[transcribed by Janece Streig]

Pages 311-326



The Free Academy-Other Schools-Post-Office-Slavery-The Bi-Centennial Celebration-Col. Mason's Monument-The Soldiers' Monument-Water-Works-Fire Department-Gas Company-City Hall-The Eliza HUNTINGTON Memorial Home-Otis Library-The Horse Railroad-Bridges-Laurel Hill-Masonic-Odd-Fellows-Other Societies-Manufactories-Villages.

The Free Academy. -The Norwich Free Academy was incorporated in May, 1854, having been endowed to the amount of about $100,000 by the gifts of a few generous citizens of Norwich, three of whose subscriptions were for $12,500 each. Of the whole amount raised $50,000 was reserved as a fund for the maintenance of the school, and with the remainder a lot was secured and a noble school edifice erected. The academy offers free instruction in the higher branches of study to all the youth of Norwich who are disposed to avail themselves of its advantages. The original donors and incorporators of the institution were the following: R. HUBBARD, W. P. GREENE, W. A. BUCKINGHAM, W. WILLIAMS, H. B. NORTON, J. BREED, C. B. ROGERS, W. W. COIT, J. L. GREENE, D. TYLER, S. C. MORGAN, I. M. BUCKINGHAM, L. F. S. FOSTER, D. SMITH, J. F. SLATER, C. OSGOOD, E. WILLIAMS, L. BLACKSTONE, J. A. ROCKWELL, L. BALLOU, C. J. STEDMAN, J. P. GULLIVER, C. N. FARNAM, E. O. ABBOTT, C. TRACY, A. H. ALMY, L. W. CARROLL, J. SPALDING, S. W. MEECH, J. S. WEBB, H. THOMAS, C. C. BRAND, C. JOHNSON, E. LEARNED, E. EDWARDS, A. J. CURRIER. Joseph OTIS, the founder of the "Otis Library," was an original donor to the academy, but died before the incorporation. The donors since the incorporation are as follows: C. A. CONVERSE, A. W. PRENTICE, T. P. NORTON, W. M. CONVERSE, H. BILL, G. PERKINS, J. M. HUNTINGTON, J. H. ADAMS, J. N. PERKINS.

A fund of five thousand dollars, beside other gifts to the amount of two thousand dollars, was presented by Mrs. Harriet Peck WILLIAMS for the establishment of the Peck Library, as a tribute of respect to the memory of her father, Capt. Bela PECK.

On the day of the bi-centennial celebration, in 1859, Mrs. W. P. GREENE presented to the academy a lot of land and a house valued at eight thousand dollars for the residence of the principal of the institution.

The foundation of the academy is due to the suggestion as well as to the persevering efforts of Rev. John P. GULLIVER, whose privilege it was to inaugurate the institution (Oct. 21, 1856) by an address, a history was given of schools and education in Norwich, and the designs of the founders of the academy were set forth for the information of the public and the guidance of those who shall be intrusted with its future management.

The situation is especially fortunate for an institution of this kind. The city is large enough to give the students the peculiar advantages of city life, and at the same time the rural surroundings are so near and so accessible as to afford ample opportunity for invigorating excursions through old woods or green fields; while the junction of two rivers, forming the beautiful Thames, at whose head the city lies, offers all the varied resources of the water for health and strength. So whether we look for society and the refinements and amenities of cultured life, or seek that vigorous development of mind and body which nature give by contact with her hills and streams, the boys and girls of the Norwich Free Academy have unusual privileges.

The instruction of the academy is in the hands of an ample corps of able teachers, most of them of long experience, and all devoted to their duties. Every effort is made to waken the interest of the pupils and inspire them with a love for honest work. The result of these efforts is seen in the success of those who go to higher institutions in passing the entrance examinations, and the high rank they maintain for scholarship and character after they enter.

The classic course of study embraces all that is required for entrance to the best colleges, and is kept up to the latest standards. A pupil who pursues this course faithfully and graduates with distinction is sure to enter Yale or Harvard, and, of course, colleges requiring less, without difficulty. The same is true of its relation to the scientific schools. It has also special studies for those who are preparing for a business life, and gives a great deal of attention to the natural sciences. In chemistry it has an excellent working laboratory, and in this branch, as also in botany, the students do a good deal of practical work, and is intended in the future not only to increase the amount of such work in these branches, but to encourage special practical work in other branches whenever a special adaptation is found for it.

The library is perhaps larger and better appointed than that of any other institution of its grade, and is made of use in various ways in promoting the culture or advancement in knowledge of the pupils. The academy also has a course of literary study, extending through four years, intended to give the pupils an introduction to the best English authors, and a brief account of French authors is also studied as a part of the course in that language. Also more than usual attention is paid to English composition, and to declamation and reading. In short, no effort is spared to give the pupils, so far as it goes, a well-rounded training in all that pertains to the practical duties or higher pleasures of life.

Heretofore the academy has been deficient in means to take proper care of such pupils as have not homes in Norwich, but this deficiency has now been supplied by the "WILLIAMS' Mansion," which has just been leased by the Misses MARSH, ladies of unusual fitness for such a position, who will furnish such students as live with them a refined and pleasant home. Parents who are considering the desirability of placing their sons in this establishment are assured that they will be under kind but firm management, and that everything reasonable will be done for their comfort and improvement. Mrs. DAVIES, also, in leasing the FARNHAM House for a similar purpose, has made the academy her debtor, especially as she has sown that she knows how to make boys faithful and happy. There are also many private homes in which whose who desire it can find good homes for their sons or daughters.

The first president of the board of trustees was Russell HUBBARD, who retained the office till his death in 1857 (June 7th).

The second president was William P. GREENE, who died June 18, 1864.

Third president, William WILLIAMS. Ebenezer LEARNED, secretary and treasurer from the beginning.

The Free Academy went into operation under Mr. Elbridge SMITH as principal, who continued in office to the close of the ninth year, July, 1865. Mr. SMITH was a native of Wayland, Mass., and a graduate of Brown University. He was previously principal of the high school at Cambridge, Mass.

He was succeeded in September, 1865, by the Rev. William HUTCHISON, formerly tutor in Yale College, and recently principal of the Lawrence Academy at Groton, Mass. Mr. HUTCHISON was ordained as a missionary in 1858, and went to Constantinople with the expectation of establishing a mission in Turkey, but the failing health of his family obliged him to relinquish the design. He is the present principal.

Post-Offices. -The first post-office in this town was established at Norwich Town, probably during the winter of 1782, with Dudley WOODBRIDGE as postmaster.

Wm. LEFFINGWELL, appointed postmaster during the month of Jan 1790
Christopher LEFFINGWELL, appointed postmaster during the month of Aug 1793
Christopher LEFFINGWELL, Jr., appointed postmaster during the month of July 1797
Gardiner CARPENTER, appointed postmaster on the 19th Jan 1799
John HYDE, appointed postmaster on the 1st July 1815
Who held the office up to the change of name to Norwich Town, which order was made by the post-master general on the 21st April, 1836.
Norwich Town (late Norwich), established 1st April 1836
John HYDE, appointed postmaster 1st April 1836
Harry HARLAND, appointed postmaster 5th Oct. 1836
John T. WAIT, " " 3d Oct 1840
John HYDE, " " 28th June 1841
Henry B. TRACY, " " 18th Jan 1844
Henry MCNELLY, " " 12th April 1850
Elisha F. ROGERS, " " 22d July 1853
Henry B. TRACY,1 " " 1st July 1854
Chelsea Landing office was probably established during the fall of 1803
Jacob DEWITT, " " During the fall of 1803
John DEWITT, " " 18th Dec 1809
Charles KINNEY, " " 3d June 1823
Who continued to act till the change of name to Norwich City, which was made on the 6th of November, 1827.
Norwich (late Norwich City), established on the 21st April 1836
William L'HOMMEDIEU, " " 21st April 1836
Samuel M. DOWNER, " " 4th Feb. 1842
Enoch C. CHAPMAN, " " 11th April 1843
John H. TOWNSEND, " " 15th June 1844
William L'HOMMEDIEU " " 2d June 1845
John DUNHAM, " " 21st June 1849
John W. STEDMAN, 1 " " 25th April 1853

[1 For subsequent postmasters see Supplement.]

The proceeds of Norwich in 1782 was about $75, and that of Chelsea Landing, Norwich City, in 1803, about $90.

Slavery. -The colored population of Norwich was more numerous than in most Northern towns. It consisted partly of free blacks, accruing from previous occasional manumissions, and partly of persons still held in servitude and bought and sold as property. From bills of sale that are extant, and from the valuation made in inventories, we learn that in the early part of the century the price for slaves ranged from 60s. to £30. After this the value increased, and the best were rated at £100. The Rev. William HART, of Saybrook, in 1749 purchased a negro boy of Jabez HUNTINGTON, of Norwich, for whom he paid £290, old tenor; but this was a depreciated currency, probably not worth more than a fifth of its nominal value in silver coin. At a later period the price of a servant was considerably enhanced.

Capt. John and Matthew PERKINS, of Hanover Society, had each what was called a houseful of slaves. The former, known as "big Captain John," died in 1761. His inventory enumerated his African servants-Tamar, Ziba, Jehu, Selah, etc.,--to the number of fifteen, the best valued at £50. Probably no larger number than this could be found in any one family in the county.

Capt. Matthew PERKINS was a large landholder, a man of energetic character, and, like his brother, strong and powerful in frame. "He died (in 1773) from lockjaw, caused by a bite on the thumb which he received from a young negro slave whom he was chastising for some fault."2 [2 PERKINS' Genealogy, Hist. and Gen. Reg., 14, 114.]

It was not until near the era of the Revolution that the reasonableness and equity of holding the African race in durance began to be questioned by the citizens. At length it was whispered about that it was inconsistent to complain of political oppression and yet withhold from others the privileges to which they were entitled, to fight for liberty and yet refuse it to a portion of the human family.

