and but a few rods from the site of the college, from which inserted slate tablets, with inscriptions, have crumbled away. One of the oldest tombstones now standing in the yard is that of "Susanna, ye daughter of Nathaniel & Susanna LYNDE, Aged 4 ½ months, Dec'd December ye 19th 1685." Another stone near by is that of WILLOUGHBY, who died in 1704 at the age of 7. Nathaniel LYNDE's brother, Benjamin, of Boston was a judge of the Superior court of Massachusetts in 1712, and in 1728 was made Chief Justice of the Province, which office he held till his death in 1745. He often visited his brother at Saybrook, as chronicled in his diary, and several times alludes to "my Neck." He owned a farm "at Kelsey hill, in Potapaug, containing about 525 acres, and of the Buildings thereon, and of the Saw Mill on Deep river."

His son, Benjamin LYNDE jr., was for some years one of the judges of the Superior Court of Massachusetts. In his diary is the following entry:

"Sept. 19th 1754 Died my Coz. Col. Samuel LYNDE Esq., at SayBrook, then one of ye Judges of ye Superior Court in that Colony, and had been several years 1st Justice of the Please for the County of New London, and now and for many years before, one of the Council, he was taken away by a fever in the 64th year of his age, much lamented, as he was greatly beloved."

The owners of the land at Fenwick, may be summed up as follows: George FENWICK, his sister, Mrs. Elizabeth CULLICK, her daughter, Mrs. Elizabeth BATTEN, Simon LYNDE, afterward his son, Nathaniel, after which it continued in possession of the LYNDE family till it was sold to Gilbert PRATT, about 1850. After holding it for several years he sold it to I. S. OTIS, and after his death it was sold to Messrs. John F. BUSHNELL, R. M. BUSHNELL, and D. C. SPENCER, who held it only a short time, and sold it to the New Saybrook Company.

In the summer of 1870, the attention of a few citizens of Hartford was called to the "LYNDE Farm" or "Light House Point," as a desirable location for a seaside resort, which would be made more available by the completion of the Connecticut Valley Railroad, which was then projected. After a careful examination of the property, it was bought, and a joint stock company was formed under the laws of the State, so that the stockholders should be gentlemen well esteemed in their respective communities, and that there should be none likely to disturb the harmony which should exist in a large company gathered for a few months in the summer for purposes of health and recreation. It was also decided that in addition to the erection of a first class hotel, provision should be made for the building of cottages by the stockholders and others. It was therefore arranged that each stockholder of 40 shares of $25 each should receive in fee the deed of half acre lot, the choice of lots to be disposed of by auction.

The following is a list of the original stockholders, each of whom subscribed for 40 shares: C. T. WEBSTER, G. Wells ROOT, E. FESSENDEN, C. S. WEATHERBY, William M. BATES, Jacob KNOUS, H. S. LORD, A. M. HURLBUT, G. B. BARNES, Newton CASE, R. A. CHAPMAN, Perry SMITH, Daniel F. SEYMOUR, William H. BUCKELEY, E. S. TYLER, Henry CORNING jr., Isaac GLAZIER, Roswell BLODGETT, T. O. ENDERS, David A. ROOD, S. C. PRESTON, A. P. PITKIN, F. R. FOSTER, Milo HUNT, C. A. TAFT, Geo. E. HATCH, Ebenezer ROBERTS, WELCH & SHIPMAN, Henry KENEY, P. F. ROBBINS, C. T. MARSTON, L. BRAINERD, H. P. BLAIR, J. C. WALKLEY, Augustus S. JEROME, S. H. WHITE, H. BLANCHARD, Stiles D. SPERRY, M. M. MERRIMAN, G. F. DAVIS, G. P. BARKER, H. A. REDFIELD, F. W. RUSSELL, David S. BROOKS & Son, C. Nichols BEACH, H. K. W. WELCH, trustee, Mrs. Eliz. H. COLT, R. D. HUBBARD, John B. RUSSELL, Daniel PHILLIPS, R. S. ELY, Nelson HOLLISTER, A. M. WARD, R. W. H. JARVIS, Geo. G. SILL, John A. BUTLER, C. C. HUBBARD, Charles G. DAY, Rev. Cyrus F. KNIGHT, Wm. F. TUTTLE, Wm. S. WHITE, Samuel I. TUTTLE, Wm. L. WRIGHT & Son, H. & S. BISSELL, WORTHY & MERRICK, A. B. GILLETT, PATTON & COVEL, J. B. CLAPP, D. C. SPENCER, G. S. & C. L. LINCOLN.

Mr. A. M. HURLBUT was chosen president; Newton CASE, vice-president; Samuel H. WHITE, secretary; and George E. HATCH, treasurer.

The land being bought, work was begun on the hotel in the fall of 1870. A wagon bridge, half a mile and eleven rods long, runs across the mouth of the South Cove, and connects the New Saybrook property with Saybrook Point. The Connecticut Valley Railroad also bridged the cove, and has a depot on the premises of the company. The number of cottages has been gradually increasing till now there are eighteen.


In the selection of a site for the hotel the committee representing the New Saybrook Company exhibited a thorough knowledge of the topography of the country as well as a just appreciation of the beautiful and extended views obtainable from this point of observation. In a southerly direction, about eight miles distant, may be seen the shores of Long Island Sound, beyond which and overlooking the same, a view of Shelter Island is clearly discernable. Plum Island lies in a southeasterly direction, distant about nine miles. Fisher's Island is seen some 20 miles to the eastward, and on the west about 22 miles distant, is Faulkner's Island. On the opposite side of the river is the little village of Lyme, the tall spires of the churches rising above the surrounding hills, and the landscape dotted here and there with the little farm houses and more pretentious village mansions, the whole presenting a very picturesque appearance. From the north and west stretches for a long distance a level tract of country, broken by little coves and inlets, while small streams winding through in a serpentine course gradually find their way to the sea. Beyond this, forming a beautiful frame to the picture, rise the distant hills, and the eye is drawn from one object to another, affording great play for the imagination. Added to all this is the healthfulness of the locality. The pure sea breezes wafted from the southward and eastward across this vast expanse of ocean are tempered by the mild winds that come floating down from the northern hills and valleys, equally invigorating and refreshing to the invalid or the pleasure seeker. The highest temperature ever reached at this point was on Wednesday, September 5th 1884, when the thermometer registered 84 degrees, while at different points along the coast and in the interior it rose to 90, and in some places to over 100 degrees, the same day. The highest point ever reached previous to this was 82 degrees, the average temperature during the summer season being from 70 to 80.

The plans for Fenwick Hall were drawn by S. W. LINCOLN, a Hartford Architect, who evinced a thorough knowledge of the wants and comforts of sea side guests. On every floor, extending the entire length of the building, is a hall twelve feet wide, on the south side of which is the grand saloon, 45 by 31 feet, besides drawing rooms and parlors on the same floor. On the north and east side of the building, looking out upon the sea is the dining room, 44 by 80 feet. The sleeping rooms are all large and well ventilated, and arranged in suites of two, three, four, and six rooms connecting, provided especially for the accommodation of families. By the pecular architectural construction of the building, a cool sea breeze is in nearly every room in the house. The ascent to the rooms is by a broad open staircase, of such easy tread that the invalid finds no difficulty in ascending to any height. Many of the rooms are provided with stationary wash stands with an abundant supply of water. A broad verandah extends along the entire length of the east, south, and west sides of the building, 454 feet long and 16 feet wide.

Abundant opportunities for recreation and amusement are afforded by the surroundings. A sail on the open sea, a row round the coves and through the inlets, fishing, with pole, net or running line, still water r surf bathing, afford the guests a choice of amusements on the water, while the beautiful level tracts of land and smooth lawns afford an opportunity for croquet, tennis, and games of a like nature.

The drives are pleasant and delightful, and the several places of historic interest in the neighborhood afford pleasant pastime and study for the tourist and antiquarian. A visit to the tomb of Lady FENWICK or Lady Alice BOTELER, as she was called, who left her home of luxury and refinement with her husband, to found a new colony in a land then inhabited only by savages and wild beasts, will well repay the traveler. A short drive in a westerly direction towards Westbrook, brings one to Obed's Hammock, where the rude savage offered sacrifices and oblations to his god. A drive along the banks of the Connecticut River, about four miles north, brings one to the little village of Essex, formerly called Potapaug, where the British, in the war of 1812, by order of Commodore HARDY burned all the shipping. Canes from one of the hold hulks are still supplied to curiosity seekers by persons living in the locality.

About five miles further north is the thriving village of Chester, formerly called Pattaconk, meaning "sweating place," or "round hill," a beautiful promontory, covered with a thick growth of pines. Here the "medicine man" brought his patients and placed them in a heated enclosure until the fever disappeared. Several excavations on the top of this hill show where the eager seekers after the buried treasurers f Captain KIDD where wont to spend days and weeks in their fruitless efforts to acquire sudden wealth.

Other places of interest may be found in almost every direction.

The hotel was completed in 1871, the whole week having been done under the supervision of Mr. A. M. HURLBURT, of Hartford, who was president of The New Saybrook Company at the time. In addition to the hotel and other improvements, a bridge was constructed, 2,900 feet long by 22 feet wide, connecting Saybrook Point with Light House Point.

The hotel was opened for the reception of guests in the summer of 1871, by Mr. D. A. ROOD, of the United States Hotel, Hartford. It subsequently passed into the hands of other parties, who for want of experience or other causes-mainly, however, because they catered for local patronage-failed to make it a success.

In June 1884, Mr. John CHATFIELD, of New York city, a gentleman of large experience, who was formerly connected with the Manhanset House at Shelter Island, and the Manhattan Beach Hotel at Coney Island, obtained a five years; lease of the place, and at once commenced to renovate and improve everything connected with the premises. He established an extensive livery for the accommodation of his guests, and made every conceivable arrangement for the comfort and pleasure of his guests. Considering the superiority of the cuisine, which is fully equal to most of the first-class hotels in other large cities, his prices are extremely moderate, and while the results for the season of 1884 were considered satisfactory, under the circumstances, it is expected that another season, when this favorite place of resort becomes better known, there will be a large increase of business.

The accompanying engraving presents a southeastern view of the hotel.

In the engraving below is shown a view of the old fort as it appeared before its removal. Beyond this is a view of the light house, showing the hotel a few rods to the northwest. A faint view, showing the location of Lady FENWICK's tomb before its removal, is also shown in the engraving. A separate view of Lady FENWICK's tomb is shown as it appeared in 1870.

The means of communication are excellent. The Connecticut Valley Railroad and the Shore Line Railroad connect in every direction running north, south, east, and west, while the Hartford and New York Steamboat Company offer superior accommodations to the sail on Long Island Sound. Steamers also play between Hartford, Greenport, and Sag Harbor, connecting with the numerous places of resort on Long Island Sound.


Being a seaport town, Saybrook had more than its share of the alarms and dangers of the Revolutionary war. Samuel TULLY kept a diary, and from it are taken the following extracts: "Sabbath July 9th 1775 Were alarmed in time of Service by firing of cannon from a ship in ye Sound, which took several vessels. A schooner upon the bar was seized, but was released as also several vessels."

"Sabbath Aug. 6th Were alarmed by an express from New London informing that 10 or 12 ships were standing in for that harbor."

"April 9th 1776, "General WASHINGTON passed through Town."

"July 7th 1776, Troops this day under command of Major HART Mc'h'd for New York."

"August 11th, Capt E. Chapman with part of a Company embarked for New York."

"August 24th, Express from New London bro't news of some British vessels being come into the sound."

"August 28th, The soldiers stationed at the fort arrived in Town to-day."

"September 3d, People flocking from Long Island continually."

"September 14th, Several companies of militia are new in town from the Eastward, on their way to N. Y."

"Sunday 22d, Three or four companies of Continental troops marched through here on their way to N. Y."

"October 4th, Worked on ye Fort."

"October 8th, Worked on Fort to-day, Col. FANNING & Major CONKLING were bro't from Long Island prisoners."

"22d, Col. RICHMOND'S Reg't from Long Island arrived here in whale boats."

"26th, The last of the Continental troops left this town on their way to New Haven."

"December 5th, About 100 ships of the enemy in ye sound to-day. Militia order to New London."

"6th, This day about 11 marched with the Company to New London, and arrived in the evening. Dismissed next day-ships gone." At that time they boiled sea water to obtain salt, and also established saltpeter works,

"July 28th 1777, A Brigade of Continental troops passed going East."

"August 30th, 57 or 8 sails of Ships passed the river, supposed of the enemy's."

"1779, February 11th, Continental troops passed through the town to-day."

July 9th, Militia from Haddam & Chester ordered in here. New of the burning of Fairfield was received."

'10th. Gen GLOVER's Brigade in town to-night."

"August 9th 1779.-Hindered A. M. two men having been killed last night at Waterside, breaking into a house. P. M. Attended funeral."