Communications on this subject, bold and even eloquent, appeared in the newspapers, of which one from the Norwich Packet will serve as a specimen:

"July 7, 1774. To all those who call themselves Sons of Liberty n America, Greeting:

"My Friends. We know in some good measure the inestimable value of liberty. But were we once deprived of her, she would then appear much more valuable than she now appears. We also see her, standing as it were tiptoe on the highest bough ready for flight. Why is she departing? What is it that disturbs her repose? Surely some fould monster of hideous shape, and hateful kind, opposite in its nature to hers, with all its frightful appearances and properties, iron hands and leaden feet, formed to gripe and crush, hath intruded itself into here peaceful habitation and ejected her. Surely this must be the case, for we know oppositions cannot dwell together. Is it not time, high time to search for this Achan? this disturber of Israel? High time, I say, to examine for the cause of those dark and gloomy appearances that cast a shadow over our glory. And is not this it? Are we not guilty of the same crime we impute to others? Of the same facts that we say are unjust, cruel, arbitrary, despotic, and without law in others? Paul argued in this manner:--'Thou therefore that teachest another, teachest thou not thyself? Thou that preachest a man should not steal, dost thou steal? Thou that makest thy boast of the law, through breaking the law, dishonorest thou God!' And may we not use the same mode of argument and say-We that declare (and that with much warmth and zeal) it is unjust, cruel, barbarous, unconstitutional, and without law, to enslave, do we enslave?-Yes, verily we do? A black cloud witnesseth against us and our own mouths condemn us! How preposterous our conduct! How vain and hypocritical our pretences! Can we expect to be free, so long as we are determined to enslave?


Under the influence of this new phase of public opinion and individual responsibility several persons voluntarily liberated their slaves and made them some compensation for former services.

"Dec. 1774. Mr. Samuel GAGER, of Norwich, from a conscientious regard to justice, has lately liberated three faithful slaves, and as a compensation for their services, leased them a very valuable farm on very moderate terms. Mr. Jonathan AVERY also emancipated an able industrious negro man, from the same noble principle."

An act of the Legislature, prescribing the rules and regulations under which emancipation should take place, was passed in 1777, and several instances of liberation, in accordance with the provisions of this statute,3 are on record at Norwich, such as:

"Liberty given by the select men to Jabez HUNTINGTON, Esq. to emancipate a negro man named Guy, Oct. 2, 1780."

"Liberty to Col. Joshua HUNTINGTON to emancipate his negro servant, Bena, June 26, 1781."

[3 Capt. William BROWNE, a noted loyalist of Salem, Mass., connected with the WINTHROP family of New London, was the proprietor of a large tract of land lying south of Colchester, which formed almost a parish of itself, and was called by the owner New Salem. It is now in the town of Salem, Conn. A portion of it under cultivation had been leased for a term of years, with nine slaves as laborers upon it. When this land was confiscated in 1779, on account of the Toryism of the proprietor, the slaves petitioned the Legislature, through Benjamin HUNTINGTON, the administrator on confiscated estates, for their liberty. The petition was not granted, but the slaves had the benefit of the new laws regulating emancipation, and it is supposed that they were all set free sooner or later.]

But whether slaves or freemen, the Africans of Norwich have always been treated with forbearance and lenity. They have been particularly indulged in their annual elections and training. In former times the ceremony of a mock election of a negro Governor created no little excitement in their ranks. The servants for the time being assumed the relative rank and condition of their master, and were allowed to use the horses and many of the military trappings of their owners. Provisions, decorations, fruits, and liquors were liberally surrendered to them. Great electioneering prevailed, parties often ran high, stump harangues were made, and a vast deal of ceremony expended in counting the votes, proclaiming the result, and inducting the candidate into office, the whole too often terminating in a drunken frolic, if not a fight.

A very decent gravestone in the public burial-ground bears this inscription:

"In memory of Boston Trowtrow, governor of the African tribe in this town, who died 1772, aged 66."

After the death of this person "Sam HUN'TON" was annually elected to this mock dignity for a much greater number of years than his honorable namesake and master, Samuel HUNTINGTON, Esq. filled the gubernatorial chair. It was amusing to see this sham dignitary after his election, riding through the town on one of his master's horses, adorned with plaited gear, his aides on each side, a la militaire, himself puffing and swelling with pomposity, sitting bolt upright, and moving with a slow, majestic pace, as if the universe was looking on. When he mounted or dismounted his aides flew to his assistance, holding his bridle, putting his feet into the stirrup, and bowing to the ground before him. The Great Mogul, in a triumphal possession, never assumed an air of more perfect self-importance that the negro Governor at such a time.

We must not leave this subject without recording the name of Leb Quy, a native of Africa, and a trusty Continental soldier. He served during three years of the war, and was one of the town's quota in 1780 and 1781.

An old-Time Love-Story.. -"From a Justice's Book of Record of Ebenezer HARTSHORN, one of His Majesty's Justices of ye Peace, New London County, Conn.: Albert PAGE, of Havorhill, in ye province of Massachusetts Bay, and Dorcos FILLMORE, of Norwich, in New London County, in ye Colony of Connecticut, and presented themselves for marriage without proof of being published as the law requires. This court refuses to joyne them in marriage this 15th day of Oct., 1759.

"On ye 16th day of October, 1759, ye above Albert PAGE and Dorcos FILLMORE appeared to my office in Norwich with a certificate from Ira POST, one of His Majesty's grand jurors, and certifies that he read a publishment of ye intended marriage of ye above named standing on ye stepstone at ye door of ye First Society meetin house in sd. Norwich three Sundays running, sothey were joined together in marriage by me this day and went forth. Ebenezer HARTSHORN, Justis of Peace."

The Bi-Centennial Celebration. -The two hundredth anniversary of the town was celebrated by a magnificent festival of two days' continuance, occupying Wednesday and Thursday, 7th and 8th of September, 1859.

The arrangements of this great jubilee had been planned with a wise forecast. A committee of preparation had been for a year n office; invitations had been extensively circulated, and a general enthusiasm prevailed among the sons and daughters of Norwich and their descendants, far and near, to honor this interesting birthday. It was aptly termed the great Golden Wedding of the town, kept in remembrance of the hallowed union of the Puritan emigrant and his wilderness bride two hundred years before.

"Here where the tangled thicket grew,
Where wolf and panther passed,
An acorn from an English Oak
In the rude soil was cast."

A vast fraternity, genial intercourse, cordial fellowship, and lavish exchanges of thought and fact were confidently expected, and seldom are joyful anticipations and enlarged plans so fully realized.

The weather seemed adapted to the occasion. The season in all its bearings harmonized with the festal robes and outdoor encampments with which the inhabitants prepared their dear old homestead for the reception of its guests. A general glow of happiness pervaded every countenance. The absentees, the wanderers, the distant relatives, friends, and neighbors assembled. It was a mighty gathering, but yet far more orderly and quiet than a customary militia muster or political convention. It was an ovation, hilarious and triumphant, but not tumultuous. The devotional element was not perhaps sufficiently prevalent to chime with the principles of "two hundred years ago;" but, on the other hand, there was no bacchanal accompaniment, no rude disturbance to break the swell of a note of music or the sound of a speaker's voice, and it was said not a solitary case of inebriety was observed during the whole festival.

The most conspicuous features of the celebration were these:

The decoration of the streets and buildings, and the erection of a wide-winged tent upon the Parade.

A grand procession, military and civic, half a mile in extent, that made the tour of the town, with banners, bands of music, and exhibitions of trade and professions, many of them in active operation.

Two historical discourses of lasting value and interest.

Two descriptive addresses of an oratorical character,--impressive and eloquent in a high degree.

A dinner, with numerous toasts and speeches.

A closing ball at the great tent on the Town Park or Parade.

The various exercises were interspersed and enlivened with original poetry and good singing. A descriptive poem by Anson G. CHESTER, of Syracuse, N. Y., was one of the expected entertainments of the festival, but owing to the sever illness of the poet it was not delivered.

It was estimated that at this celebration fifteen hundred flags were spread upon the wind, not only those of our own country, but the motley emblems of all nations. Several magnificent arches were erected at prominent points. A very tasteful arch in Franklin Street represented two clasped hands, 1659 and 1859, with the motto, "A Hearty Greeting."

Gen. David YOUNG was the chief marshal of the ceremonies. Governor BUCKINGHAM presided in the assemblies. Ex-President FILLMORE was the most distinguished guest. The bi-centennial discourse was by Daniel C. GILMAN; the discourse on the life and times of John MASON, by Hon. John A. ROCKWELL. The other addressed, or more properly orations, were by Rt. Rev. Alfred LEE, Bishop of Delaware, and Donald G. MITCHELL.

The speakers were all natives of the town, and had the same object in view,--gratefully to commemorate the scenes and influences by which they had been nurtured. It was beautiful to see with what variety of touch they struck the key-note, producing with great diversity of tone entire harmony. The faithful historic record, the biography of the founder, the chastened retrospect, and the graceful survey of the two centuries of the town's life presented by the orators, each in his own characteristic style, converged upon the same theme, Norwich, our home.

Many interesting incidents were connected with this great festivity. The corner-stone of a monument to the memory of MASON, the conqueror of the Pequots, was laid in Yantic Cemetery. A dinner was given by Gen WILLIAMS to the Mohegans, of which more than sixty of the remains of that tribe partook. Mrs. William P. GREENE, as a memorial of the celebration, presented a house and grounds to the Free Academy, for the residence of the principal, valued at seven thousand dollars. Mr. Giles L'HOMMEDIEU, the oldest native-born American in the town, was then in his last illness, and the procession passed the house where he lay in reverential silence. He died six days after the celebration, in the ninety-fourth year of his age.