As he was a justice, he probably held an inquest. The circumstances were these: William TULLY, who in 1800 was colonel of the Seventh regiment State Militia, in the division of which William HART was major general, was at that time 20 years of age, and was one of the garrison at the fort. He was born and lived in a house that stands on the north side of Saybrook Point, close to the water, with a wharf, now gone to decay, in the rear, which was built either by Col. TULLY or his father, and known as TULLY's wharf. The house is now owned by John GRUMLEY, having been previously occupied for several years by Capt. John Chauncey WHITTLESEY. A boat loaded of contraband goods, which some tories from up the river were endeavoring to run out of the river for the purpose of trading with the British, had been captured and stored in a chamber of this house, and young TULLY was detached to watch them. On the night of Sunday, August 8th 1779, a boat with eight tories, from Middletown, some of whom owned the goods, landed near the house, and demanded the goods, which TULLY refused to give up, where upon they threatened to break in the door. He warned them not to do so, but they forced the door and rushed in, whereupon he fired his musket upon them. The ball passed entirely through the first man, and lodged in the body of the man behind him, who fell dead on the spot. TULLY charged upon them, and wounded one with his bayonet, and then escaping from a window he alarmed the garrison at the fort, when the tories retreated carrying the wounded man with them. The first man who was shot, went into the room where the goods were stored, took hold of the window sash with one hand, and a package of tea with the other, when he fell dead, leaving the print of his bloody fingers on both. Tradition says that in 1801, when Col. TULLY was a member of the Legislature, he roomed at the tavern with a man who proved to be the one whom he had wounded with the bayonet, and they were friends ever after. On one occasion Mr. Charles WILLIAMS, of the Point, who happened to be awake at night, heard the grating of the keel of a boat on the beach and seizing the bar of the door, he rushed into the street scantily clothed, shouting: "Turn out, Guards! Turn out, guards!" which so frightened the marauders that they made off. He was ever afterwards known by the sobriquet of "Bold Charley." He afterward permitted his son Daniel to go to the defense of Fort Griswold, as substitute for Mr. Asa KIRTLAND, the consideration being a hogshead of cider. The cider was delivered in his cellar in the fall after the death of his son. The epitaph on the tombstone of Daniel is as follows: "Daniel Son of Capt. Charles & Mrs. Temperance WILLIAMS, who fell in the Action on Fort Griswold on Groton hill on the 6th of September 1781 in the 15th year of his age."

S. TULLY's diary continued:

"August 11th 1779.-Ship Trumbull went over the bar."

"January 3d 1780.-A most terrible storm of snow, with the hardest gale of wind ever known here, and highest tide. Water was a foot deep on the causeway opposite the windmill.

"January 21st.-A sleigh drawn by two horses, and 4 persons therein crossed in the ice at the Ferry, and came down and landed between TULLY's and DICKINSON's wharves."

"January 23d.-Mr. LYNDE tells me there is no water visible in the Sound this morning, it being frozen."

"27th.-It is reported that a dog was seen to cross the Sound on the ice a few days ago."

"31st.-Scarely any water to be seen in the Sound. People pass from Groton to Fisher's Island on this ice."

From HINMAN's "Revolutionary War," among extracts from papers, are the following:

"New London Aug. 23, 1776 Last Lord's day, the ship of war owned by the State, built at Saybrook, commanded by Capt. Wm. COIT, can out of the river, being the largest vessel that had ever been over Saybrook bar (piloted by James HARRIS).

At the May session of the Assembly, 1776, "Liberty was given by the Legislature, to the inhabitants of Saybrook to build a battery at the place where the fold fort stood in said town, so that it should be well constructed, to contain six carriage guns for the defence of the town and harbor; and to encourage them in so doing, 20 men (then stationed at New London) were sent to aid the inhabitants to build said fort, and to guard the same to long as the Governor and Council of Safety should think proper. And the said fort was directed to be furnished with three good carriage guns, in addition to those before there, and all mounted on proper carriages, and furnished with powder and ball, and all other necessary implements for the fort and guns, as soon as might be, at the expense of the colony."

"Samuel LORD and William SHIPMAN of Saybrook, had manufactured a quantity of saltpeter for the use of Colony, which had been destroyed by fire; for which loss the Assembly allowed them £60."

The Eighth company of the Fourth Battalion, of which Samuel SELDEN was colonel, was from Saybrook, and was officered as follows: Captain, Elisha CHAPMAN; 1st lieutenant, John HART; 2d lieutenant, Job WRIGHT; ensign, Nathaniel JONES jr. At December session, 1776, Martin KIRTLAND was appointed 1st lieutenant of the artillery company stationed at New London, and Lee LAY was appointed lieutenant, to command at Saybrook. At the May session, 1777, John ELY was appointed colonel of a battalion, John SHIPMAN one of the first lieutenants, and Richard and Joseph CHAPMAN second lieutenants. In January 1778, the Legislature directed that, "One company of 20 men, including one sergeant, 1 corporal, under a Lieutenant, should be stationed at Saybrook." July 3d 1776, Martin KIRTLAND was appointed captain of a company at New London, in the room of Captain ELY; Daniel PLATTS, 1st lieutenant; Adriel ELY, 2d lieutenant; Daniel Kirtland, ensign. [This apparently conflicts with his appointment as lieutenant of artillery, at a later date. Both were taken from proceedings of Legislature. HIMNAN, pp. 259, 365.] July 31st 1776, Azariah WHITTELSEY, of Saybrook, was appointed master of the colony ship, under Captain COIT. April 3d 1777, John SHIPMAN was appointed lieutenant and commandant of the fort at Saybrook, in place of Lee LAY, resigned.

"July 7th 1777. A letter was sent to Capt. COCKRAN at Saybrook to purchase flour and meat in the best manner be could, and to apply to the pay table for moneys." Marcy 28th 1778, John SHIPMAN jr. was appointed Lieutenant of the company of 24 men, ordered, raised, and stationed at Saybrook, by the General Assembly for 1778. The following letter was written in 1841, by Joseph HILL, of Essex, to Mr. HINMAN:

"In answer to your inquiries, according to the best information I have been able to obtain, the enemy during the revolutionary war, did not land in Saybrook to do much damage; they drove several small vessels ashore, and some were set on fire. They landed on Duck Island which is opposite Westbrook, and burnt the buildings; I believe it was in 1781. A court consisting of about 20, commanded by a lieutenant, was kept in Saybrook fort; at night one of the whale boats was sent out of the mouth of the river to reconnoiter, and did not return until they could see by daylight, that the coast was clear. The first company, which was enlisted in the spring of 1775, and soon after marched to near Boston, was commanded by John ELY, captain; Abraham WATERHOUSE, 1st lieutenant; Elisha LEE of Lyme, 2d lieutenant; Dan. PLATTS, ensign. Some of the company belonged in Lyme. The uniform of said company was, hats bound with yellow; many of them used white tow cloth, colored with peach tree bark. In the fore part of the summer, another company was raised in Saybrook, and marched for the camp near Boston. I believe said company was commanded by Capt. Martin KIRTLAND.

"During the whole of the war (a large number from said town were in the service) the uniform of the company was a red knott on one shoulder. The following persons were taken in the armed ship Blaze Castle, and carried to Halifax: Aaron PLATTS, William CARTER, Abisha CHAPMAN, Abner STANNARD Jr, Josiah WOLCOTT, Jeremiah LAY, Daniel JONES, and John STANNARD jr,--all died but D. JONES and J. STANNARD Jr, and all were from Saybrook. Those killed at Groton fort belonging to Saybrook, were John WHITTLESEY, Stephen WHITTLESEY, William COMSTOCK, Daniel WILLIAMS, Jonathan BUTLER, and several wounded. It is well known that the American Turtle was invented and built in Saybrook by David BUSHNELL Esq. He died at an advanced age, in the State of Georgia, a few years since, after acquiring a handsome property, which was brought on by his friend and delivered to the children of his deceased brother Ezra, together with some curious machinery, partly built, which had been viewed by several gentlemen, none of whom I believe, have been able to determine what it would have been if it had been completed."

On the 8th of January 1778, Samuel SHIPMAN, of Saybrook, agent for said town, stated to the General Assembly that since the commencement of the war with England to December 31st 1777, they had kept, by order of the town authority, at the harbor, and on the sea coast, in said town, a guard for their protection, at the cost (computing six shillings per day for each man, including provisions, ammunition, etc.) of £246:11:10 lawful money, which sum was allowed and voted by said town to be paid; and stated that said guards were kept for the security of the State at large, as well as the town, and that said expense should be paid by the State, and prayed the Assembly to allow and pay the same; which petition was negatived. [HINMAN] Among the soldiers who went from Saybrook were Captain Benoni SHIPMAN, who was present at the execution of André, having command of the guard at the scaffold; Samuel CLARK, James CLARK, Elias TULLY, and William LORD, were among those who were in camp at Roxbury in the early part of the war; Elias TULLY, who was an intimate friend of David afterward assisted him in navigating his torpedo, which with his other services procured him a pension. He died in 1848, aged 96. Samuel CLARK, grandfather of William J. CLARK, was lost at sea after the war.


During the war of 1812, the people of Saybrook were alarmed and disturbed by the enemy even more than they had been during the Revolution. The following extracts are from the diary of Samuel TULLY which was kept during this war as well as during the Revolution:

"May 28th 1813.-The frigates Macedonian, United States, and Hornet, com. DECATUR, are now lying off the river's mouth bound on a cruise."

"June 9th.-Several sloops driven ashore near the lighthouse. Two of them were set on fire by three barges sent from the British ships near New London. One sloop was taken by them in the river. The fire was quenched by our people, but not without great damage to the sloops. Three of the barge men were killed by our men."

It has often been related by those who participated in this affair, how the farmers left their work, crossed the cove in boats, armed with their muskets, and without any officers, lay behind the beach, west of the light house, and drove the British from the vessels they had captured by the fire of musketry alone.

These barges each carried a small cannon mounted on the bow, with which they tried to drive our men off the beach, but were not successful. One ball fell into the pond, and another on the land near the farm house. This last was picked up by the tenant on the farm, who found that it weighed just six pounds. There were no casualties on our side.

"June 10th.-The barges stood into the river, and again set fire to one of the vessels quenched yesterday, but the fire was again put out. There were five barges. Two or three of them afterward landed on Griswold's point."

"June 12th.-A Company of artillery arrived from Lyme with a field piece, and went to the Fort."

"June 29th.-Five barges with more than 100 men came into the river after vessels, and fired two cannon shot which passed over the fort, and did no damage. About 100 assembled to oppose them, and firing from the fort, they soon moved off."

"July 5th.-Sic British barges filled with men came into the river at soon as five o'clock. The militia and people mustered and went to the Point and the Neck. The boats landed on the beach and took in some ballast and steered for Long Island.

"July 12th.-Boys ordered to New London, Marched only to the ferry."

"July 15th.-Four or five barges appeared back of the Neck. Two ships went up sound and anchored off Killingworth."

"18th. Boys marched with their company to New London."

"July 22d. A number of vessels were taken by British boats, one near WILCOX's loaded with flour was set on fire, but the fire was quenched."

"July 31st. Four British boats west of the river, took one or two vessels."

"April 8th 1814. Fast day. Last night about midnight six barges or boats from a British ship and brig, came up the river and went to Potapoug Point and burnt about twenty-five vessels, consisting of ships, brigs, &c., as well those on the water as those on the stock,--and returned on board, and it is believed altogether unhurt."

When the British came in the night before, they landed at the light house, but found no one there, as the light was not kept burning during the war. They also landed at the fort, there being no guard there, and cut the flag staff. During the day, while the vessels were burning at Essex, the world surrounding country was alarmed, and the militia poured in from all quarters. The artillery company mounted their guns upon the fort which was garrisoned by 200 or 300 men, and waited the return of the enemy. At Ferry Point a temporary earthwork was thrown up, and a cannon mounted. Troops from New London were at Lyme. Capt. Samuel DICKINSON, of the Point, was on the fort that day, and just before he left home he told his oldest son, Samuel B., a boy of 14, to take his mother and the other children to their grandfather's at Oyster River, in the wagon. This did not suit him at all, so after his father had gone, he got his ducking gun and set off for the fort. As soon as his father saw him, he took his gun from him, and drove him off the fort with many sever blows with a stick, for his disobedience of orders. Thus are the fires of patriotism rudely quenched. About 9 o'clock the British came down the river, being saluted along by a fire us musketry and cannon, apparently without effect. The night was intensely dark, which was favorable for the enemy, as they were not discovered till they were opposite the fort, so that there were but few shots fired. Had it been ebb tide instead of flood, they might have escaped unhurt; as it was, several were killed, but how many was never certainly known. It is reported that after the war, 12 or 15 graves were shown, at Plumb Island, as those of the British killed in this affair. One of the guns on the fort was served by Samuel M. TULLY, one of the gunners of the artillery company. The men who belonged in town went home before midnight, much chagrined at the escape of the enemy. Mrs. George H. CHAPMAN and her sister, afterward Mrs. S. Selden WARNER, of Hadlyme, went to the Point, to the house of their sister, Mrs. Asa KIRTLAND, who lived in pat of the same house, now known as the CHAPIN house, spent the day in cooking and feeding the hungry militia from out of town, who came in haste, and without provisions. The next day, Mr. Samuel KIRTLAND found a bearskin cap on the flats, that from its appearance had been knocked from the head of a British soldier by a ball. The cockade was in existence a few years since.

"April 28th 1814, A British barge took a small sloop, lying near the shore, a little below the fort, and the wind being favorable, took her immediately off."

"May 9th, A Sloop back of the Neck taken this P. M."

"Sabbath, May 22d, 1814, Last night at 8 o'clock we were alarmed by three British barges at the mouth of the river, who were supposed to aim at the destruction of the vessels at the Point 20 or 30 in number, but they missed their aim, being discovered."

"24th, A fleet of 13 gunboats anchored off the mouth of the river, and at about 4 o'clock they weighed anchor, conveying 32 coasting vessels to the eastward, when a severe cannonading ensured lasting from 5:30 P. M. till 9, between said boats and the British vessels." 27th "Gunboats returned up sound. A number of ships and other armed vessels followed them, but all escaped,--they then returned and anchored back of the Neck and off the river's mouth."

"Sabbath 29th.-Ships lying in same position as yesterday. People greatly alarmed this evening by ships and boats."

"June 2d.-About 11 A. M. two ships and a brig joined those lying off the river's mouth, with a schooner and 8 sloops, but did not anchor,---the whole soon moved off and disappeared."

"July 9th 1814.-The English in two or three barges took a vessel out of Pochaug, and put a midshipman and two other men on board to take her down to their Station, but the wind being very light, STANNARD one of the owners of the vessel went to the fort, when about 12 men in two boats, of the State troops stationed there, pursued the vessel and very fortunately retook her, with the said three men on board, and brought her into the river, without the loss of a man on either side."

"August 12th.-Many cannon fired this morning, at Newport I think,--but it proved to be Stonington which the English battered severely, burning several houses &c."

"Sabbath September 11th.,--People alarmed this morning by a ship and brig with six or eight boats full of men seeming to be preparing to land on the back of the neck, but went off without doing anything, two or three hundred men being assembled on the shore."

On this occasion the men formed behind a round hillock, a little west of where the road to FENWICK touches the shore at WILLARD's Bay. During all these troubles, no American belonging to Saybrook was killed, except Mr. Charles DOLPH, who, with others, went off in a boat from the Point to retake a sloop that had been captured by a boat from the privateer Boxer, of Lisbon. Lieut. Cyphenas COWLES, of the privateer, was killed, and five of the crew were captured.

"February 30th.-Last Monday January 30th had news of peace between Britain and the United States."

"March 8th.-Firing cannon on acc't of peace."


Old Saybrook, in common with other towns, bore its part in the burdens and losses of the Civil war of 1861-5. Under the first call for troops for three months, no volunteers were credited to Old Saybrook, but several who had been residents of the town and were then living in other places, were among those that went. The first action taken by the town in regard to enlistments, was a special meeting held July 24th 1862, when it was voted to pay a bounty of $75 to all who should enlist for three years or during the war. At another meeting, held August 22d 1862, a bounty of $100 was offered for volunteers to fill the call for nine months' men. At a third meeting, December 8th 1864, it was voted to pay any person who, since September 19th 1864, had or thereafter should furnish a substitute to be credited to the town, $300. Several meetings of citizens, not town meetings, were held to discuss the matter of filling the quota of the town. Several men who belonged to the town of Old Saybrook were lost by being credited to Saybrook. At one of the these meetings, December 4th 1864, a recruiting agent was appointed, and at the next meeting, a week later, it was reported that about $700 had been raised, and that there was a prospect of getting the men. The last meeting of the citizens was December 40th, and it was then reported that the quota of the town had been filled without expense to them, by enlistments of colored troops, who were credited to the town, by Colonel ALMY, the agent of Connecticut, in New York. Mr. G. F. WARD, of this town, who was in business in New York, at the time, in 1862, sent a check for $500 to John ALLEN, of Saybrook, to be divided among then men who should enlist to fill the quota of this town under a recent call for three years' men. Under the next call, for 300,000 nine months' men, Mr. John ALLEN paid on the 13th of September, from his own pocket, a bounty of $50 each to seven men enlisting from the town of Old Saybrook.


The first minister who preached the gospel to the people of Saybrook Point, was Rev. John HIGGINSON. He came with his father, Rev. Francis HIGGINSON, from Leicester, in England, in 1629, to Salem, Massachusetts, where his father settled. He probably came to Saybrook with Mr. WINTHROP, in the fall of 1635, or perhaps the spring of 1636. In GARDINER's narrative, it is said that he was there n the spring of 1637. During his stay at Saybrook, it is probable that services were held in the "great hall" of the fort. There is no record of the building of the first church, which was probably a primitive and barn-like structure. In 1643, he removed from Saybrook.

Cotton MATHER said of Mr. HIGGINSON:

"This reverend person has been always valued for his useful preaching and his holy living; besides his constant labors in the pulpit, whereby his own flock has been edified, the whole country has by the press enjoyed some of his composures, and by his hand the composures of others also, passing through the press, have been accompanied.

He wrote the Attestation to the Magnalia, and among other compositions which he published was a volume of sermons dedicated to the people of Saybrook, Guilford, and Salem, to whom he had ministered at different periods.

Hr. HIGGINSON was succeeded the same year (1643) by Rev. Thomas PETERS, brother of the celebrated Hugh PETERS, who was once the minister of Salem, Massachusetts, and who was executed by Charles II., in 1660. Mr. Peters was an ejected puritan clergyman from Cornwall, England, and carried on the work of the ministry at Saybrook till 1645, when he went to Pequot with Governor WINTHROP, and assisted in founding New London.

Mr. Peters was succeeded in 1646 by Rev. James FITCH, who came over from England at the age of 16, in company with 13 other young men, who were designed for the ministry. He spent seven years in Hartford in theological studies under Messrs. HOOKER and STONE, and this is all that is known of him previous to his ordination in Saybrook, in 1646. He was born at Boking in the county of Essex, England, December 24th 1622. At his ordination Mr. HOOKER was present, but the imposition of hands was by two of the brethren appointed by the church to that office. Mr. HOOKER had himself been ordained in the same manner at Cambridge. This was a Congregational ordination in the strictest sense of the term. Unfortunately all church records prior to 1741 are lost, and consequently the knowledge of these early pastors is very meager. It is probable that the first church was built about this time. It stood on a sandy knoll, about a quarter of a mile northwest of the fort, and near the eastern center of the Point. It was north of the middle road, now called Church street, and stood near where Mrs. Mary BURGER's barn now stands. After a ministry of 14 years he removed with the major part of his church to Norwich. Rev. Dr. LEE, of Lisbon, in his half century sermon, says, that "he hesitated till a majority of his church removed-he then thought it his duty to comply." Miss CALKINS, in her history of Norwich, says: "When a part of Mr. FITCH's church decided, in 1660, to remove to Norwich, it was a subject of some contention between the two parties whether he should go or remain. He was greatly beloved by all and each side claimed him. After solemn prayer, and long deliberation, Mr. FITCH decided that it was his duty to keep with the majority, and so he went to Norwich."

As a pastor Mr. FITCH was zealous and indefatigable. In addition to other labors, he trained several young men for the ministry, as he himself had been trained by Mr. HOOKER. In May 1656, while he was living at Saybrook, the General Court granted him "a competent farme conteining bet: 2 & 300 Acres at Mununketeseck."

Rev. Thomas BUCKINGHAM, the next regularly ordained pastor, was the youngest child of Thomas and Hannah BUCKINGHAM, of Milford, and was probably born in the early part of 1646. His mother died, according to the church records, June 28th 1646, and he was baptized November 28th the same year. Where he was educated is not certainly known. He began to preach in Saybrook, a little before he was 19, quite early in 1665, immediately after the town had settled their difficulties with his predecessor, Rev. Jeremiah PECK, who succeeded Rev. James FITCH. The earliest entries in the first volume of town records are made in 1661. The following entry dates February 18th 1661.-"Journey to Guilford for Mr. PECK." Also, May 5th 1661, "providing for Mr. PECK's supply for the year ensueing." August 20h 1662.-"Granted to Mr. PECK an hundred pound accommodation, both upland and meadow." The records also show that he bought eight acres of land in the town plat, and built a house thereon, and certain privileges were granted to him, on condition of his remaining five years. It appears that soon after this arrangement, a difficulty arose between him and the town, which finally resulted in his resignation. In "Styles' Itinerary," consisting of three manuscript volumes in the archives of Yale College, is the following entry: January 30th 1665.-"Controversy with Mr. PECK settled. The town confirm and give him full possession of his accommodation." And immediately after: "Agreement to Mr. Thomas BUCKINGHAM, February 14, 1665. Settlement by Mr. PECK's house, estimated £95 sterling, and give him £60 of it; said BUCKINGHAM pay £35. Salary £60 per annum in provisions; confirmed by the town, 5th of March, 1665; and at same meeting, Lyme separated, having competency of land for 30 families." According to the first volume of town acts of Saybrook, Mr. BUCKINGHAM was not ordained and installed pastor of the church, until the spring or summer of 1670, a little over five years from the time he commenced the regular supply of the pulpit, There were probably two reasons for this: his youth, and the difficulties encountered with Mr. PECK, which led them to give the candidate for settlement a thorough trial.

By an entry in the Oyster river Quarter records, March 20th 1666-7. "The committee grants to Mr. THOMAS BUCKINGHAM the homake that lyeth at the mouth of Oyster River." At town meeting, March 16th 1670, "it was voted that every hundred pound estate shall yearly carry to Mr. BUCKINGHAM, a load of good wood."

In the old cemetery on Saybrook Point, a few rods from the site of the college in which he took such an interest, is a small crumbling slab of slate, which bears this inscription:


"Feb. 7, 1675, At a town meeting it was agreed with Mr. Robert NICHOLLS for the sweeping the meeting house for the year ensueing, for which the town are to give him six and twenty shillings for his paines."

It was during the pastorate of Mr. BUCKINGHAM, that the second church building was erected. The town had it in contemplation for several years, as will be seen by extracts from the records. In January 1676, it was voted that the meeting house should be built of stone "& shall bee 50 and 30 feet within the walls."

"Att the same meeting it was voted that the place of the meeting house shall be in some place convenient between the fortification of the Neck gate, and the point by Mr. BUCKINGHAM's Lott."

"It is also voted that the schoohouse be removed to the corner of Widow TOUSLAND's Lott in the Lane going to Mr. BUCKINGHAM's' which votes about the meeting house and school house are to stand, notwithstanding all former votes to the contrary, & to be a final Issue of those matters."

February 22d 1676, Voted "same time that agreement Dec. 10, 1674, to set meeting house shall stand as act and voat of town, S. E. corner of Bobert BULL's lot in town plat."

January 14th 1677, "Granted to R. CHAPMAN Jr & Samuel PLATT a piece of upland four rod square upon the meeting house hill."

November 7th 1677, "that they as Conueiniant and as speedy as may bee, Build a meeting house according to this model, viz: that they will Build a new Building to the old house, and Repair the old soe much of it as is conduceable to the house, and to that end they doe agree to Raise 50

Estate in the provision at present By Rate toward the encouragement of the workmen."

"At a full Town meeting M'ch 23d 1678 there were agitations & conclusions according to dimentions which were then consisting, a Meeting House, it was then voted that the town would build a house of God, domentions of fifty foot in length, and thirty foot in width, and fourteen foot between joints, and be forthwith prosecuted to effect."

"At the same meeting, Capt CHAPMAN, Lieutenant PRATT, Deacon BUSHNELL, Mr. WASTALL, Wm PARKER Senior, Wm LORD, Senior, and Sergt. John PRATT" were chosen a "Committee" "to consider the capacity of the Town to make payment for the erecting of the new meeting house &c."

January 17th 1679, "At a Town Meeting some considerations about the form of a Meeting House, unanimously agreed upon and voted, that they will have it to be sixty foot in length, and Thirty foot in breadth, & sixteen foot between joynts."

"Whereas the Town Meeting have again this day, being brought by both duty & necessity, concluded to erect a new meeting house according to dimensions formerly agreed upon as appeareth by a Record dated 23d March, 77-78, and have had some intimation of likelihood of agreeing with Wm. BUSHNELL junior, to build the same, the Town do impower their present Selectmen, viz Jno PARKER, Sargeant John CHAPMAN & Joseph INGHAM, to treat, and if they can to sign with the s'd Wm Bushnell upon Reasonable terms, or if not with him, then they have hereby power to look out for some other workman to carry on the work, and to agree with him or them for price & pay, and the Town do ingage to Ratifie & Confirm what they shall do or cause to be done, always provided, that in case of difficulty they do take advice of such as may be skillful in such cases, and the Town do impower the s'd Townsmen to agree with, and to call forth such men as shall be meet to help in providing any stuff for shingles or clapboards, or what else may be needed for promoting the work unto the shingling of ye s'd house as far and as fast as they can."

September 29th 1679.-"At a Town Meeting orderly, warned with respect to the settlement of the place of the New Meeting House, when it should be set down, it was then determined that it should stand near about the place of the old meeting house; this determination was by written papers."

January 12th 1680.-"At a Town Meeting orderly called, it was voted and agreed, that the Selectmen then in being, to wit, John WHITTELSEY, John POST & Samuel COGSWELL, shall have full power to hasten and perfect the work of ye meeting house in the behalf of the town so far as they are able in the year ensuing. At the same town meeting it was voted and agreed, that the new meeting house should be seated in the same manner as the ould Meeting house was, and that the old seats, that is the timber of them shall be improved about the seating of the new meeting house as far as they will go."