A history of the celebration, including the preliminary measurers and a registry of the various committees, with the addresses, poems, hymns, speeches, and particulars of interest connected with the great festival, was published by John W. STEDMAN, of Norwich, is a well-executed, attractive volume, entitled "The Norwich Jubilee." The work was compiled, printed, and published by Mr. STEDMAN; the paper was manufactured at the Chelsea Mill, and the whole book, in its print, binding, and illustrations, is a Norwich production. As a memorial volume it is of enduring interest. Its contents are so comprehensive as to render it unnecessary to give in this history anything more than the foregoing brief outline of the two grand red-letter days of the bi-centennial commemoration.

The year 1859 was the bi-centennial anniversary of the signing of the purchase deed, and of the preliminary steps taken by the proprietors in laying out the town, but the anniversary of the actual settlement, when woman arrived upon the ground and homes were constituted, was more definitely the year 1860.

Uncas and the Indian Graves. -"The ancient Indian cemetery, heavily shadowed with a native growth of trees, is now little more than an inclosure for the Uncas monument.

"During the summer of 1833, Gen. JACKSON, President of the United States, with a part of his cabinet, made a tour through a portion of the Eastern States. The citizens of Norwich had long been desirous of erecting some memorial of respect for their 'Old Friend,' the Mohegan sachem, and they suddenly decided to celebrate the visit of the President by connecting it with the interesting ceremony of laying the corner-stone of the Uncas monument.

"The Presidential party came from Hartford by land, arriving by the Essex turnpike in open coaches, with a brilliant escort of cavalry that had gone forth to meet them. Vice-President VAN BUREN, Governor EDWARDS, of Connecticut, Maj. DONELSON, and Messrs. CASS, WOODBURY, and PINSETT, Secretaries of War, Navy, and State, formed the party. They arrived at three o'clock P.M., paused a few moments at the falls, and then advanced to the cemetery, where a great assemblage of the inhabitants, military companies, bands of children with banners and mottoes, and a few scattered Indians from Mohegan received the visitors with martial salutes and joyful acclamations.

"At the cemetery, where all stood with uncovered heads, N. L. SHIPMAN, Esq., in behalf of the association, gave a brief sketch of the family of Uncas and the existing condition of the tribe. The President them moved the foundation-stone into its place. It was an interesting, suggestive ceremony; a token of respect from the modern warrior to the ancient,--from the emigrant race to the aborigines. Gen. CASS, in a short but eloquent address to the multitude, observed that the earth afforded but few more striking spectacles than that of one hero doing homage at the tomb of another.

"The ceremony concluded, the children sang a hymn and the Presidential party passed away, pausing again at the Landing for refreshments, and embarking from thence in a steamer for New London.

"Though the corner-stone was thus auspiciously prepared, no funds had been obtained or plans matured for the erection of the monument. The ladies at length took hold of the work and brought it to a successful issue. Embracing the opportunity of a political mass-meeting which assembled at Norwich, Oct. 14, 1840, in honor of HARRISON and TYLER, they prepared a refreshment fair, with generous enthusiasm arranged and filled their tables, took their station as saleswomen, and with the profits paid for the monument.

"It consists of a simple granite obelisk, with no inscription but the name,--

"UNCAS.1 [1 The Rev. Mr. FITCH, in 1675, wrote this name Unkas. Before the monument was completed, G. L. PERKINS, Esq., who had charge of undertaking, wrote letters to Noah WEBSTER, the philologist, Thomas DAY, Secretary of State of Connecticut, and Col. William L. STONE, a diligent investigator of Indian history, to inquire what they would consider the most eligible mode of spelling the name to be inscribed on the obelisk. They all concurred in recommending the modern orthography,--Uncas.]

"The raising of the shaft and fixing it upon the foundation-stone was the occasion of another festival. This was on the 4th of July, 1842, at which time William L. STONE, of New York, delivered an historical discourse on the life and times of the sachem.2 [2 Published afterwards in a small duodecimo volume, entitled "Uncas and Miantomomoh."]

"Among the persons present in the tent where the address was delivered were ten citizens of the place over seventy-five years of age: Erastus PERKINS, 89; Samuel AVERY, 88; Seabury BREWSTER, 86; Christopher VIAL, 82; Bela PECK, 82; Ichabod WARD, 80; Newcomb KINNEY, 80; Benjamin SNOW, 77; Nathaniel SHIPMAN, 76; Zachariah HUNTINGTON, 75.

"The whole space inclosed as the Uncas Cemetery, and probably the ground for some distance upon its border, is thickly seeded with Indian graves, though but very few inscribed stones or even hillocks remain. The only inscription of any particular interest is on the grave-stone of Samuel Uncas, one of the latest of the Uncas family that bore even the nominal title of sachem, and who died not long before the Revolutionary war. The epitaph, written by Dr. Elisha TRACY, reads thus:

"'For Beauty, wit, for Sterling sense,
For temper mild, for Eliquence,
For Courage Bold, for things wauregan,
He was the Glory of Moheagon,
Whose death has caused great lamenation,
Both in ye English and ye Indian Nation.;"

Col. MASON's Monument. -A monument to the memory of Col MASON was erected near the old POST and GAGER burying-ground, on the street leading from Norwich Town to Bean Hill, with the following inscriptions.

At the base of the monument is cut the name MASON, and on the tablet in the centre, following MASON's full name and title, are these:

"Rev. James FITCH, John PEASE, John TRACY, John BALDWIN, Jonathan ROYCE, John POST, Thomas BINGHAM, Thomas WATERMAN, and Robert ALLEN."

On the western base is the following inscription:

"Major John MASON, born in England, died in Norwich, January 30th 1672, aged 73."

Above this is a tablet bearing the names of

"Sergeant Thomas LEFFINGWELL, Richard WALLIS, Thomas ADGATE, John OLMSTEAD, Stephen BACKUS, Thomas BLISS, John REYNOLDS, Josiah REED, Richard HENDYS, and Christopher HUNTINGTON."

On the north face are the names of

"Ensign William BACKUS, Francis GRISWOLD, Neh. SMITH, Thomas HOWARD, John CALKINS, Richard EDGERTON, Thomas POST, and John GAGER."

The southern face bearing the following:

"Samuel HIDE, William HIDE, Lieut. Thomas TRACY, Morgan BOWERS, Robert WADE, John BIRCHARD, Simeon HUNTINGTON, Stephen GIFFORD, and John BRADFORD."

The Soldiers' Monument. -At a meeting of the citizens of Norwich, held at Breed Hall on the 14th of January, 1869, it was resolved "that a committee of seven be appointed to solicit and collect funds for the erection of a monument to the Norwich soldiers and seamen who fell in our late war for the preservation of the National Union." The committee consisted of Hon. W. A. BUCKINGHAM, Amos W. PRENTICE, John T. WAIT, Rev. M. MCG. DANA, Dr. C. B. WEBSTER James L. CAREW, Edwin P. AVERY, E. P. SLOCUM, and Misses Elizabeth Greene and Eliza PERKINS. The committee did not make much progress; so at a town-meeting on the 3d of October, 1870, the subject was again brought up and disposed of by laying a tax of "fifteen cents on one hundred dollars of the assessment list of the town," and appointing a committee to expend it in the erection of a suitable monument to the memory of the soldiers and seamen of the town in the great Rebellion. William A. BUCKINGHAM, John T. WAIT, and James A. HOVEY were appointed this committee. A contract for a monument was soon made, and in the spring of 1873 it was put in place at the head of the Great Plain. The monument is of a light granite, from Westerly, R. I. Its design is that of a colossal statue of a Union soldier supported on a massive pedestal. The statue is twelve feet high, and the entire height of the monument is twenty-seven feet six inches. It measures ten foot square at the base. Its cost was about eighteen thousand dollars. The inscriptions at the several sides are the motto of the State, the names of all those from this town who fell in active service, and those words on the front, "Erected by the town of Norwich in memory of her brave sons who voluntarily entered the military service of the United States and lost their lives in defense of the national government during the Rebellion."

Norwich City Water-Works.-At the May session of the General Assembly of the State, 1866, the charter of the city was so amended as to give the city the power to supply itself with pure water. This amendment was accepted by the city, and in October of the following year a site was selected for a reservoir and the work commenced. The reservoir is a natural basin between the Scotland road and the Canterbury turnpike, one mile east of Norwich town green, through which a small tributary stream ran to the Yantic River.

Fire Department. -The present organization of the fire department is as follows:

Joseph B. BARRIER, chief engineer, fire marshal, and superintendent fire-alarm telegraph; Assistant Engineers, L. W. GREENBURG, A. W. PARK, W. T. FARRINGTON.

Wauregan Steam Fire-Engine Company, No. 1, 180 Main Street.-- -- --, foreman; Walter T. ATCHINSON, first assistant; Charles TRACY, second Assistant; A. T. BOONE, secretary and treasurer; Sidney L. SMITH, engineer, George S. TOWNE, stoker.

Niagara Hose Company, No. 2,--Thomas CUNNINGHAM, foreman; ---, first assistant; Edward HORAN, second assistant; John LOOBY, secretary; Frank N. RANGER, treasurer.

William M. WILLIAMS Steamer, No. 3.-Felix CALAHAN, foreman; William DANAHY, first assistant; John DANAHY, second assistant; Frank CASE, secretary; Frank M. MCKEAG, engineer; Morris WELCH, stoker.

Blackstone Hose Company, No. 1.-A. S. BARBOUR, foreman; Charles E. ROGERS, first assistant; Ezra B. HOWARD, second assistant; John W. BURKE, secretary; Charles A. WILLIAMS, treasurer.

Norwich Hose Company, No. 4.-Joseph N. DUCHETT, Jr., foreman; John COFFEE, first assistant; William G. TRIPP, second assistant; G. H. WILBUR, secretary, William NOSS treasurer.