January 20th 1680.-"At a Town Meeting legally warned, it was discoursed and voted, agreed and concluded upon the way of raising the new meeting house: 1: that the Townsmen shall give notice unto the Town in general that it is desired that they would contribute their help towards raising the said house, upon the day when they with the Carpenters shall appoint: 2: that notice shall be given the Inhabitants in generall that the provision for the day shall depend upon the voluntary contribution of the people, hoping that everyone will be ready according to their capacity to bring in for the promoting the comfort & honor of so good work: 3: that the Townsmen shall at the Town's charge provide Cake & Sider upon the Town account so much as is needful for the day and the rest of the Town; 4: that after the first day, the Townsmen shall provide what hands the carpenter shall say needful for the carrying on of the remainder of the work, and they to be allowed suitable wages for their work; this was the Town Act."

June 24th 1680.-"Att a Town meeting, it was voted and agreed as it is discoursed with the carpenter that built the meeting house, and the town understanding from him that the s'd carpenter has been a loser by his bargain, the town hath agreed that the carpenter shall have payed to him by the town to the amount just done to what the said house is worth, that is to say the frame of the said house."

December 27th 1680.-"It was voted and agreed that the Townsmen in present being should go on to perfect the work of the meeting house in the behalf of the town according as the selectmen shall see need. At the same town meeting, Mr. John TULLY was chosen Town Clerk."

1681.-"It was agreed and voted that there shall be a contribution set up, when the church doth see meet."

December 29th 1681.-"With the consent of the Town, the Townsmen have agreed with old Goodman KIRTLAND for the sweeping the meeting house for the year ensueing for thirty shillings, and also with Mr. John WASTALL for being of the drum upon Sabbath days & town meeting days for the year ensuing for thirty shillings. The Townsmen have also granted Goodman KIRTLAND forty shillings to be paid by the Town for his keeping school for the year ensuing."

The sixth minister, and third ordained pastor of the church in Saybrook was Rev. Azariah MATHER, a descendant of the family so celebrated in New England for its many distinguished clergymen. He was a son of Rev. Samuel MATHER, of Windsor, Connecticut, third minister of the first Congregational church in that town, and Hannah TREAT, his wife, daughter of Ho. Robert TREAT, of Milford, Connecticut, afterward governor of the Colony of Connecticut. Azariah was born August 29th 1685. He was ordained in Saybrook in 1710. Tradition says that in his case, as in that of Mr. BUCKINGHAM and Mr. FITCH, the elders insisted on their right to impose hands with the ministry, and they were permitted accordingly. He had been a tutor in the college at Saybrook, and was distinguished for his knowledge of the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin Languages. He was an able, eloquent, and commanding divine. [Church record] a sermon in Latin, published by him on being baptized for the dead, and based on 1st Cor. XV, 29, remains a testimony of his talents. He was dismissed in 1732. The number of members in his church at that time was 48; males, 15, females, 33. From the town records it is learned that Mr. MATHER bought of the heirs of Rev. Thomas BUCKINGHAM, his house and land, September 23d 1710.

His remains lie in the burying ground on Saybrook Point, not far from the grave of Rev. THOMAS BUCKINGHAM, and his tombstone, like that of Mr. BUCKINGHAM-a slab of slate, is fast crumbling to pieces. The inscription is as follows:

"He many weeks felt Death's attacks
But fervent prayers kept him Back
His faith & patience 'twas to try
& Learn us how to Live & Die
Having the wings of faith & Love
&Feathers of an holy Dove
he bids this wretched world adieu
& swiftly up to Heaven flew
Disturb not then his Precious Dust
With censors that are most unjust."

The "censors" are said to refer to a habit which impaired his usefulness during the latter part of his ministry-something not unusual among the ministry of that day-an over indulgence in wine-which unfortunately has been perpetuated on his tombstone. Rev. Jared HARRISON, first minister at Chester, had a similar failing, which undoubtedly caused his dismissal from his pastorate.

Who ministered to the people between the dismissal of Mr. MATHER in 1732, and the ordination of his successor, Rev. William HART, does not appear from the church records. Mr. HART, who was the son of Rev. John HART, of East Guilford, now Madison, was the progenitor of the present family of HARTS in Saybrook. He was ordained November 17th 1736. He was man of distinguished talents, and was considered an able counselor. He was much respected by the ministry, and esteemed and beloved by a united people. He was a distinguished controversialist in his day, and published several tracts against the doctrines of President EDWARDS, and Drs. HOPKINS, BELLAMY, and WHITTAKER. In one of these tracts he styled the peculiar sentiments of Dr. HOPKINS, "Hopkinsianism," which gave rise to that term, afterward so common. He also distinguished himself by his writings on the church controversy in Wallingford, by his sermon on regeneration at New Haven, and by his treatise on qualifications for a Christian communicant. He was opposed to the practices of certain evangelists who went about the country preaching wherever they could get an audience, and reviling the settled clergymen. One of the foremost of these was Rev. James DAVENPORT, of Southold, L. I. On one occasion in 1741, as related by Rev. Charles Chauncey, in "Thing of a Bad and Dangerous Tendency," Mr. DAVENPORT called on Mr. HART, and asked permission to preach in his pulpit that day, which Mr. HART declined to grant, unless he would retract some of his errors, such as denouncing the settled ministry of the people, and urging them to set up separate meetings, or go to other churches where the ministers were converted, which he refused to do.

          "To the Truth of all which, we Whose Names are underwritten do testify; having been Eye and Ear Witnesses to the above Conference.
                    "Samuel LYNDE,
                    "Wm. WORTHINGTON,
                    "Abraham NOT,
                    "George BECKWITH,
                    "William HART, and others."

On one occasion some men were disputing over a supposed case, that of the alighting of a flock of wild geese in a small pond on the Neck or LYNDE's Point that afterward fell to the HART family. The question was, whether it would be right to shoot at them on the Sabbath, the only house within hearing distance being the one on the farm, the supposed hunter being the tenant. One argued that it would be a breach of Sabbath; the other that a supply of good food could be obtained without disturbing any one, and that the temptation would be too great to be resisted. It was finally agreed to leave it to Mr. Hart, and both sides of the case were stated to him, but the only reply obtained, was, "If old MUNN was there, he would do it!" The answer was probably sufficient, as old MUNN was rather a lawless character.

For many years the worshippers in the old meeting house were seated by a committee. Their duty, which was a delicate one, was to seat the people according to their rank and circumstances, and it was not unusual for some of them to be dissatisfied with the award. On one occasion a dissatisfied parishioner complained somewhat bitterly to one of the seating committee, when he was told that the seat was as good as he deserved. "If you were seated where you deserve to be," was the retort, "You would be no nearer the house of God, than the town pound!" The seating committee drew a plan of the house, and in each pew put down the names of those who were expected to occupy it, and submitted it to an adjourned meeting for their approval. At an adjourned society meeting, held March 7th 1747-8, the committee reported that they had "Drawn up a Plan or Scheam of Seating the meeting house as follows." Then comes the plan. At the bottom they say: "The plan or Scheam that is thus Drawn up is humbly offered to your better Judgment, By us, Daniel BUCKINGHAM, Sam'll KIRTLAND, Hez. WHITTELSEY, Joseph BUCKINGHAM, Nath. JONES."

Mr. HART was prevented from occupying his pulpit for two years before his death by paralysis and a colleague was settled with him. He died, July 11th 1784. Rev. John DEVOTION, in his funeral sermon, says of him:

In council he was Job-'Unto me men gave hear and waited, and kept silence at my command. After my words they spake not again,' and truly there was no need, for ordinarily they cut the Gordian knot. Solid judgment, well-studied discourses, faithful service, and a savoury conversation, with a sound mind, able to comfort souls with that comfort wherewith also he had been comforted of the Lord, enabled him to rule the church without any schism during his long ministry."

Mr. HART married Miss Mary BLAGUE, June 8th 1742, and their children, Mary, Rebecca, William, Samuel, John, Sarah, Joseph, Elisha, and Amelia, were all present at the funeral, except the eldest.

In the same cemetery with Mr. BUCKINGHAM and Mr. MATHER is a large table of brown stone, with a tablet of slate set into it, bearing this inscription:


Anterior to his ministry, two Congregational churches had colonized from the first church, and formed distinct parishes, on account of distance from the sanctuary and increase of population. One of them was established in 1725, and the other in 1726. A fourth was organized in 1742. Before this it was not unusual for even females to walk to the sanctuary from eight to ten miles. In consequence of this repeated colonization the church was much diminished in numbers, amounting only to 48 members. The third meeting house was built in 1726. Instead of being built on the Point, as the others were, it was placed rather more than a mile west, on a small plat of ground at the junction of Main street and the road leading to Oyster River, facing south, where it stood till 1840, when it was taken down. The steeple was added in 1793, the work upon it being finished June 13th, and the bell was added in 1794.

Rev. Frederick William HOTCHKISS was ordained collegiate pastor with Mr. HART, September 23d 1783. He was the son of Mr. John HOTCHKISS, of New Haven, merchant, was born October 30th 1762, and graduated from Yale College, September 1778, was licensed to preach October 1782, and began to preach as candidate in Saybrook in November of the same year. By his own request a colleague was ordained in 1838, in the 56th year of his ministry, and 76th year of his age. He died March 31st 1844.

Mr. S. MCCALL in his centennial sermon, July 30th 1876, says of him:

"Need I refer to the mingled love and veneration with which his memory is regarded, and his name spoken among you still? Old men trusted him, young men hearkened to him, little children ran after him and clung to him. I love to recall a picture sometimes set before me, from the memory of those who witnessed the reality. The venerable man of God is passing up through the main aisle to the pulpit. The pews on either side are full of men and women. The high pulpit stairs are covered with little boys, partly because there is not room for them to sit elsewhere, and party because they choose to get as near as allowable to their aged pastor, and there is a strife among them-not unseemly-to see which shall have the honor of opening the door for his advancing steps, and so gain the special benediction of his gracious smile."

When Mr. HOTCHKISS was ordained, the church had 69 members; when his successor was ordained, there were 330-297 of whom were then residents of the town. An Episcopal church was formed in 1830, and a Methodist church in 1837, notwithstanding which the loss in total membership was small. Besides carrying on a private school, he fitted a considerable number of young men for college, of which he has recorded the names of eight from Saybrook, as follows: Ezekiel Jones CHAPMAN, Dorrance KIRTLAND, Asa CHAPMAN, Charles CLARK, John CLARK, William TULLY, William FISH, and Henry CHALKER, and the names of 22 from other places. During the latter pat of his ministry, the present church building was erected, and the old one was taken down. The new building was dedicated January 1st 1840, the corner stone having been laid on the 4th of July of the previous year. Mr. HOTCHKISS possessed a commanding presence and a sonorous voice, and he was always in demand on public occasions, especially on "training" day. He was for a time chaplain of the regiment to which the Saybrook company belonged, and his prayer could be distinctly heard by every man in the field.

On one occasion, after the formation of the artillery company, there was a strife between the two companies to see which should get Mr. HOTCHKISS to head the dinner table. He, however, settled the matter, by eating a hearty dinner with both companies. It is said of him, that for many years, it was a rare thing for him to eat supper in his own house, that meal being taken with some one of his parishioners. The humblest were visited as regularly as the more influential, and their courser fare was partaken of with apparently as good a relish. It is related of one old lady, that on one occasion when he demurred at the large quantity of molasses she was putting into his tea, she replied: "It wouldn't be too good for you Mr. HOTCHKISS, if it was all molasses." In this way he became acquainted with his people, and obtained an influence over them, which ministers of the present day now but little about. In his "long prayer," on Sundays, among his numerous petitions, he never forgot the shad fishermen, in the fishing season, but prayed earnestly for their success. As this was one of the principal industries of the place, and as his most influential parishioners were concerned in one way or another in fishing, it was eminently proper that he should do so. His "long prayer," as it was called, was, according to the custom of the times, much more lengthy than are the prayers of the clergy at the present day. "How long has he been praying?" whispered one old "salt" to another, as he tip-toed into the porch of the old meeting house one Sunday morning, during Mr. HOTCHKISS' "long prayer." "He was praying when I got here, and I was here before sunrise," was the whispered response. Forty year have elapsed since his death, and the affection with which he was regarded, still lives with those who remember his pastorate.

Rev. Ethan Barrows CRANE was ordained as the colleague of Mr. HOTCHKISS, June 27th 1838. He was born in Troy, N. Y., June 15th 1811, graduated at Union College, July, 1832, and the same fall entered the Theological Seminary at Auburn, where he remained three years and six months,--till the spring of 1836.

He came in the freshness of his early manhood, full of life, ardor, and zeal. He was quick in thought, sympathy, and speech, abundant in labors, which were crowned with gratifying success. He very soon took rank among his ministerial associates as one of the first, and was especially relied on to make a speech when something must be said, and nobody had time to prepare. His conversation excited the admiration of the young-sometimes, possibly, the envy of the old. He suffered not a little in spirit, as well as body, from imperfect health, and was honorably dismissed from his charge in 1851, after thirteen years of service. In that time 118 were added to the church-36 by letter, and 82 by profession." [Mr. MCCALL's centennial sermon.]

Mr. CRANE tendered his resignation to the church, September 1st 1851, and by a council on the 16th the dissolution was effected at the close of the ecclesiastical year, September 27th.