Neptune STEAMER, No. 5.-Howard L. STANTON, foreman; Charles L. PERRY, first assistant; George H. STANTON, second assistant; Patrick F. KELLEY, secretary and treasurer.

Wauregan Hook-and-Ladder Company.-Joseph B. COREY, foreman, Henry B. LEWIS, first assistant; Herman S. CASE, second assistant; Blyden HEDGE, secretary; Joseph B. COREY, treasurer.

Independence Hose Company, No. 6.-John P. MURPHY, foreman; Joseph KENNEDY, first assistant; James B. WARD, second assistant; P. J. SHERIDAN, secretary; M. F. KANE, treasurer; James COX, steward.

Shetucket Steamer, No. 7.-Patrick BARRY, foreman; Martin CARROLL, first assistant; James RIGNEY, second assistant; John FOLEY, secretary; Thomas J. CONNOR, treasurer; William H. BELL, engineer; John REYNOLDS, stoker.

Yantic Fire Company, Yantic.-Paul SMITH, foreman; Arthur P. GLEASON, first assistant; David SMITH, second assistant; Charles H. CARPENTER, secretary and treasurer.

Court-House, City and Town Hall. -On the 24th of April, 1865, a town-meeting was held to discuss the subject of petitioning the Legislature to make Norwich the sole shire town of the county. At the same meeting a committee was appointed to select a suitable site for a new building for county and town purposes to take the place of the house then recently burnt. The committee consisted of John T. WAIT, Lorenzo BLACKSTONE, James A. HOVEY, James Lloyd GREENE, Amos W. PRENTICE, John W. STEDMAN, John T. BROWN, Jeremiah HALSEY, Augustus BREWSTER, H. H. STARKWEATHER, and Henry BILL. Subsequently the town voted to instruct this committee not to take definite action until the Legislature had decided the shire town question.

The action of the Legislature was adverse to the petition of the town, and the whole matter of a new building was postponed till the General Assembly of 1869. Then an act was passed giving the town of Norwich, the City of Norwich, and the County of New London power to combine for the erection of a building for town, city, and county purposes, with no other restriction as to the cost of the same except that the county should not expend to exceed the sum of twenty thousand dollars. The same act superseded the town committee appointed to select a site for the same by placing that duty in the hands of the selectmen of the town of Norwich, the mayor of the city of Norwich, and the commissioners of the county of New London.

Early in 1870, all the parties in interest having agreed to proceed with the work, and fixed upon a site for the building and plans for the same, the work commenced. It was not till the spring of 1873 that any portion of the building was ready for occupancy. The first session of the Superior Court in it was opened on the 11th day of November of that year.

The building stands at the junction of Broadway and Union Streets, facing Otis Square. It is one hundred and ten feet from front to rear, and one hundred and eight feet wide. It is three stories high (including the basement, occupied by the city for police purposes), with a French roof. The main cornice is fifty-eight feet from the ground. The tower rises twenty-nine feet from the roof. The basement story is of cut granite; the other stories are of pressed brick with granite trimmings. The cornices and tower are of galvanized iron, and the roof is covered with tin. The cellar is the whole size of the building, and contains the steam boilers for heating the building, coal bins, etc. The basement floor is occupied by the cells for a lock-up, a police court-room thirty by fifty, and spacious rooms for all the ordinary police business of the city. On the first floor are the office of the town clerk and other town officers, the county clerk's office, the probate office, the office of the chief engineer of the city fire department, the Common Council changer, twenty-eight by forty-five, and the offices of the mayor, the city clerk, and water commissioners. On the floor above are the town hall, forty-eight by sixty-two in the rear, and the court-room in front, forty-five by fifty, with ample anterooms, library-rooms, sheriff's office, etc. Each story is supplied with water-closets, fire-proof vaults of large dimensions, extending from the ground, and every convenience for the accommodation of business and the personal comfort of the occupants of the building that modern ingenuity has devised. The tower contains a clock with illuminated dials, which are lighted up by night, and a 3000-pounds bell, which is used by the clock, and also as an alarm-bell. Water, gas, and heat are carried to every room in the building. The interior finish is of yellow pine, chestnut, and black walnut.

The plans of the building were by Burdich & Arnold. Evan BURDICH superintended the work. Gilbert L. CONGDON executed the wood-work, and Joseph H. SMITH the masonry. The furniture was made to order by N. S. GILBERT & Son. In building and furniture the edifice will compare favorably with any public building in the country. Its entire cost was about three hundred and fifty thousand dollars.

The Eliza HUNTINGTON Memorial Home for Respectable and Indigent Aged and Inform Females was founded through the liberality of the late Jedediah HUNTINGTON, in furtherance of the desire of his deceased wife, Eliza, to render a public benefit to the community in which she lived. He bequeathed his dwelling-house, estimated to be worth twenty-five thousand dollars, and an additional sum of thirty-five thousand dollars. He placed the management of the home in the hands of his executors, John T. WAIT, James A. HOVEY, and Jedediah HUNTINGTON, and the rectors of Christ and Trinity Churches.

Jedediah HUNTINGTON was born in Norwich, Sept. 13, 1791.

From the early part of this century until the close of the second war with England he resided in Troy, N. Y., with his brother-in-law, Guilford YOUNG. He then returned to Norwich and embarked in business in the stores that occupied the site of the present freight depot of the Norwich and Worcester Railroad, and remained there alone or in company with his nephew, the late John G. HUNTINGTON, until he entirely retired from business, in 1836. In all his business enterprises he was eminently successful; and this success may well be attributed not only to his energy, enterprise, and constant devotion to his business pursuits, but to the enviable reputation that he enjoyed for his unbending integrity.

Jedediah HUNTINGTON, son of the late John G. HUNTINGTON, and John A. MORGAN are now conducting the business which was established more than sixty years ago by the subject of this sketch, and in every way maintain the same reputation for honor and integrity in all their business relations which was enjoyed by the founder of the house.

In June, 1819, Mr. HUNTINGTON married Eliza, youngest daughter of the late Judge Marvin WAIT, of New London. She was a lady with a warm heart and open hand, and the poor and the afflicted were ever drawn towards her by her deep and tender sympathy for them. Mr. and Mrs. HUNTINGTON lived together for more than fifty years. They celebrated their golden wedding in June, 1869.

The confidence that the public placed in Mr. HUNTINGTON is exhibited in the relations that he sustained to the moneyed and other corporations of this city. He was for nearly half a century a director of the Norwich Bank. He was a trustee and director of the Society for Savings from its organization, and one of the projectors and managers of the Norwich Water-Power Company. He took an active part in building the railroad from Norwich to Worcester, and when the company, of which he was a director, was near sinking under pecuniary embarrassment, he united with a few others in lending his personal credit to sustain that of the corporation, and in that way secured the success of the enterprise.

The Sheltering Arms Home for the Sick and the Rock Nook Children's Home are two praiseworthy institutions both locate din Norwich Town.

The Otis Library. 1-This institution received its name from its founder, Deacon Joseph OTIS, a son of Norwich, but for many years a merchant in New York. The last fifteen years of his life he spent in his native city. His first purpose was to endow a library by a bequest, but upon the earnest recommendation of his pastor and friend, Rev. Alvan BOND, D.D., he decided to begin the work before his death. The building was accordingly erected and delivered to trustees designated by the donor in January, 1850. The original board of trustees were Rev. Alvan BOND, D.D., Worthington HOOKER, M.D., J. G. W. TRUMBULL, George PERKINS, William A. BUCKINGHAM, Robert JOHNSON, and Charles JOHNSON, the board being by charter self-perpetuating. [1 Contributed by Rev. Wm. S. PALMER.]

At the completion of the building Deacon OTIS advanced two thousand dollars for the purchase of books, and the work of the library began in July, 1850.

"A very general interest was taken in the institution," says Dr. BOND, "and a large number of readers applied for tickets, which were furnished at that time for one dollar a year. Constant additions were made to the books upon its shelves, chiefly through the continued liberality of its founder, who in his lifetime gave in all over ten thousand dollars, and at his death bequeathed seven thousand dollars more as a permanent fund."

In 1868, Mr. Charles BOSWELL, of West Hartford, a native of Norwich, added one thousand dollars to the permanent fund of the institution, and from time to time generous contributions have been made by numerous citizens toward the current expenses, and to enable the trustees to make larger purchases of books than the income of funds would warrant. Various public entertainments have been given to promote the same objects.

It has been the constant intention of the trustees to provide a large variety of literature, but rigidly to exclude everything that can be in any way hurtful in its influence. For ten or fifteen years past magazines and quarterlies, both American and foreign, have been furnished the patrons of the library. At present more than thirty different standard periodicals are regularly received, and year by year bound volumes of them are multiplying upon the shelves.

In 1867 a very complete catalogue of the books then owned was issued in a bound volume, and within the past three years, by the exceeding generosity of Mr. William ABBOT, one of the trustees till he transferred his residence to Hartford, a card catalogue has been made, according to the plan adopted by many of the first libraries of the country.

Within the past year the institution has been enriched by the munificent bequests of the late Dr. Daniel Tyler COIT, for many years a prominent physician of Boston, Mass., but the last five years of his live a resident of Norwich. His bequests amount to nearly thirteen thousand dollars. The present trustees are Messrs. John T. ADAMS, William AIKEN, E. N. GIBBS, Gardner GREENE, William HUTCHISON, William S. PALMER, and Jonathan TRUMBULL.

The Norwich Horse Railroad was projected in 1869, and Sept. 12, 1870, the first cars passed over it from Bean Hill to Greeneville. The line extends from the city to Greeneville, to the falls, and Norwich Town, and has proven itself a great convenience.

Bridges. -One of the earliest bridges was over the Shetucket at the falls. It was built in 1717, and in February, 1727, this with three others were swept away by a freshet. The bridge was rebuilt in 1828, and at its raising a portion of it fell, killing two persons and seriously wounding several others. The Lathrop bridge has been rebuilt several times.

In 1750, or near that period. The following bridges were maintained by the town:

  • Over Bradford's or Susquetomscot Brook, on the road to Lebanon.
  • Great Pond Brook, on the road to Colchester.
  • Pease's Brook. These were the three branches of the Yantic.
  • At Bean Hill. Quarter bridge. The Court-House bridge. No-man's Acre bridge. These four cross the Yantic.
  • Beaver's Brook, West Farms Society.
  • Trading Cove Brook, on the road to New London.
  • Elderkin's bridge, on the road to Windham.
  • "Wood's bridge over Showtuckett, north of Pettipang." This was afterwards Lord's bridge, uniting Franklin with Lisbon.
  • Lovett's bridge. Lathrop's Bridge.
  • The last four were over the Shetucket.
  • Johnson's bridge over the Quinnebaug, on the road to Plainfield.
  • Pachaug bridge, east of the Quinnebaug.
The first bridge uniting "The Landing" (Norwich City) with Lisbon was built in 1737, and in 1751 was superseded by a bridge which cost $4000, old tenor. This was swept away in 1762, and was rebuilt in 1764. This was replaced by another structure in 1784, and still another in 1797. It is not strange that we find the town records alluding to the "enormous expenses" incurred for bridges.

The Norwich and Preston Bridge Company was incorporated in 1816, and in the following year a toll-bridge was erected about a mile above the mouth of the river. It was carried away in 1823, but rebuilt on the same foundation at an expense of five thousand dollars. In 1858 this bridge was purchased by the towns of Norwich and Preston. This was replaced by the present iron bridge, which was built in 1870.

Giddings' bridge, which spanned the Shetucket about a mile from its mouth, was built in 1757.

Laurel Hill bridge was built in 1853, through the instrumentality of Hon. Henry BILL, John W. STEDMAN, Thomas ROBINSON, John A. ROCKWELL, Amos DAVIS, and others. It has since been repaired, and in 1860 its charter was relinquished, and since then it has belonged to the town.

The bridge over the Shetucket at Greeneville was built in 1854, damaged by floods and reconstructed in 1858, destroyed by fire in 1862, and rebuilt in 1863. The wharf bridge was built in 1771.

Laurel Hill. 1 -That portion of the city of Norwich on the east, where the Shetucket joins the Thames, from the heights of which the eye sweeps over the entire field of the city and its river-front, the old town, and the whole range of country as far southward as the highlands of Montville,--a natural panorama as surpassed in beauty in Connecticut,--was a s rude and uncultured as when MASON's party first sailed up the Thames down to the year 1850. At the time it was known as Pepper's Hill, from one Michael PEPPER, who formerly owned a portion of it and lived near it. This district was originally a part of the East or Long Society of Norwich, but in 1786 was set off to Preston with the rest of the society, and remained part of the town of Preston for seventy years. [1 By J. W. STEDMAN.]

In the fall of 1850 something over one hundred acres of this district were purchased by John A. ROCKWELL, Thomas ROBINSON, and Henry BILL, and its name changed to the more appropriate title of Laurel Hill. Soon after its purchase Mr. BILL acquired the entire interest of his partners, and whatever of success attended the enterprise from the beginning is to be attributed to him. Streets and building-lots were laid out; an ample tract of land was reserved in the centre, which was subsequently deeded to the city for a public park, and afterwards given to the city by Mr. BILL; a reservoir was built on an adjoining hill, and an aqueduct of pure spring-water carried to every part of the district, and a settlement at once commenced, which has grown to be one of the most beautiful portions of the city of Norwich. Here Mr. BILL erected an elegant residence for himself in 1852.

In 1853 an act of incorporation was granted to a company composed of John W. STEDMAN, Thomas ROBINSON, John A. ROCKWELL, Henry BILL, Amos DAVIS, and others, who at once proceeded to build a substantial wooden bridge by private subscription, at an expense of four thousand dollars, connecting the city of Norwich with Laurel Hill, on the precise spot now occupied by a heavy iron bridge, and where no less than five bridges had been built since the first settlement of the town.

In 1857 the Laurel Hill district was reannexed to the city of Norwich by an act of the Legislature, and in 1867, the bridge charter of 1853 having been abandoned and the maintenance of the bridge left to the town of Norwich, the present iron bridge was built at an expense of twenty-five thousand dollars.

Laurel Hill district, so recently, as we have seen, a barren and wholly neglected locality, is now a most charming suburb of the city of Norwich.

Masonic. -The first lodge of Free and Accepted Masons instituted in Norwich was chartered by "St. John's Grand Lodge" of Massachusetts in the year 1767, as appears in the records of said Grand Lodge, now in possession of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts.

COLUMBIA LODGE, F. & A. M., was chartered by "Massachusetts Grand Lodge," Joseph WEBB, Grand Master, on the 23d day of July 1785. The petitioners were Philip TURNER, Bela TURNER, John RICHARDS, Samuel MOTT, and Jeremiah HARRIS.

SOMERSET LODGE, No. 34, F. & A. M., was chartered by the Grand Lodge of Connecticut, May 25, 1795, with the following members: Elijah CLARK, P. COIT, Stephen CULVER, Cushing EELLS, Jeremiah HARRIS, Giles L'HOMMEDIEU, Ebenezer HUNTINGTON, Samuel HUNTINGTON, Daniel LATHROP, Gordon LATHROP, Simeon LATHROP, David NEVINS, Robert NILES, John RICHARDS, Benjamin SNOW, Asa SPAULDING, Elisha TRACY, John TRUMBULL, John TURNER, and Philip TURNER.

The first Master was Asa SPAULDING, a prominent lawyer. Ebenezer HUNTINGTON was first senior warden, and Benjamin SNOW junior warden. This chapter was revoked by the Grand Lodge May 9, 1838, and restores May 14, 1845.

The lodge is said to have been named in honor of Lord Somerset, of England. The first communication on record was held June 8, 1795. The second was held July 2d, same year. The officers were Asa SPAULDING, W. M.; Benjamin SNOW, J. W.; Daniel LATHROP, Treas.; Simeon HUNTINGTON, Sec.; David NEVINS, S. D.; John TRUMBULL, J. D.; Gordon LATHROP, S. S.; John TURNER, J. S.; John RICHARDS, Tyler. At this communication the by-laws were adopted, and Joseph HUNTINGTON was placed on the minutes as a candidate for initiation. Peter LAMMAN was the first initiate in the lodge.

The lodge first met in a room owned by Cyrus BRAMMAN, Esq., and soon after a room owned by Mrs. PEAL was occupied. In 1798 the lodge held its communications at the house of Dr. Joshua LATHROP. In 1801 the brick "store chamber" of Capt. Nathaniel PEABODY was fitted up for a lodge, and was used for that purpose until June 5, 1850, when the lodge-room of the I. O. O. F. was secured, and held as the lodge-room of Somerset Lodge till June 19, 1865, when Uncas Hall was dedicated to the genius of Masonry.

The following is a list of Masters of the lodge from its organization to present time: Asa SPAULDING, 1795; Ebenezer HUNTINGTON, 1796; Benjamin SNOW, 1797-98; 1801-8; Joseph HUNTINGTON, 1799-1800; Consider STERRY, 1807-9; 1815-16; Judah HART, 1810-11; Joseph KINNEY, 1812; Samuel BADEY, 1813-14; James CUSHMAN, 1817-18; Elisha TRACY, 1819; John NICHOLS, 1819-20; Wm. BELCHER, 1821; Wm. P. EATON, 1822-24; 1830-31; Asa CHILDS, 1825-29, 1832; Chauncey BURGESS, 1845; Edward W. EELLS, 1846; Wm. H. COPP, 1847-51, 1852-54; Charles BALL, 1848; Wm. L. BREWER, 1849-50; H. Hobard ROATHS, 1855; Wm. BOND, 1856; Wm. H. TINGLEY, 1857-58; Martin R. KENYON, 1859; P. St. M. ANDREWS, 1860-62; Lemuel H. CHESTER, 1863; Amos E. COBB, 1864; Rufus M. LADD, 1865-66; Austin BREWSTER, 1867; J. J. WAIT, 1868-69; J. L. DEVOTION, 1870-71; J. W. STEDMAN, 1872; Chas. W. CARTER, 1872; J. B. MERSHON, 1874; B. H. ROGERS, 1875; Robert A. FRANCE, 1876-78; E. S. BISHOP, 1877; Arthur H. BREWER, 1879; Wm. L. POTTER, 1880-81.1 [1 For history of St. James' Lodge see Supplement.]

FRANKLIN CHAPTER, No. 4, R. A. M., was organized the year succeeding the organization of Somerset Lodge. It was constituted under a charter granted by "a Washington Chapter" of New York, March 15, A.D. 1796. The following were the petitioners: Joseph HUNTINGTON, Jacob SMITH, Luther SPALDING, Consider STERRY, Elisha TRACY, John WARNER.

The following is a list of M. E. High Priests from 1796 to 1882:

1796, Elisha TRACY; 1797-1800, John TYLER; 1800-1818, Consider STERRY; 1818-21, James CUSHMAN; 1821-23, William BELCHER; 1823-25, Thomas T. WELLS; 1825-28, Asa CHILD; 1828, Lucius TYLER; 1829, Asa CHILD; 1830, Lucius TYLER; 1831, Alpheus KINGLSEY; 1832, Asa CHILD (no record from this time to restoration of the charter in 1846); 1846, Appleton MEECH; 1847-56, William H. COPP; 1856-58, Martin R. KENYON; 1858-62, Benjamin B. WHITTEMORE; 1862, Calvin G. CHILD; 1863-66, William H. TINGLEY; 1866-68, William W. AVERY; 1868-70, John L. DEVOTION; 1870-72, Jacob B. MERSHON; 1872-74, Increase W. CARPENTER, 1874-76, Lloyd M. COBB; 1876, Arthur H. BREWER, present H. P.