The next minister was the Rev. James BEATTIE, of New Orleans, a native of Scotland. He served the church as stated supply from October 1st 1851 to November 1st 1852. His sound doctrine, his powerful voice, and his clear, deliberate utterances, will long be remembered by those who heard him. He was followed during a portion of 1853 by the Rev. Jesse GUERNSEY, of New Haven, a talented and effective preacher.

On the 7th of December 1853, Rev. Salmon MCCALL was ordained pastor. Mr. MCCALL was born at Lebanon, Conn., March 17th 1826, and graduated from Yale College, July 1851. He resigned on account of ill health in 1871, after a pastorate of 18 years. During his term of service 134 were added to the church by profession and by letter.

The next pastor was Rev. Francis N. ZABRISKIE, D.D., who was installed April 17th 1872. He was born in the city of New York, April 29th 1832, graduated at the University of the City of New York, and at the Theological Seminary of the Reformed Church, at New Brunswick, N. J. Dr. ZABRISKIE resigned the pastorate of the church in 1876, and was dismissed by advice of a council August 21st, closing his pastorate September 15th. [During his ministry the chapel was built, costing about $3,000. It was opened for service July 9th 1875.]

The next minister was Rev. Richard B. THURSTON, who was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts, June 28th 1819, graduated from Bowdoin College, September 1841, and from the Theological Seminary, Bangor, Me., August 1846. His ministry in Saybrook began December 31st 1876, and closed June 9th 1881. Though regularly he was called, he was never installed, therefore must be ranked as stated supply.

The present minister, Mr. Thurston's successor, is Rev. Wilson D. SEXTON, who was born at Poland, Ohio, May 30th 1853, graduated from Western Reserve College, Hudson, Ohio, 1877, and at Union Theological Seminary, New York, 1881, and was ordained at Old Saybrook, August 3d 1881.


Episcopal services were held as early as August 1825, in the Center school house, by Rev. Peter G. CLARKE, of Essex.

The first meeting in regard to building a Protestant Episcopal church in the first society in Saybrook, was held in April 1830, at which a building committee was chosen, consisting of Messrs. Richard HART, William LYNDE, Richard CHALKER, Richard E. PRATT, Augustus CHALKER, William WILLARD, William H. LYNDE, Ira BUSHNELL, and William CLARK. At the next meeting, May 31st, the committee were directed to accept the proposals of Richard and Augustus CHALKER, for building a church.

It was also voted "to organize ourselves into a Society or Church according to the order of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America, under the name of Grace Church, Saybrook, Connecticut," and also to hold the annual meeting on the first Monday after Easter Sunday in each year. The names of the signers and organizers of the society, are as follows:

Richard W. HART, Nathaniel CLARK, Richard CHALKER, William H. LYNDE, Daniel BATES, Erastus HASKELL, Nathan HOWELL, Ira BUSHNELL, William CLARK, Noah WALKER, Richard E. PRATT, John S. SMALL, Charles E. FISK, Edward DENISON, David SPENCER, Sylvester CHALKER.

The corner stone was laid in 1830.

The following is a list of the clergymen who were called to take charge of the parish, and who officiated as ministers in charge, rectors elect, or rectors:

Rev. Ashbel STEEL, a part of 1830, 1831, a part of 1832; Rev. John M. GUION, a part of 1832, to a part of 1836; Rev. G. C. V. EASTMAN, a part of 1836, to a part of 1837; Rev. William WARLAND, a part of 1837, to a part of 1842; Rev. Harvey STANLEY, a part of 1842, to a part of 1843; Rev. W. G. FRENCH, a part of 1843, to a part of 1844; Rev. J. M. WILLEY, a part of 1844, to a part of 1847; Rev. John J. GUION, a pat of 1847 to a part of 1849; Rev. C. R. FISHER, a part of 1849, to a part of 1850; Rev. S. J. EVANS, a part of 1850, to a part of 1854; Rev. Jonathan GODFREY, a part of 1854, to a part of 1855; Rev. Peter L. SHEPARD, a part of 1855, to a part of 1868; Rev. J. E. HEALD, from Christmas 1868 to June 20th 1878; Rev. John H. WHITE, from November 1878, to January 1881; Rev. Jesse BRUSH, from March 1st 1881, and is now in charge of the parish.

The corner stone of the new stone church was laid in 1871, and it was completed and consecrate din 1872. Present number of families, 80. Present number of communicants, 125.


A Methodist Episcopal church was established in Old Saybrook in 1837, and the building was consecrated September 21st. It is in the Ferry District, and has usually been supplied by the pastor of the Methodist church in Essex.

In 1853, another Methodist church was established, and a building erected on the west side of the street, nearly opposite the Congregational church. It was dedicated January 11th 1854, and a parsonage was built adjoining. Rev. F. BOTTOME, of New York, was the first pastor. He remained a year or two, and then Rev. Mr. BOOLE, of New York, was sent to the church by the Conference. There were, however, but few of that denomination near the center of the town-not enough to support a minister-and when Mr. BOOLE went away services were discontinued. The building was afterward bought by Miss Susan HOTCHKISS, daughter of the former pastor, and presented by her to the Congregational society for a chapel. The steeple was taken down, and after a few year' service as a chapel, it was again sold to Mr. George A. VOGEL, by whom it was used as a public hall, and lastly it was sold to William E. CLARK, who fitted up the lower part for a grocery and the upper part for a hall, which is now used for town meetings and other gatherings. The parsonage is now the residence of G. F. WARD.


The cause of education was early considered by the settlers of the town, as may be seen by votes recorded in the Town Acts.

"Mar. 19th 1673-74, allowed to Mr. TILLY thirty pounds a year, & a load of wood, & that every scholar shall bring, and that his pay shall be paid in these species (to wit) five pounds in beefe at prize currant, and the rest in corn, in severall Graine in equal proportion-and the aforesaid money to be gathered by collector and delivered to Mr. TILLY in consideration of his constant, thorough schooling of ye town male children, in reading, writing, and casting up of accounts."

The same year, voted to employ Mr. BELLAMY, at £30.

"Jan. 18th 1676 At a Town meeting it was voated that the school house shall be set up at the neck gate where about not it is." "At the same meeting Mr. BELLAMY was chosen to keep school." "It is also voted the school house be removed to the corner of Widow TOUSLAND's Lott in the Lane going to Mr. BUCKINGHAM's."

"Feb. 22 1676 Voted to employ Mr. BELLAMY to teach school 6 mos. In winter, town scholars to bear half the expense."

"Dec. 3d 1678 At a Town Meeting it was agreed and voted, that the Schoolmaster's Salary should be Levied as followeth, viz: three pence a week for every scholar for the time they have gone, and the remainder to be levied upon the Town's Rate."

Mr. Edward LOREY, of Saybrook Point, in his will, dated June 17th 1689, gave to the town £300, to be applied toward the support of schools. A part this legacy was lost many years ago by the reception of bills of credit from those who had borrowed it. The remainder was divided in 1773 or 1774 to the several parishes in the town, according to their list.

Little or nothing is known in regard to the schools in Saybrook from 1700 to the Revolutionary war. In 1799, Mr. BRAY kept a private school in a room in Capt. Timothy PRATT's house, now Mrs. TREADWAY's. The following from the journal of a girl of 16 who attended the school, will show what studies were taught, and the style of a young lady's journal of that day"

"Saturday Sept. 28th.-The ordinary duties of the Morning having been attended to, at 9 I walked to Capt. PRATTS, where I met my School Mates, and School was soon after began with prayer by my Instructor. Our class was then called, and we read the 17th and 18 Chapters of Genesis. After that, studied our spelling Lessons, and the Boys were catechized, Mr. BRAY explaining the catechism. He then asked us to repeat the commandments. We then took our seats, and he informed us. That some one of us, he was assured had been guilty of ridiculing, and making Game of his school Prayers; which surprised me much, for I knew myself innocent and know not how any of my Class could be guilty. After which, he severely reproved us, talking long and well upon the matter, shewing the evil of such doings. School was then dismissed, App'd O. BRAY."

Reading, writing, spelling, and grammar seem to have been the only branches taught by Mr. BRAY, except the customary catechism. The entry for "Lords Day," September 29th, is as follows, showing how a young girl spent the Sabbath:

"I tarried at home this day and read, in the Repository, The piece called Daniel in the Den of Lions. I also read several pieces in a book by Mr. MCEWEN on the Types of the O. Testament, one was the History of Joshua, another the History of Samson, and other pieces in the same. Also read several Chapters in the Bible. I also assisted about common family affairs, and closed with the usual Services. In the evening was present at the Singing Meeting and stayed till half an Hour past 9 or more."

Miss Sarah TULLY, commonly called "Miss SALLY TULLY," was a teacher from youth to old age. In 1802, she taught in the First district, 16 weeks for $24, and H. BELDEN, 8 weeks for $37.40. Mr. BELDEN boarded with Mr. HOTCHKISS, and the School Society paid $12 for the 8 weeks board. The same year, Levi COLLINS taught 8 weeks for $33.371/2. He was charged by H. PRATT, the tavern keeper, for his board, firewood, and candles, for 8 weeks, $12,621/2. Miss Tully boarded with E. CLARK 6 weeks, E. SHIPMAN 6 weeks, and E. TULLY 4 weeks, at $1 per week.

In 1803, William SMITH taught in the First District 5 months for $80, and Miss TULLY 4 months for $24. The money that was annually received from the State for schools, was brought from Hartford or Middletown, from 1803 to 1824, by Mr. Jeremiah STOCKING, who drove a stage coach between Saybrook and Middletown. His charge for doing the business was 25 cents. In 1824, Daniel HAVENS drew it, for which he charged $1.00, and in 1838, Mr. BIDWELL brought it at the old price. Mr. BIDWELL drove the mail coach between Saybrook and Middletown for many years, and Mr. SKINNER, who was one of the last, drove for a number of years. In 1840, Rev. Mr. CRANE and Rev. Mr. WARLAND were paid $4.00 each for visiting schools. In 1856, there were 240 scholars in the society-59 in the 1st District, 53 in the 2d, 58 in the 3d, and 70 in the 4th. At a school mee5ting held in the First or Point District, October 27th 1818, of which EZRA Clark was moderator and Benjamin DOWD clerk, it was "voted to keep a five month school by a man an a woman, both schools to be under the direction of the man." Also "Voted that arithmetic shall not be taught in school." The cutting of the wood was sold to the lowest bidder; the lowest bid being 50 cents per cord. Also "Voted that the members of the first District have liberty to use the House and wood two nights in each week for the purpose of ciphering." In 1824, the First District was divided, the Point and the land adjacent forming the First District, and the other part the Center District. The first school meeting in the Center District was held at the house of Dr. CARTER, June 1st, 1824, at which it was voted to build a school house 28 by 24 feet, with 10 foot posts. At the next meeting the committee reported that Capt. Elisha HART would sell 16 square rods of ground for a site, next R. W. HART's store for $50.00. The lowest bid for building the house was $440.00. The site, well, stove, fence, and painting, $120.00. Total, $561.00. October 13th 1824, "Voted that the rate of board be 23 cts. Per day, and that the inhabitants have the liberty of boarding the teacher in proportion to the number of days they may send scholars to schools." April 15h 1825, "Voted, that Miss Mabel BUSHNELL be allowed the school house for the purpose of holding a school therein the ensuing summer." Previous to the division of the First District in 1824, the school house stood in the street in front of the mouth of the Neck Lane, or Maple avenue, as it is now called. The new district sold their interest in the school to the 1st District for one dollar, and it was to be conveyed by deed. A site was bought of Mr. James INGRAHAM, near what is called the "COCHRAN corner," where the roads meet that intersect Saybrook Point, on the south side of the road, "say about 36 feet in front to contain about 9 or 10 rods of ground for the consideration of $4.50 per rod, the District to erect and maintain a good picket fence next to his land." One stormy night in October 1854, the school house was set on fire and burned to the ground, and the school was kept the next winter and summer in the next house, known as the "Cottage." A new building was contracted for, the cost of which was not to exceed $1,050, and it was built during the summer of 1855. The lot on which the old school house stood was exchanged with Capt. George DICKINSON for one-fourth of an acre on the "Middle Road" on the Point, in what was known as the BEMAN lot, and the new house was built there. Eight rods of the land in the rear of the lot were afterward exchanged for four rods on the east side so as to take in the ancient well that belonged to the BEMAN house. In April 1722, Robert LAY jr., of Saybrook, sold to Deacon Nathaniel CHAPMAN, Mr. Stephen WHITTELSEY and Ensign Samuel JONES.

"Selectmen & Committee for ye School of ye Town afores'd" * * * "in consideration of ye sum of five Pounds in currant money of this Colony. (Being part of ye fifty pounds given By ye Honb'll ye Gen'll Assembly of this Colony for ye Vsa & maintainance of a School in Say-Brook aforesaid) which I have In hand Received &c * * * * do Convey & c * * * * unto y said Selectmen, Committee fors'd School, & and their successors forever. A Certain Tract or parcel of Land Lying & Being in ye Township of Say-Brook afores'd in Oyster River Quarter, at a Place Called & Known by ye name of Stonney Brook, Containing ten Acres, Bounded South upon ye Country road, West on ye Lands of Capt. Sam'll CHAPMAN, North on s'd Lay's Lands, & East on the Heirs of Sam'll STANNARD Dec'd * * * for the use & Benefit of s'd School forever."