FRANKLIN COUNCIL, No. 3, R. & S. M., was first constituted under a warrant of dispensation on Feb. 28, A.D. 1818. Jeremy L. CROSS, clothed with authority for that purpose, appointed Companions James CUSHMAN, G. M., David TRACY, D. G. M., and Elijah AMES, P. C.

At the organization of the Grand Council of the State of Connecticut, May 18, A.D. 1819, Franklin Council was represented by Companions James CUSHMAN, Samuel BAILEY, and Amos WILLIAMS, the first being elected the first G. P. C. of the work.

The warrant of dispensation under which the council was constituted having been surrendered to the Grand Council and its authority recognized, that body at its annual assembly in May, 1821, granted a charter, which remained in force until the assembly of the Grand Council, May 9, 1839, when it was declared null and void, the companions having for a number of years neglected the duty of sending representatives and making returns to the Grand Council, as required by its by-laws.

At the annual assembly of the Grand Council, May 14, 1846, Ill. Companion C. BURGESS, in behalf of the members of the late Franklin Council, No. 3, asked the Grand Council to restore the charter; whereupon, on motion of Ill. Companion H. GOODWIN (2), it was

"Resolved, That the charter of Franklin Council, No. 3, be restored to the companions residing at Norwich and vicinity, and that Companion Chauncey BURGESS be authorized to convene the members an lead them to a choice of officers, and make report to the Grand Council."

Agreeably to this vote, a meeting was holden May 7, 1847, and the council reorganized with Companion BURGESS as G. M.

The degrees of Royal Master and Select Master were the only degrees conferred in the council until Dec. 1, 1864, when that of Superior Excellent Master was introduced.

The original by-laws, adopted Oct. 30, 1820, with various amendments, remained in force until Sept. 28, 1866, when a new code was adopted, which, with a few amendments, principally in regard to dues, are those now in use.

The following is a list of T. Ill. Masters from 1818 to 1882:

1818-19, James CUSHMAN; 1820-23, William BELCHER; 1824-25, Nathan JOHNSON; 1826-30, William P. EATON; 1847-49, Chauncey BURGESS; 1850-52, John NICHOLS; 1853-54, John H. CUTLER; 1855-56, William L. BREWER; 1857-58, William H. TINGLEY; 1859, William H. COPP; 1860, H. Hobart ROATH; 1861, John W. STEDMAN; 1862-68, H. Hobart ROATH; 1869-71, I. W. CARPENTER; 1872-73, Costello LIPPITT; 1874-81, James KIRKER.

COLUMBIAN COMMANDERY, No. 24, K. T.-Columbian Encampment was instituted on the 9th of November, 1853, and the following officers duly installed: William H. COPP, C.; Appleton MEECH, Gen.; Isaac WILLIAMS, Capt.-Gen.; William BREWER, Prel.; John W. STEADMAN, S. W.; John H. CUTLER, J. W.; Calvin G. RAWSON, Treas.; John BACKUS, Rec.; John H. GALE, Sw.-Bearer; William H. HYDE, St. B.; Isaac H. ROATH, W.

The following Sir Knights have held the office of Eminent Commander since the institution of the commandery: William H. COPP, November, 1853-56; William L. BREWER, 1856-57; William H. TINGLEY, 1857-58; William H. COPP, 1858-60; Benjamin B. WHITTEMORE, 1860-64; Pierre St. M. ANDREWS, 1864-66; John W. STEDMAN, 1866-69; Charles W. CARTER, 1869-71; Henry L. PARKER, 1871-73; Jacob B. MERSHON, 1873-75; Joseph J. WAIT, 1875-77; Allen TENNEY, 1877-79; Robert A. FRANCE, 1879-81; N. D. LEVIN, 1881.

ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED SCOTTISH RITE.-The following history of the Scottish Rite in Norwich is taken from an excellent address which was delivered by Charles W. CARTER 33°, June 24, 1874: "On the 28th of September, 1863, in company with eight Sir Knights of Hartford, one of your number1 visited Providence, R. I., for the purpose of receiving the degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. Arriving there at high twelve, they were conducted to the City Hotel, and from thence to the Masonic Hall, in What Cheer Building, where they were initiated into the sublime and superior degrees and orders of Ineffable Masonry, Rev. and Ill. Bro. Charles H. Titus 32°, presiding in the Lodge of Perfection and Council Princes of Jerusalem. Ill. Bro. N. H. GOULD 33°, member of the Supreme Council of Sov. Grand Inspectors-General, and Deputy for the State of Rhode Island, was present and elevated them to the high grade of Sublime Princes of the Royal Secret 32°. Early the next spring several Sir Knights, members of Columbian Commandery, No. 4, K. T, Norwich, Conn., solicited the aid of a Scottish Rite brother in arranging for them to receive the sublime and superior degrees. A preliminary meeting was held in Bro. W. W. AVERY's room at the American House, and it was there agreed that application for the degrees should be made to Worcester Grand Lodge of Perfection, Worcester, Mass. In due time arrangements were perfected, and on the 14th of April, 1864, the company, consisting of Bros. W. W. AVERY, Hiram COOK, H. L. PARKER, John G. BRADY, John BACKUS, and George A. HARRIS, proceeded to Worcester, Mass. Arriving at seven o'clock P.M., they were conducted by Bro. Benjamin LEWIS 32° to the Masonic Hall, where the degrees from the 4th to the 14th were conferred by Ill. Bro. Alfred F. CHAPMAN 32°, T. P. Gr. Master of Boston Gr. Lodge of Perfection. By invitation of John W. DADMAN 32°, T. P. Gr. Master of Worcester Gr. Lodge of Perfection, Ill. Bro. W. S GARDNER 33°, Ins.-Gen. and Deputy of the Supreme Council for Massachusetts, then proceeded to advance the Norwich brethren to the high grade of S. P. of the R. S. 32°, No further business appearing, the meeting closed, and the brethren proceeded to the Bay State House, and there petitioned the Ill. Deputy for a dispensation to open and hold a Grand Lodge of Perfection in the city of Norwich, Conn., under the title of King Solomon Grand Lodge of Perfection. Ill. Bro. GARDNER, having previous instruction from the Sov. Gr. Commander of the Supreme Council, K. H. VAN RENSSELAER 33°, then and there granted said petition, the officer to take rank in the order in which their names appeared upon the dispensation. [1 Charles W. CARTER (editor).]

"On their return to Norwich they made application to Somerset Lodge, No. 34, F. and A. M., for permission to hold meeting in their hall (which was at that time located on the fourth floor of the Uncas Hall building, in Water Street). Said petition was granted, and Monday evenings assigned for their use. At the annual session of the Supreme Council 33°, held in the city of Boston, Mass., May 18, 19, 20, and 21, 1864, the new Lodge of Perfection was represented in Sov. Gr. Consistory by the first and third officers. Agreeable to request, the newly-acquired territory was annexed to the Masonic district of Rhode Island, and Ill. Bro. N. H. GOULD 33°, appointed deputy for the united jurisdiction.

"The first meeting for work was held on the 26th of May, 1864, at which time the brethren were honored by the presence of Ill. Bros. K. H. VAN RENSSELAER 33°, Sov. Gr. Commander of the Supreme Council Northern Jurisdiction, U. S. A.; also, Ill. Bros. T. W. WELLINGTON 32°, of Worcester, Mass.; M. J. DRUMMOND 32°, of Bridgeport, Conn., and John SHEPLEY 32°, of Providence, R. I. K. H. VAN RENSSELAER 33°, presided and conferred the degrees from the 4th to the 14th upon Sir Kts. John W. STEDMAN, Wm. H. TINGLEY, and George H. LOVEGROVE, after which the ceremonies concluded with a banquet.

"On the following day, May 27th, the members of King Solomon Grand Lodge of Perfection assembled at the Wauregan House, and in room No. 33 made application to the Sov. Gr. Commander for the remaining bodies of the rite, and also requested the Grand Commander to elevate to the high grade of S. P. of the R. S. 32°, Ill. Bros John W. STEDMAN and Wm. H. TINGLEY, which was accordingly done, and the dispensations granted under the following titles: VAN RENSSELAER Council of Princes of Jerusalem, Norwich Chapter of Rose Croix D-H, and Connecticut Sov. Consistory of S. P. of the R. S. 32°.

"In the hands of these few brethren began the existence of the bodies of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in Norwich, Conn. As all new enterprises are more or less surrounded by difficulties which require earnest efforts on the part o the organizer to overcome, so with this. The little bank of brothers, in order to succeed, were compelled to contribute largely from their private resources, and to employ every leisure moment in perfecting themselves in the ritual and other duties, the extent of which few can appreciate but those who have been called to perform labor of a like character. At the annual session of the Supreme Council 33°, held in Boston, May 17, 18, and 19, 1865, the bodies were fully represented in the Sov. Gr. Consistory, and the progress which they had made was complimented by advancing two of their number to honorary membership in the Supreme Council, and upon the resignation of Ill. Bro. N. H. GOULD 33°, as deputy for Connecticut, an active member was created from the honorary list of this State, and appointed deputy. Thursday, following the return of the delegation from the Supreme Council, they were again honored by a visit from the Gr. Commander, K. H. VAN RENSSELAER 33°, who witnessed an exemplification of the work in King Solomon Gr. Lodge of Perfection, also Connecticut Sov. Consistory, at which time Ill. Bro. Wm. L. BREWER was elevated to the high grade of S. P. of the R. S. 32°.

"Visits of the Grand Commander and other members of the Supreme Council from time to time encouraged the brethren in their labors, and established the fact of their success.

"June 19, 1865, all of the bodies of Masonry in Norwich removed from their old quarters into larger and more convenient apartments located on the first floor below the old hall.