This was probably for the establishment of one of the schools in what is now Westbrook, as Capt. Samuel CHAPMAN was a prominent man in that society, and wit his wife assisted in organizing the church there in 1726.

The Oyster River school house formerly stood on the west side of the road, and opposite the "DOANE house," but was removed to the present location, where it was burned about 1816, after which the present house was built. Deacon William R. CLARKE, who was for many years a prominent citizen of the town, and died in 1879, aged 81, was a teacher in the public schools of the town for many years. He was also a surveyor and measurer of land, and was authority in town and ecclesiastical matters among his fellow citizens. In the latter part of his life, he was largely employed by the Connecticut Valley Railroad in settling land damages, and similar matters. Miss Hannah WILLIAMS was a life long teacher, and a good one. Her portly form and heavy thimble are well remembered by many now living.

An academy was built in 1831 where the Episcopal church now stands, and most of the young men of Saybrook at that period obtained a large park of their education there. College students and others taught there during the winter months. It had two rooms, one above and one below, one of which was sometimes used for the younger, and the other for the older scholars. When only one room was used for a school, the other was used for lyceums, religious meetings, etc., and after the last division of the town, it was used for town meetings. After the land was sold to the Episcopal society, the building was sold to Mr. J. H. TILESTON for a joiner shop, and moved to his house on the Oyster River road. The bell was given by Mr. James INGRAHAM, who lived nearly opposite, and the first use made of it was to toll for his death, the church bell being out of order. Among those who taught at the academy was a man named HURD, from Clinton, Ely, from LYME, Perry HASKELL, James H. PRATT, Rev. Mr. HOBART, Willis S. COLTON, and Henry C. SANFORD.

A number of private schools have been kept within the last 40 years, which have been distinguished for their thoroughness and discipline. Misses Hetty B. and Nancy WOOD kept a flourishing boarding and day school at their house, next to the Congregational church, for many years, to which Rev. P. O. SHEPARD, formerly rector of Grace church succeeded. He removed it to his own house, changed it to a boarding school for boys, and gave it the name of Seabury Institute. Mrs. F. M. MANNING has kept a boarding and day school for girls and young children, for several years past, which is doing a good work.


The first grist mill stood on the brook near where Mr. James CHALKER now lives, and Deacon Francis BUSHNELL, who died in 1681, erected it in 1662, for which the proprietors gave him a farm on condition that a mill should be kept there continually, and that the inhabitants should have equal privileges in regard to grinding. The present grist mill, known as the "Ira BUSHNELL Mill," is about a quarter of a mile from the site of that one, and on another branch of the same stream. In 1696, "the lands, housing, & grist mill that belonged to Sam'l BUSHNELL dec'd," were in possession of the administrator-Lieut. Samuel JONES. A tide mill, which was in operation some years, was afterward built on the ox pasture dam. Part of the house now owned and occupied by Richard J. CADWELL, which is near Oyster River Bridge, was this tide mill. Another tide mill was built at Oyster River bridge, probably soon after the war of 1812, by Judge William LYNDE, and a small business in carding wool, as well as grinding corn was carried on, but after a few years it was sold to Capt. Daniel KIRTLAND, on Saybrook Point, where it was removed and converted into a store. It is now the store of Messrs. H. POTTER & Son. After this mill was old, Judge LYNDE built, near his own house, a windmill, which was taken down between 1845 and 1850. A windmill was built near the "Neck Gate," where the palisades were placed, before the present century, but when is not known. It rotted and fell about the time of the last war with England. A fulling mill was built in the latter part of the 1st century, on the same stream on which the present grist mill stands, but a short distance below. Portions of the old dam still remain. The business of fulling cloth was carried on for many years, on a small scale, by Mr. Ira BUSHNELL and his sons. Charles BUSHNELL, one of his sons, built the house where Charles KING now lives, and for several years carried on a small manufacturing business there. He had two spinning jennies in his house, spun some yarn and wove some cloth, probably all by hand and foot power. Nearly the whole of that branch of the BUSHNELL family moved away and joined the Shakers.


Saybrook being a maritime port, did quite an extensive trading business with the West Indies, most of it, however, being done in small vessels. The records in regard to this trade are very meager, and little is known regarding it except by tradition. John TULLY jr. had a store where the hose of W. B. TULLY now stands, and was concerned in the West India trade till his death in 1760, at the age of 26. He owned one-eighth of the sloop Polly as chartered to Charles CLARK, of Colchester, June 1759, for a voyage to the West Indies. Captain Charles CHADWICK sailed the sloop Molly in 1755. J. TULLY insured the sloop Ruby from Saybrook to Barbados, W. I., Jabez STOWE, master, £60, March 4th 1758. On a previous voyage, returning from Barbados to Saybrook in 1757, the insurance was £100 on vessel and cargo. The sloop Ann and Lidia, Saybrook to Barbados, Jeremiah BRAINERD, master, sailed May 4th 1758, insurance £60. The following are the orders to Captain STILLMAN, of Saybrook, from the owners of the sloop Ruby:

"July 20th 1758 To Capt. Sam'll STILMAN Master of the Sloop Rubie now Riding Anchor in the Harbour of Saybrook-

You will Imbrace the first Wind and Weather and take your Departure from the Harbour and then Proceed on your Voyage to the Island of Antigua in the West Indies, if you can make by running to the South Ward, and then Dispose of your Cargo to the Best advantage for the Owners; but if you shall happen to fall to the Lew Ward, then you are to go to either of English or Dutch West India Islands as you shall think most Advantagious for the s'd Owners, and there dispose of your cargo & layout the need Proceeds thereof in the Produce of s'd Islands-And then you are to make the Best of your way home to this Port; unless you shall think it best to Stop at Anguilla or St Martin's, and make up your Load with Salt.

"Or notwithstanding what is above written, when you shall arrive at any of the aforesaid Ports you shall lite of a market for the Sloop, that you shall think advantageous for the owners, sell her, and lay out the need Proceeds as above, and ship the affects home to this or some other Neighboring Port, in one, two, or three Bottoms, as you shall think best. And so God Send the good Sloop to her Desired Port in Safety, Amen, Dated at Saybrook the 20th of July A. D. 1758.

          "Sam'll STILMAN
          "John MORDOCH
          "Benjamin MERRELEYS
          "John TULLY Jun
          "Samue'll FIELD
          "Theop. MORGAN."

The ship or brig America was largely owned here, and was lost after the Revolutionary war. Samuel CLARK, grandfather of William J. CLARK, was lost in it, and so was William STOWE, a brother of Mrs. DAVID NEWELL, and William KIRTLAND, a brother of Daniel and son of Ambrose.

Shipbuilding was formerly carried on to some extent, but no record of it remains. In the early part of the present century, Messrs. John, Asa, and Bushnell KIRTLAND, of Saybrook Point, carried on shipbuilding for many years. They had a yard where John L. KIRTLAND's house now stands. The last ship built there was the Niagara, about 1820. In 1809, they received the following letter:

"New York Jan. 14th 1809

"Messrs. Jno KIRTLAND & Brothers,

"Gents-Provided that you have timber on hand suitable, we propose to you to take one half Interest in a Small pilot boat Schooner of about 110 Tons. Should you acceed to this proposition you will commence building her immediately, and forward us an order for such articles as you wish us to supply. We recommend giving her a great length, and let her be sharper than this description of vessels have usually been built with you, pierce her for about 14 Guns, and give her a roomy deck, with a full hairpin. You will inform us what quantity of composition it will take to light water mark. We think by increasing the trunnels, we can do with much less composition, and the expense will not much exceed that of Iron, do not inform anyone what descriptioned vessel you are about to build, or who you are concerned with, perhaps it will be well to hold up an ide that you are building a Sloop, to prevent others following your example, let us hear from you on this Subject soon.

          "Your fiends
                    "HALL & HULL."

The schooner was built at a landing in Ragged Rock Creek, toward the ferry, and when she was launched, she was so sharp that she lay over on her bilge, and they were forced to ballast her, before they could get her spars in. When she went up Sound, it was said that she made the best time ever known at that time between the river and New York. This was the time of the Embargo, and the French ports were blockaded by English vessels, and this craft was designed to run the blockade.

Her commander is not certainly known, but is supposed to have been a Captain WILLIAMS, of Potapaug. She was loaded with coffee, and dispatched for one of the French ports, off the mouth of which she arrived in a thick fog. The mate tried to prevail upon the captain to attempt the passage before the fog should lift, but he refused, and the consequence was that when the fog lifted, she lay within range of a British man of war. Owing to her superior sailing qualities, she would have escaped as it was, had not an unlucky shot carried away one of her spars, when she was forced to surrender. Had she succeeded in getting in with her cargo, the fortunes of her owners would have been made.

The firm of HALL & HULL was composed of Deacon William HALL, who afterward lived in Saybrook, and a brother of Commodore Isaac HULL. The schooner was rigged after the fashion of those days, with an immense square fore-topsail. Among the vessels which navigated the river and sound, some of which were partly owned here, were the sloop Hylas, 67 tons, Aaron CHAPMAN, 1816; brig Aurora, 197 tons, John KIRTLAND, N. Y. to Saybrook, 1816; sloop Industry, 25 tons, Chauncey COOLEY; sloop Young Hornet, Samuel b. GLADDING; sloop Maria, Thomas SILLIMAN; Sloop Driver, 92 tons, Gurdon WATERMAN, 1816; sloop Cleopatra, 55 tons, Charles JONES, of Saybrook, 1816; sloop Juliette, 66 tons, John C. RUSSELL; sloop Commerce, of Lyme, 48 tons; Sloop Mercator, August JONES; sloop Betsey, 31 tons, William SPENCER, 1816; sloop Young Pheonix, Phillip TOOKER, 51 tons; sloop Jay, of Saybrook, 90 tons, John L. WHITTELSEY.

The cargo of the sloop Cleopatra, from Saybrook to New York, May 11th 1816, consisted of "40 bbl. Shad, 10 hhds sugar, 8 bbls. Sugar, 3 boxes hats, 1 sack do., and a quantity of wood." September 12th 1818, a sloop chartered by Mr. William LYNDE, laden with potatoes and small stock, sailed for Bermuda, Charles DENISON, master, an the 11th of September 1819, she sailed with a similar load. February 12th 1819, T. MATHER's brig sailed for West Indies. February 25th, A. WHITTELSEY's sloop Antelope broke from her moorings at DICKINSON's pier, during a storm, and ran ashore on Planting Field Meadow, and the sloop Syren drove ashore near BLAGUE wharf. At the same time, a sloop loaded with wood went ashore near the lighthouse, and went to pieces. The Antelope and Syren were got off next day. The Syren was built at the head of the South Cove, at that point nearest Main street, and not far from the house of Mr. Samuel KIRTLAND, about 1812, and ran between Saybrook and New York during the war. Captain Samuel DICKINSON, Captain Jeremiah DENISON, J. & S. M. TULLY, Benjamin, Joshua, and Samuel KIRTLAND, were among her builders and owners, and all went in her at times, more or less. December 26th 1815, Messrs. John and Asa KIRTLAND launched from their yard a brig of 196 37/95 tons. February 15th 1818, a schooner, chartered by LYNDE & Company, sailed for the Bermudas. March 12th 1818, a schooner, bound to West Indies, sailed with stock from Colchester. No vessels had been built here for several years, till about 1855, when a fishing schooner, largely owned in town, was build by a man named BRAINERD, just above the Fort. She was named the James H. Ashmead, after one of her Hartford owners, and was lost after a few years. The next and last vessel built here was probably the largest ever built in Old Saybrook. She was largely owned here, and was called the Mary El Kellinger, after the wife of one of her New York owners. She was rigged as a three-masted schooner, and was commanded by Captain Austin E. PENNY. Her builder was a man by the name of KETCHUM, from Long Island. She was built a little south of where the PEASE House now stands, in 1865, and was lost a year or two after, in Chesapeake Bay. Saybrook has produced many hardy mariners, some of them having been lost at sea. Captain John INGRAHAM jr. sailed between Hartford and the West Indies, the schooner Harvey, in 1789, and, in 1800, in the brig Harriot. In one of his letters, dated at Port Republic, while in the schooner, 9th September 1799, he says:

"I cannot determine when I shall be ready to Sail but think likely in 12 or 14 days & then shall likely wait some time for a Convoy as there is a Number of Boats which Cruise in the Bite, that make a practice of Robbing the unarmed vessels that fall in their way." In a letter of the 26th, he says: "I shall sail to morrow wit about seventy Sail of American Merchant Vessels under Convoy of the Washington, Capt. FLETCHER." In February 1804, his brig was driven ashore in a gale in the harbor of Plymouth, England, and sustained some damage. His son, Capt. John d. INGRAHAM, was master of a vessel for many years, and was a volunteer acting master in the navy during the war of the Rebellion. He died in 1875. Capt. David NEWELL was another who followed the sea of a lifetime. He was in the harbor of Fayal, and witnessed the attack by 40 officers and men from three British vessels on the privateer brig, Gen. Armstrong, Capt. Samuel C. Reid, in which the attacking party lost 120 killed and 130 wounded, while the privateer lost only two killed and seven wounded. Capt. NEWELL was engaged in the slave trade, and was killed during a rising of the slaves on board his vessel at the Island of Bonavista. His son, Capt. William NEWELL, sailed to all parts of the world till old age overtook him. On one occasion, during or after the war of 1812-15, he, in company with another Yankee captain, was in a saloon in a port in the Eastern Hemisphere, When a number of English captains who were present began to revile Americans and America, whereupon Capt. NEWELL, seizing a stool drove them all out of the saloon. He was a man of powerful frame, and commanding personal appearance. Capt. MATHER also sailed to the West Indies, and was lost with his ship, Peace and Plenty, in a gale at Turk's Island. Capt. Richard WOOD went to sea for many years, and died at sea. Capt. Benjamin WHITTLESEY and his mate, Mr. Richard DICKINSON, both of Saybrook, sailed on their last voyage for the West Indies n a new brig or bark, built expressly for making fast trips, and were never heard of after leaving port. The were supposed to have been lost in a storm about 1848. Capt. J. Chauncey WHITTLESEY was in the West India trade for many years, sailing mostly from New Haven, and Capt. Samuel B. DICKINSON also sailed to the West Indies.


For many years, one of the principal industries of the town of Saybrook was its shad fisheries. Previous to the Revolutionary war, shad were not considered of much value, and it is said that if a family had one on the table, and saw a neighbor coming in, they would put it out of sight, being ashamed to be seen eating so common a fish. The river, the sound coast, and every creek and bay, teemed wit tem, as well as with bass, chequit, and salmon. It is probable that soon after the war, the shad fisheries began to be profitable. The fishing then was mostly done with short seines, which were hauled onshore without the use of capstans. It is said that Capt. Daniel INGRAHAM, who died about 1845, aged about 90, built the first fishing pier on the river. These piers, which were afterward used by most of the fisheries, were built on the river flats, near the edge of the channel, of logs and stone, the tops being out at high water, and on these, two capstans were placed for hauling in ropes attached to the two arms of the seine. The one built by Captain INGRAHAM, known as "Jamaica pier," was set directly of the mouth of Ragged Rock Creek, thus preventing any claim for rent, b the owners of the adjoining land. In the early years of the present century, shad fishing was at its height as far as the number of fish caught were concerned. Te largest haul on record was made with a short seine by Mr. Elias TULLY, who caught 3,700 at the point at the mouth of South Cove, now known as "Folly Point." Later a haul of 2,200 was made on DICKINSON's pier. The fishery at the mouth of the river, near the lighthouse, was for many years one of the best. No pier was needed thee, the seine being hauled directly ashore. The beach was covered with stones, which gat it the name of "Pavement." One season, either 1835 or 1836, shad were very abundant. Four thousand were caught at the "Pavement" in one day, the largest haul begins 1,700. At the last haul they got 400, and one of the owners suggested that the led line be raised, and the shad allowed to escape, as they probably could not save them, there being a pile of about 5,000 shad caught that day and the day before, on shore, still unsalted. The other owners would not agree to that, but they then stopped fishing, and went to dressing, and saved them al, with the help of people from the town. In those days, the shad were all salted instead of being sold fresh, and the principal fisheries presented a busy scene in the height of the season. The gangs usually consisted of eight or nine men, and when large hauls were made, extra men were employed to dress and salt. Large sheds were built to contain the salt, and hogsheads of salt fish, and the stores, with the fishermen, drove a thriving trade in salt and provisions. When all the fisheries that were owned and fished by the people of the present town of Old Saybrook were in full operation they must have given employment to 250 or 300 men. On one occasion, early in the present century, Mr. Asa KIRTLAND, with several men, went around to "Plumbank," west of Cornfield Point, one night for the purpose of fishing. While the party were camping in the plum bushes, waiting for the tide, he heard a splashing in the deep hole in Plumbank Creek, which runs through the salt meadows back of the beach. On going over there, he found Mr. James SHIPMAN and somebody else, who had made a haul there, and had aught 300 shad. On the same night, Mr. James DIBBLE, with a piece of an old seine, caught 300 alone near Salmon Rock, on the flats west of Cornfield Point. In the morning Mr. K. came around into the river, and as he as passing the "Pavement" fishery, one of the fishermen, who were mending their seine on the shore, cried out, "Make a haul!" They did so, and got 90. The fishermen shipped their net quickly, and did not invite them to take another haul. There happening to be a scarcity of salt in the town, an ox team was dispatched to Stanton's in Clinton, for a 50 bushel load, to salt them with. This is related to show how abundant shad were at that time. It is said that at one time, 500 shad were caught at a haul in Ragged rock Creek. The piers on the east side of the river channel were most of them owned by people on this side, with the exception of the "GRISWOLD" pies near the mouth. The first pier on the east side of the river, opposite the lighthouse, was "Zoar" then came "GRISWOLD's" two piers, and them "Sodom." This name was given to it by Mr. Samuel HART, of the fir of PRATT & HART, grocers on Saybrook Point. Mr. Hart was a noted wit. After Sodom was abandoned, and a new pier built, Mr. HART was applied to for a name. His reply was, "Lot fled to ZOAR!" and the pier was called "Zoar" ever after. "DICKINSON's pier was directly opposite the fort, and the next one above was "Gibraltar," so called because the fish house stood on a rocky hammock. "Sanford's" pier came next. It was sometimes called "Woodiot," on account of the number of logs that were caught, which tore the seines. "St. John's" was the last below the ferry, those above on that side of the river being mostly owned by Lyme parties. On the west side of the river the "Pavement," near the lighthouse, was the first. This was abandoned in 1861. The fishery next above at the "Folly," was abandoned many years ago. The first pier was at the mouth of the South Cove. It was named "Cootesborough," [Essex, which was a borough, was sometimes in derision called "Cootesborough," because Captain COOTEs burned the vessels there.] because some Potapaug people owned it. It was never used much. Another was at Pipestave Point, near where the north end of Fenwick bridge is now. A pier was built southeast of the Point, on which only one attempt at hauling was ever made. The seine was "set," on the strength of the tide, and the men were not able to hold the capstan. One let go and the capstan flew around throwing the men into the water and injuring several. The pier ever after went by the name of "Knock-'em' stiff." The "Fort" fishery was next. They formerly hauled the seine on shore, but later a pier was built, the remains of which are now under PEASE's wharf. It was abandoned in 1858 or 1859.

The next fishery was known as the "Parsonage," being located on the river flats above the mouth of the North Cove, and opposite the meadow owned by the Congregational society, to which society the rent of the fishery was paid. This was a famous fishery for many years, but was abandoned soon after the war of the Rebellion. What were known as the two "INGHAM" piers, "Jamaica" and "Federal," came next, and then the "AYER" piers, "Washington" and "Independence." Independence, the upper one of the two last named, was so near the shore Line Railroad Ferry, that the ferry was in the way of their sweep. Accordingly, it was sold to the railroad company, as was "Rebellion," which is directly under the railroad bridge. "Skunkhole" came next above the ferry, then the fishery on TILLY's or Ferry Point, and lastly, between TILLY's Point, and Mr. AYERS', on a flat, near the middle of the river were "Santa Cruz" and "Newfoundland." Of these numerous piers and fisheries on the river, all have been abandoned, except "Washington" and "Federal;" they have been fished up to the present time with fair success.

The fill net shad fisheries probably began about the same time that the seine fisheries did, and with nets about 20 or 30 rods long, and small round bottom boats or sharpies. While the hauling seines were set with one end fast to the pier or shore, and were mauled in at that point, the fill or "drag nets," as they were called, were let off the boat at certain "reaches" on the river, and both boat and net were allowed to drift down with tide, the net being taken up whenever the owners saw fit, or when the tide was setting them upon some obstruction. Later on these nets were increased in length, till they swept nearly the whole channel in some places. They are usually made at present, from 60 to 80 rods in length. The boats have also been much improved, and "Connecticut river drag boats" are now some of the most able boats in the world. The business is still carried on, but not so extensively and profitably as formerly, and by a different class of people. Some of the most successful drag men have sometimes caught from 3000 to 5000 shad in a season.

The fisheries on the sound began with short hauling seines, which were increased in length till horses were used to haul in the shore arm of the seine. In the early part of the present century, some large hauls were made on the sound shore, the fish sometimes being driven in shore by schools of porpoises. 1,400 were once caught at a haul on the flats. Some Indians once undertook to haul just as immense body of shad pursued by porpoises came in shore. They struck the net with such force as to take it away from the Indians, and nearly tear it in pieces. The first fishery west of the lighthouse, was leased for many years, by a man named L'HOMMEDIEU, Who was called "Governor L'HOMMEDIEU." The next where the wharf and bathing houses of Fenwick Hall now stand, was the "AVERY place," and the next above, the "GARDINER place." These three fisheries were on the farm of William LYNDE, judge of Probate, it having descended to him from Simon LYNDE who bought it of Benjamin BATTEN, and they all paid him rent. He did not himself live on the farm, but in the village, and on the election day, which was the first Wednesday in May, the three gangs of fishermen with "Governor" L'HOMMEDIEU at their head, mounted on the horse that turned the capstan at one of the fisheries, with perhaps a drum and fife, and the usual accompaniment of boys, and sticks for muskets, marched to the residence of Judge LYNDE, where, of course, they were treated to a drink all round. After their return to the fisheries, an immense bowl of toddy was mixed, and the day given up to wrestling matches, and other amusements. In those days, the farmer could not mow, the minister preach, nor the fisherman fish, without toddy. When the Washingtonian movement started, Deacon Elisha SILL, who was a large owner in some of the piers on the river, and who took a great interest in the movement, decided not to furnish any liquor to his fishermen, but to give them cider instead, which was done. As there were two gangs of men, about 18 in all, in the same house, and many comers and goers, they drank a large quantity of cider. One of the owners of a fishery at the mouth of the river, hearing that they had drunk a large quantity, on meeting a simple minded man who had fished there that season, said to him: "Leonard, I hear that you have drank sixteen barrels of cider up there this spring." "It isn't so, Mr. K.," replied Leonard. "We've drinked barely ten barrels!" There was another fishery above the last, at Guard House Point, one at WILLARD's Bay, one at GILLET's Bay, on the east side of Cornfield Point, and fisheries all the way to Westbrook, on the west of cornfield Point. These fisheries, however, ceased to be profitable, and were nearly or quite all abandoned previous to 1850, when a new era in fishing was inaugurated, by the introduction of pounds. These nets were small and very unlike those now in use. They were first used in Nova Scotia, whence the pattern was brought to Branford, and a small one set there. Mr. Frederick KIRTLAND obtained the pattern from that, and set a larger and improved one, for white fish, in the summer of 1849. The next spring a company was formed consisting of Messrs. George H. CHAPMAN, who owned the land at Oyster River where the fishery was located, his son, Robert, Frederick KIRTLAND, David CLARK, and Ezra C. INGHAM, and his son, Lucius, who built a larger net, and set it for shad. Its success let to the introduction of others, and in a few years every fishery on the coast was provided with them. Since their introduction, the bulk of the Connecticut River shad have been sent to the Hartford and New York markets, have been caught in them. Not long before the war of the Rebellion, Mr. KIRTLAND and others went to Lake Ontario where they introduced these nets, and fished several years, and later they introduced them on Lake Erie, establishing an industry which a Cleveland newspaper, in 1884, characterized as one of the most important on the lake, after alluding to its establishment by Connecticut men. In the early days of the country, salmon were very abundant, and were the fish mostly used by Saybrook people in their season, shad being considered too common. A lady who was born in 1783 distinctly remembered seeing a cart load of salmon, which were caught at WILLARD's Bay, east of Cornfield Point, tipped upon a barn floor. As soon as dams began to be built at the head waters of the river, so that salmon were unable to reach their spawning grounds, and factories and gas works began to discharge their poisonous refuse into it, and saw mills their saw dust, salmon began to decrease, till, after 1830, only a few scattering ones were caught, and about 1860, they were entirely extinct. Some years later some salmon, that had been artificially hatched, were place din the river, and a few were caught at Saybrook in 18790, but they did not increase any, and two year later they were extinct. Bass and chequit were also abundant, bass weighing from 20 to 50 pounds being not unfrequently caught in the coves as late as 1830. For many years the white fishing industry was a very important one, immense quantities of the fish being used for fertilizing purposes, the farmers depending largely upon them for their crops, but the introduction of steam vessels with purse nets, and the great demand for menhaden oil, has broken up the schools, so that the fisheries are no longer profitable, and only occasionally a pound is set for them. There are natural beds of oysters on the Oyster River and the Connecticut River. The oysters on the natural beds are some of the finest in the world. Under the recent oyster law of the State, some of the river flats, and some of the ground off Cornfield Point have been taken up by practical oyster growers, for the purpose of planting oysters, but as yet nothing has been accomplished.


In building a new town, the most necessary thing, next to the wood of which the houses were mostly built, was the supply of stone for chimneys and foundations. This was found in a rocky knoll less than half a mile west of the present main street of the village, and perhaps an eighth of a mile north of the Oyster River road. It is not known where the first stone were quarried, but it was probably in the early history of the town, as stone were indispensable. The right of the inhabitants of the town to get stone from the quarry, and clay from the low ground near it, has been reserved from the settlement to the present time, as appears by the town records. The clay pits were more valuable in ancient times, than at the present, as the chimneys and cellar walls of most of the houses built previous to the Revolutionary war were laid up with clay mortar, instead of lime mortar-lime being very little used.