"At the meeting of the Supreme Council, held in Boston, Mass., May 16, 17, 18, and 18, 1866, the bodies in Norwich were again fully represented in Sov. Gr. Consistory, and the first report of the new deputy was submitted to that supreme body.

"In the early part of July, 1866, the brethren were called to mourn the loss of Ill. Bro. John BACKUS 32°. He was one of the original seven who journeyed from home and received the degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite for the purpose of establishing the bodies in Connecticut. He was an efficient officer, and active in all the orders of Masonry located at Norwich, Conn. He expressed strong attachment for his Scottish Rite brethren, and rejoined in the welfare of the order. His death occurred in this city, Saturday evening, the 7th of July, 1866. The funeral ceremonies took place on the following Tuesday at Trinity Church, of which he was a member, and, in compliance with his last request, the six surviving brethren deposited his remains in the silent tomb. The mystic number was broken, but the memory of the virtues of that departed one remains, and may we ever hold the precepts which governed his life in high and honorable estimation.

"Monday, the 25th of February, 1867, the Ill. Deputy delivered to King Solomon Grand Lodge of Perfection, the Council of Princes, Chapter of Rose Croix, and the Consistory their charters, which had been prepared by the Secretary-General of the H. E. He then proceeded to constitute the bodies and install their officers. The attendance of brethren was large, and the ceremonies closed with a grand reunion banquet.

"At the annual session of the Supreme Council held in Boston, Mass., May 15, 16, 17, and 18, 1867, a larger number of Norwich brethren were present in the Sov. Gr. Consistory then on previous occasions, among whom were Bros. H. L. PARKER 33°, John L. DEVOTION 32°, John W. STEDMAN 32°, Jason BECKWITH 32°, C. M. CARLETON 32°, J. E. SHORT, Jr. 32°, E. B. PARTRIDGE 32°, and Charles W. CARTER 33°. As a special compliment to them and regard for the success of the rite in Connecticut, the Ill. Deputy was elected and installed Pres. Sov. Grand Commander of the Sov. Grand Consistory for the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction of the United States of America.

"the first State Council of Deliberation for the Masonic District of Connecticut was held in the city of Norwich, Dec. 17, 1867. There were present from abroad, as delegates, Ill. Bros. Joseph K. WHEELER 33°, Amos Pillsbury 32°, and Ira W. FORD 32°, of Hartford, George W. BENTLEY 33°, of New London, and Charles WEBB 32° of Bridgeport. Also, by invitation, the Sov. Grand Commander of the Supreme Council, Josiah H. DRUMMOND 33°, of Portland, Me., William BARRETT 33°, Deputy, Aaron King 33°, and Allen TENNY 32°, of New Hampshire. At seven o'clock P.M. the M. P. Sov. Gr. Commander and visitors were received by Connecticut Sov. Consistory with all the honors due their high positions.

"The 30th degree, Knight of Kadosh, was exemplified in full, after which the knights and princes proceeded to the Wauregan House and partook of a banquet given in honor of the illustrious visitors.

"At the annual session of the Supreme Council held in New York, June 24, 1868, the Ill. Deputy was for the first time unaccompanied by his brethren. At the meeting of the Council of Deliberation held in the city of Hartford, Dec. 31, 1868, the Norwich bodies were represented by Ill. Bros. H. L. PARKER 33°, George A. HARRIS 32°, Luke HILLARD 32°, and the Ill. Deputy. By invitation of the officers and members of Charter Oak Grand Lodge of Perfection, the Norwich brethren conferred the 14th degree upon twelve candidates, after which they attended a banquet provided by the Hartford brethren in honor of the occasion.

"At the meeting of the Supreme Council held in Boston, Mass., June 16, 17, 18, and 19, 1869, the bodies were represented by Ill. Bro. H. L. PARKER 33°, and the Ill. Deputy. At the Council of Deliberation held in the city of Hartford, Feb. 10, 1870, the bodies were represented by Ill. Bros. J. B. MERSHON 32°, and Charles W. CARTER 33°. In the evening they assisted in conferring the 14th degree upon candidates in Charter Oak Grand Lodge of Perfection.

"At the annual session of the Supreme Council held in the city of Cincinnati, Ohio, June 15, 16, 17, and 18, 1870, the deputy was present and re-elected for the ensuing term.

"The bodies of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in this city were prompt in responding to the call, made by the M. P. Sov. Gr. Commander, asking aid for the unfortunate brethren of Chicago, Ill., who were made homeless and penniless by the great fire of Oct. 8, 1871.

"Norwich Chapter of Rose Croix, D. H., was called to part with the living presence of the M. W. and P. Master, Dec. 10, 1871. From the organization of the chapter to the day of his death, Ill. Bro. William H. TINGLEY 32°, held the highest position in that body. His natural attainments, learning, kindness of heart, and high social position contributed to make him a prominent member of the orders in Norwich.

"At the State Council of Deliberation held in this city, June 24, 1872, the bodies were fully represented. In the evening there was a meeting of King Solomon Grand Lodge of Perfection for work in the 14th degree. Ceremonies closed with the fest of friendship, and all separated in peace, love, and unity.

"At the annual session of the Supreme Council held in the city of New York, Sept, 17, 18, 19, and 20, 1872, full returns were made, showing the unexampled prosperity of the bodies of the rite in Norwich, Conn.

"Applications have been received and the sublime degrees conferred upon distinguished Masons at home and from afar. In the month of March, 1873, the propositions of John H. ISAACSON, Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Quebec, and E. M. COPELAND, Eminent Commander of Richard Cœur de Leon Encampment, Montreal, Province of Quebec, Canada, were received. They were accepted, and on the 22d of April, 1873, received in King Solomon Grand Lodge of Perfection the degrees from 4th to 14th, inclusive. ON the 23d they continued their upward course through the council, chapter, and consistory, and at ten o'clock P.M. were received at the grand reunion banquet in Breed Hall as sublime Princes of the Royal Secret 32°. R. E. Sir Knight Daniel CALKINS 32°, Grand Commander of the Grand Commandery of Connecticut, and many other distinguished Masons were present and participated in the ceremonies and festivities of the occasion.

"At the annual session of the Supreme Council held in the city of Chicago, Ill., the 11th, 12th, 13th, and 14th of November, 1873, your deputy was again re-elected for the ensuing term.

"At a special meeting of the bodies held in Masonic Hall, Norwich, March 2, 1874, the subject of leasing and furnishing new apartments for the exclusive use of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite were considered, and final action taken by appointing the first three officers of each body as a joint committee, with full powers to complete said object.

"March 9, 1874, Charles E. BILLINGS, first officer elect of Charter Oak Grand Lodge of Perfection, and six other members from Hartford received in the bodies the rite in this jurisdiction, the sublime and superior degrees from 14th to 32d, inclusive. The consistory closed with a grand reunion banquet. Joseph K. WHEELER 33°, Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Connecticut, and other brethren high in Masonic office were present in honor of the occasion.

"At the meeting of the Council of Deliberation held in the city of New Haven, April 14, 1874, the members of King Solomon Grand Lodge of Perfection received an invitation to visit E. G. Storer Grand Lodge of Perfection, U. D., and witness an exemplification of the 4th and 14th degrees. The Ill. Deputy and many others were in attendance. At the close of the evening they were conducted by the New Haven brethren to the banquet-hall, and there entertained in the most agreeable manner.

"We have now arrived to the present time. By it we are reminded that a decade has passed with its joys and sorrows since the bodies of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite were planted in this city. A new era has begun. The accumulations of ten years have been expended to enrich and adorn this new and elegant hall, which is soon to be dedicated as the home of Ineffiabel Masonry in Eastern Connecticut. It is an occasion for special rejoicing, inasmuch as these apartments are the one ones fitted in accordance with history and devoted to the exclusive use of this rite in all New England. I congratulate the brethren upon the success which has crowned their efforts, and especially the few brethren who founded the order and labored zealously to secure for it life and dignity. How well they succeeded you all know, and we doubt not but that their fondest hopes have been more than realized.

"In the midst of prosperity let us not forget the duties we owe to the order, to society, and to those who are to follow after us. Let us practice virtue, shun vice, and labor to correct the evil fashions of these days, when men in high stations err without a blush, and life is sacrificed for worldly gain; when justice yields to bribery, and extravagance knows no bounds. IN the midst of this darkness may the light of Masonry shine forth as a brilliant defender of that peace and happiness which governs the lives of all good men, and may the time be not far distant when we may proclaim, in the beautiful language of our ritual,--

"'Glory to god, who reign above,
And to our fellow-creatures Love!'"

KING SOLOMON GRAND LODGE OF PERFECTION was chartered April 14, 1864. The following were its first officers and charter members: Charles W. CARTER, T.·.P.G.·.M.·.; William W. AVERY, H.·.T.·.D.·.G.·.M.·.; Henry L. PARKER, Ven. .·.Sen.·.G.·.M.·.; John G. BRADY, Ven.·.Jun.·.G.·.W.·.; John BACKUS, G.·.Treas.·.; Hiram COOK, G.·.Sec.·. and K.·. of S.·. and O.·.; William H. TINGLEY, V.·.B.·.M.·. of C.·.; Hiram COOK, V.·.G.·.M.·. of E.·.; William W. AVERY, Grand Tyler.

NORWICH CHAPTER OF ROSE CROIX, D-H, was chartered May 28, 1864. The first officers and charter members were William W. TINGLEY, M.·.W and P.·.M.·.; John G. BRADY, M.·.E.·. and P.·.K.·.S.·.W.·.; John BACKUS, M.·.E.·. and P.·.K.·.J.·.W.·.; Hiram COOK, R.·. and P.·.K.·.T.·.; George A. HARRIS, R.·. and P.·.K.·.S.·.; William W. AVERY, R.·. and P.·.K.·.M.·. of C.·.; Henry L. PARKER, R.·.and P.·.K.·.C.·. of G.·.; Charles W. CARTER, John W. STEDMAN.