At a town meeting held April 21st 1868,

"It was voted & agreed upon that Mr. CHAPMAN, Mr. WESTOLL shall renew the bounds betwixt Wm. LORD & Mr. NICHOLS by setting in the Stakes which are reported for to be pushed down by Wm. LORD or his order.

"At the Same Meeting it was voted and agreed upon that the land at the Stone Pits should be measured by Mr. CHAPMAN, Francis BUSHNELL & Mr. WESTOLL, and that he shall have his Eight acres layed out, And the remainder of the land at the Stone Pits which is the town's, and that the quantity of acres shall be brought into the town.

January 1st 1669.-"At a town meeting it was agreed & voted that Wm. LORD shall have a fifty pound lot of Upland at the Stone pits adjoining unto his other land, only provided that the Stone Hills with a Highway to them shall Still remain for the town use."

In February 1670.-"the town did grant to Wm LORD Senior, that parsill of land Commonly called the Stone pits, Supposed to be about 4 or 5 acres, that is to say the said Wm. LORD shall have the use of the said land for feeding, & liberty to fence it in with his own land, always provided that the town has full liberty of the Highway that runs thither for egres & regres, or for the diging Stone or Clay, Without any Molestation or disturbance from the said Lord or any of his or any other."

On the 237th page of Volume I, Town Records, May 1693-4, mention is made of a way to the stone pits from Oyster River highway, between Goodman TRACY's lost and John OLMSTEAD's, of two rods wide. In January 1703-4, a committee was appointed "to inspect into the rights of the lands at the Stone pits now in hesitation between the Town and Benjamin LORD." In a deed from William LORD to William LYNDE, 1805, this clause occurs: "Reserving to the Public the privilege of digging stone as usual on the premises, free of all incumbrance &c." The same reservation is made in a deed to Samuel CARTER, of same date, of a tract of land south of that, but of which the northwest corner touched the stone pits. In a deed from Henry HART to Richard E. PRATT, August 20th 1864, of 13 1-2 acres, including the stone pit lot, is this reservation: "the people of the Town of Old Say-Brook have a right to get and cart stone from the Stone pit lot * * * Free of all incumbrance, except as to the privilege of working and carting stone." Most of the cellar wall stone used since the settlement of the town have been obtained from this quarry, as were the stone with which the Episcopal church was built.

Another requisite for building purposes, was sand for making mortar, and it is probable that the high bank of san near the clam flats west of Cornfield Point, which is covered with plum bushes, was reserved for that purpose. At least that is the tradition, and the people of the town have always used it. When the salt meadow back of this bank, was granted in five acre tracts to Abraham POST, John PRATT, Samuel JONES, Thomas NORTON, John CHAPMAN, and John PARKER, in 1672, these tracts were bounded, some of them, "on the plum banks," and some "on the beach;" none by the high water mark. The tract nearest the upland was given to John PARKER, and was bounded as follows: "Northwest with the land of John CHAPMAN, north with the land of William SOUTHMAID, east with the land of George FENWICK, called the 'Cornfield' & 'hundred acres,' south & southwest with the beach, and the point of Upland joining to the beach."

The necessity of a road to this beach was manifest, and in February 1693-4, Nathaniel LYNDE, on petition of the town, granted a highway through his land "to the Plumbanks and Hammoc."

"Gents, in answer to your desire and request, I Nathaniel LYNDE do hereby give and grant unto the proprietors of those lands and meadows at the Plumbanks and Hammoc and to their heirs and successors forever, for foot, horse, men and teams, free passage through my lands unto the sea, at southwest part of my field commonly called Cornfield, always reserving power to myself, my heirs and assigns from time to time, and at all times forever to make fences as I or they shall judge necessary."


Manufactories have never flourished in Old Saybrook. In 1854, a joint stock company of residents of the town was formed for the manufacture of skates, and a building was put up near the depot of the Shore Line Railroad, at the head of the street. After working at it a year or two, the business was given up, and the building was sold. After standing idle for several years, it was brought by the Catholics and converted into a church. During the present year 1884, the Catholics have completely renovated their church and added a steeple and organ loft.

Messrs. WELLMAN & GAYLORD built a shop west of the burying ground on the Point, and near the South Coe, a few years ago. It was run by steam power, but it was burned after a year or two, and what remained of the business was removed to Deep River.


When the new Episcopal church was built in 1871-2, the old building was sold to Messrs. D. C. SPENCER and J. H. DAY, who moved it to the south side of the road leading toward Oyster River, and a short distance from main street, and converted the lower story into stores, and the upper into a hall. The hall was used for several years, as a school room, by parties living in the adjoining house, which was also the property of SPENCER & DAY. A grocery store was kept in the lower part, for two or three years, by W. P. BEACH & Company, and later DUDLEY, BUSHNELL & Company kept both a grocery and a dry goods store in the two departments, on the lower floor. It has been unoccupied for two or three years.

George PRATT and Samuel HART were merchants on Saybrook Point, in the early part of the present century, their store standing below the bank, in front of the residence of Mrs. John D. INGRAHAM, near the railroad track. It was taken down when the railroad was built. Mr. Giles BLAGUE also carried n business in a store that stood between the store of H. POTTER & Son and the brick store, and Captain Daniel KIRTLAND's was in the store now owned and occupied by H. POTTER & Son. It is said that the house of Mr. POTTER, adjoining his store, was built by Captain John BURROWS, in 1665. If this is the case, it is probably the oldest house in the county. Mr. Ezra KIRTLAND traded for many years in the next store west of Mr. Daniel KIRTLAND's, which is now a dwelling house, and owned by Mr. POTTER. Captain George DICKINSON built the "brick store," and Edward INGRAHAM, and afterward George D. WHITTELSEY, traded there. The store of Captain Elisha HART, "up street," after his decease, fell into the hand of his clerk, Amos SHEFFIELD, who for many years carried on business there, and was one of the leading and wealthy citizens of the town. His wife was the daughter of Rev. F. W. HOTCHKISS. After Mr. SHEFFIELD's death, his son, Charles A., carried on the business for a while, and the sold to Thomas C. ACTON jr., who continues the business in the same building. The next store south is that of Major HART, which, after his death, was occupied for a term of years by SUMNER and James P. BULL. There were two buildings side by side, one of which had been used for a salt store, and after the death of the BULL brothers, this was sold to Robert C. WHITTELSEY, who moved it up the street to a point opposite the Mill road, and opened it as a grocery. He afterward sold to George A. VOGEL, and his son, George A. jr., carried on the business till he sold to D. HOLMES, the present proprietor. The original store of Major HART was bought by Giles A. BUSHNELL, who has enlarged the building, and carries on the grocery business. B. DOWD, and his sons in company with him, and afterward his son, Galen, did quite a business as wholesale and retail dealers in leather and boots and shoes. At one time, before the introduction of machinery for the manufacture of shoes, about a dozen men were employed by the. The building is now occupied by Augustus BUSHNELL as a boot and shoe store. On the opposite side of the street, on the southwest corner, stood a store in which James TREADWAY, traded, for a number of years, and which was moved to the corner below, south of the Methodist church. After he retired from business it was occupied by William E. CLARK, as a grocery, till he bought the Methodist church. It is now occupied by William H. SMITH, as a tin and stove store. Frederick KIRTLAND kept a shoe store for several years n the building next the ACTON Library, now used as a Masonic Hall, and H. S. CHAPMAN kept a grocery near the Junction.

Mr. Humphrey PRATT kept tavern for many years in the house lately owned by Gilbert PRATT, deceased, and General LAFAYETTE and Mrs. Lydia H. SIGOURNEY both stopped there, when they were in town. Mr. William WILLARD kept a hotel on Saybrook Point-The Fenwick House, which he afterward sold to I. S. OTIS. Burt MCKINNEY was the next proprietor, and under his management, it became a famous place of summer resort for Hartford people. It stood on the high ground facing the mouth of North Cove, and on the south side of the road. It was burned on the morning of May 7th 1863.


Dr. Samuel FIELD was the physician here for many years. He died in 1783. His son Samuel, who was also a physician, was here for several years, and after him Dr. Samuel CARTER, who moved away about 1835. Dr. Asa Howe KING was the next physician. He came here about 1835 and died in 1870. Dr. John H. GRANNISS came here in 1868, and is now the only physician in town. Dr. Thomas B. BLOOMFIELD came here a few years ago, since Dr. GRANNISS came, but he only remained two or three years, and then removed to Westbrook. Augustus ELIOT, son of Rev. Jared ELIOT, of Killingworth, was born June 18th 1720, graduated from Yale College in 1740, and settled at Saybrook as a "Practitioner of Physic," and built the house where Captain William NEWELL and Captain John BUSHNELL lived, now owned by R. M.. BUSHNELL. He was engaged to be married, when he died, November 26th 1747, aged 27.

SILOAM LODGE, NO. 32, F. & A. M.

A lodge of free masons was established years ago in Potapaug, to which many of the people of the first society belonged, but a lodge was not established in the present town of Old Saybrook till 1870. In that year a charter, which was first granted to a lodge in Kent and Warren, in 1795, "was restored to Bro's John S. DICKINSON, First Master; J. J. TRYON, First Senior Warden, John E. DUDLEY, First Junior Warden, with authority to open Lodge in the town of Old Saybrook, to be known as Siloam Lodge, No. 32, and to hold jurisdiction over the Town of Old Say Brook. J. K. WHEELER Grand Secretary." The following is a list of the charter members: Samuel B. DICKINSON, J. E. HEALD, Frederick A. CHALKER, Richard H. TUCKER, Edward P. BLAGUE, J. W. TRYON, Charles A. PRATT, Alfred L. INGHAM, J. C. WHITTELSEY, James T. ROSS, C. L. EMERSON. The following have been masters: 1872, J. S. DICKINSON; 1874, F. A. CHALKER; 1875, E. P. BLAGUE; 1877, R. H. TUCKER; 1878, J. H. GRANNISS; 1879, J. J. TRYON; 1880, T. B. BLOOMFIELD; 1881, R. H. TUCKER; 1882, Arthur KIRTLAND; 1883, Charles A. KIRTLAND.


Some years ago the ladies of Saybrook established a circulating library, the books being kept at the house of Miss Harried WILLARD. These books, which had considerably increased in numbers after a few years, formed a nucleus for a town library. Hon. Thomas C. ACTON, now United States Assistant Treasurer, at New York, gave a spot of land opposite his house for the erection of a building, and money enough was raised by entertainments, subscriptions, and contributions, to put up a handsome building of two stories, with mansard roof, near the corner where the two roads from Main street meet on their way to Oyster River. The building was dedicated July 4th 1874. It now contains over 2,000 volumes, many of them very valuable, and a collection of antiquities. Miss Amelia CLARK has been the librarian ever since the building was erected.


When the Connecticut Valley Railroad was built, its route, which was by the edge of the water on Saybrook Point, was where the Fort, and the tomb of Lady FENWICK-which was a short distance south, stood. It was, therefore, necessary to remove the remains of Lady FENWICK, which was done. The bones were found in a good state of preservation, and so was a braid of auburn hair. The bones were moved, and placed in their proper position in a coffin, by Dr. Richard W. BULL, and a grave was dug in the cemetery, not far distant. On the 23d of November 1870, the bones were taken to the Congregational church, where appropriate services were held, after which a long procession followed the remains to the cemetery. The monument was placed over the remains as nearly as possible as it formerly stood. As relic hunters had begun to chip off the monument, an iron railing has recently been placed around it. There was formerly no inscription on the stone, but about 1850 or 1855, a stone cutter, who was employed near by, placed the name "Lady FENWICK, 1648," on one side of the monument, and a similar inscription with a cross was afterward put on the other side by Miss HART. The following receipt is copied from town records:

"April 2, 1679.

"Received of Thomas BUCKINGHAM of SayBrook, Agent for Benjamin BATTEN Esq. of London, and in payment for the Tombe stone of the Lady Alice BOTLER late of Say Brook; That is to say the full and just summe of Seven pound Sterling. I say Received by mee,
          "Matthew GRISWOLD

Tomb Hill, where the tomb stood, was dug away and used for filling at the wharf and depot, and the fort shared the same fate, those old landmarks being sacrificed to the march of modern improvements, so called.


In 1860 or 1861, a steamboat wharf was built by I. S. OTIS near Lady FENWICK's tomb, and a road was opened from the corner near the burying ground to the wharf, and not long afterward Capt. Richard DICKINSON built a house on the new road. Afterward, he and his brother, Edgar, built a store near the water and on the opposite side of the street from the tomb. This store is now kept by E. DICKINSON. After the railroad was begun, a road was opened running south, and extending to the end of the new wagon bridge across the cove to FENWICK. On the northwest corner of this road a store was built, where DICKINSON & KELLOGG, KELLOGG & BLAGUE, and lastly J. KELLOGG & Son, sold groceries. A post office has been established there under the name of Saybrook Point, and Joseph KELLOGG is postmaster. The street running to the bridge was soon built up on the west side with dwelling houses, including the PEASE House, the only hotel for transient guests.



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