CONNECTICUT SOVEREIGN CONSISTORY OF S.·.P.·. OF THE ROYAL SECRET 32 ° was chartered May 28, 1864. The first officers and charter members were Charles W. CARTER, Ill. Com.-in-Chief; William W. AVERY, Ill. 1st Lieut. Com.-in-Chief; Hiram COOK, Ill. 2d Lieut. Com.-in-Chief; William H. TINGLEY, Val.·.G.·.M.·. of s.·.; John BACKUS, Val.·.G.·.Treas.·.; Henry L. PARKER, Val.·.G.·.Sec.·.K.·. of S.·.; John W. STEDMAN, Val.·.GM.·. of C.·.; John G. BRADY, Val.·.GE.·.and A.·.; George A. HARRIS, Val.·.G.·.C.·. of G.·.

There are also two colored lodges,--Eureka Lodge, No. 2, F. and A. M., Alexander BRETT, W. M., and Fairmount Chapter, No. 18, O. E. S.

FRANKLIN CHAPTER, No. 4. R. A. M. , was organized the year succeeding the organization of Somerset Lodge. It was constituted under a charter granted by "a Washington Chapter" of New York, March 15, A.D. 1796. The following were the petitioners: Joseph HUNTINGTON, Jacob SMITH, Luther SPALDING, Consider STERRY, Elisha TRACY, John WARNER. The following is a list of M. E. High Priests from 1796 to 1882: 1796, Elisha TRACY; 1797-1800, John TYLER; 1800-18, Consider STERRY; 1818-21, James CUSHMAN; 1821-23, William BELCHER; 1823-25, Thomas T. WELLS; 1825-28, Asa CHILD; 1828, Lucius TYLER; 1829, Asa CHILD; 1830, Lucius TYLER; 1831, Alpheus KINGLSEY; 1832, Asa CHILD. No record from this time to restoration of the charter in 1846. 1846, Appleton MEECH; 1847-56, William H. COPP; 1856-58, Martin R. KENYON; 1858-62, Benjamin B. WHITTEMORE; 1862, Calvin G. CHILD; 1863-66, William H. TINGLEY; 1866-68, William W. AVERY; 1868-70, John L. DEVOTION; 170-72, Jacob B. MERSHON; 1872-74, Increase W. CARPENTER; 1874-76, Lloyd M. COBB; 1876-78, Arthur H. BREWER; 1878-79, John LAIGHTON; 1879-80, D. D. LYMAN; 1881, Gilbert L. HEWITT

. MAINTONOMOH. -The spot where this chieftain was slain consists of a block or cube of granite, five feet square at the base, placed on a pedestal that raises the whole eight feet above the surface, and bearing the simple inscription, "Miantonomoh, 1643." This is the sachem's monument. The place where it stands has long been known as Sachem's Plain, or Sachem's Point. A small stream which here flows into the Shetucket is Sachem's Brook, and a living spring near by is Sachem's Spring. In fact, the whole neighborhood is overshadowed and engraven with the name and fame of the great Narragansett chief.

This granite block was dedicated in the presence of a concourse of people, young and old, from the neighborhood, the ceremony being connected with a festival of children from the village of Greeneville. It was consecrated by prayer and libations of pure water from the Sachem's Spring, where doubtless he had slakes his thirst and cooled his heated brow in his marches through the wilderness. This monument was erected July 4, 1841.

New London County Agricultural Society was formed in the year 1818, which continued in operation five or six years, holding its annual fair alternately at Norwich and New London. Oct. 30, 1822, the fair was held at Norwich, on the town green. A book auction was connected with it, and an address by Mr. MCCURDY, of Lyme. This association declined, and after a few year became extinct.

A new county society was organized April 12, 1854, in the town hall at Norwich. Rev. William CLIFT, of Stonington, was chosen president, and Dr. D. F. GULLIVER, corresponding and recording secretary. The first fair was held at Norwich in September, 1855, at which time M. PAULIN, the æronaut, enlivened the show with a balloon ascension, remaining an hour in the air, and descending at South Kingston, R. I.

This society still continues in operation, and holds its annual fairs at Norwich.

The Norwich City Gas Company was organized Sept. 9, 1854. The first superintendent was Frederick W. TREADWAY.

The present officers are as follows: Franklin NICHOLAS, president; C. C. JOHNSON, secretary and treasurer; O. GILLMOR, superintendent.

Present board of directors, Franklin NICHOLS, John F. SLATER, C. C. JOHNSON, Frank JOHNSON, E. M. GIBBS.

Yantic Cemetery. -This rural burying-place was consecrated July 12, 1844, all denominations of Christians in the city uniting in the services. The address was delivered by Dr. BOND, of the Second Congregational Church, and consecrating prayer made by Mr. PADDOCK, the Episcopal record. Two original hymns were sung, composed by Mr. Charles THURBER.

This cemetery is the property of the city, and has been much enlarged since the first purchase. It contains many beautiful and interesting monuments, and has recently acquired a new and permanent interest in gathering within its bound the hallowed remains of many of the victims of the late war. Several brave soldiers who fell upon distant battle-fields and others who perished in dreary prisons have been brought home, and now rest in peace beneath these quiet shades.

Manufactures. -From 1790, when Dr. Joshua LATHROP established a cotton-factory in the town plot to the present time, Norwich has been the resort of important manufacturing interests. It is impracticable to follow the history of the various establishments which have from time to time sprang into existence, but a brief notice of the lasting manufactures of the present time is subjoined, illustrative of the present importance of Norwich as a manufacturing centre.

The following are stock companies, organized under the general joint-stock laws of the State:

Bacon Arms Company; capital stock, $40,000. Jas S. CAREW,1 president; A. E. COBB, secretary, treasurer, and general agent. [1 Deceased.]

C. B. ROGERS & Co., machinists; capital stock, $200,000. Lyman GOULD, president; D. H. ROGERS, secretary; R. M. LADD, treasurer.

Chelsea Paper Manufacturing Company; capital stock, $400,000. J. H. HALL, president; R. L. CAMPBELL, treasurer; Robert A. FRANCE, secretary.

Clinton Mills Company, woolen goods; capital stock, $200,000. J. D. STURTEVANT, president; A. P. STURTEVANT, agent; Francis CABOT, secretary and treasurer.

Falls Company, cotton goods; capital stock, $500,000. John JEFFRIES, Jr., president; J. Lloyd GREENE, secretary; Wm. G. ELY, treasurer; R. H. PLUMMER, superintendent and agent. Hood Firearms Company, established 1874; capital stock, $25,000. E. M. GIBBS, president; C. A. CONVERSE, treasurer and general agent; E. A. CONVERSE, secretary; J. C. WEBB, mechanic superintendent.

Hopkins & Allen Manufacturing Company, fire-arms; capital stock, $125,000. H. A. BRIGGS, president; C. W. HOPKINS, secretary, treasurer, and general agent.

Norwich Bleaching and Calendering Company; capital stock, $200,000. Moses PIERCE, president and treasurer; W. P. POTTER, secretary.

Norwich Lock Manufacturing Company; capital stock, $75,000. Sidney TURNER, president; Charles H. BEEBE, secretary and treasurer; H. P. APPLETON, superintendent.

Norwich Pistol Company, incorporated 1875; capital stock, $26,000. C. W. GALE, president and treasurer; William H. BLISS, superintendent and secretary.

Norwich Plate Company; capital stock, $22,000. F. W. HOOD, president; F. L. OSGOOD, secretary; Wm. ROATH, treasurer.

Norwich Water-Power Company; capital stock, $80,000. Hiram COOK, president; H. L. PARKER, secretary and treasurer.

Norwich Woolen Company; capital stock, $100,000. J. D. STURTEVANT, president; Francis CABOT, secretary; A. P. STURTEVANT, treasurer and agent.

Occum Company; capital stock, $100,000. L. B. ALMY, M. D., president; L. W. CARROLL, secretary and treasurer.

Ponemah Mills Company; capital stock, $1,500,000. John F. SLATER, president; Edward P. TAFT, secretary, treasurer, and general agent; James S. ATWOOD, agent; Wm. C. TUCKER, Superintendent.

Richmond Stove Company; capital stock, $100,000. John MITCHELL, president; A. J. HAMMETT, secretary and treasurer; Werter C. HIGGINS, agent.

Shetucket Company, cotton goods; capital stock, $500,000. J. B. PUTNAM, president; Wm. P. GREENE, Jr., secretary; J. Lloyd GREENE, treasurer; R. H. PLUMMER, superintendent and agent.

Sibley Machine Company; capital stock, $12,000. Charles P. COGSWELL, president; J. Hunt SMITH, secretary and treasurer; Rufus SIBLEY, agent.

Thames Iron-Works; capital stock, $25,000. John Mitchell, president; James GREENWOOD, secretary and treasurer.

The Allen Spool and Printing Company; capital stock, $15,000. Edwin ALLEN, president; J. Henry MORRISON, secretary and treasurer.

The Page Steam-Heater Company; capital stock, $9000. Wm. H. PAGE, president; Wm. C. MOWRY, secretary and treasurer.

The William H. PAGE Wood-Type Company; capital stock, $10,000. G. C. SETCHELL, president; Wm. H. PAGE, treasurer; J. D. MOWRY, secretary.

Yantic WOOLEN Company; capital stock, $75,000. E. Winslow WILLIAMS, president, treasurer, and general manager; Charles A. RALLION, secretary.

J. H. CRANSTON, manufacturer of printing-presses.

Belts-Norwich Belt Manufacturing Company.

Brooms-Ezra BILL, Owen STEAD.

Candles-William A. BEDENT, William S. HEMPSTEAD.

Carpet Yarn-William A. COOK.

Drain Pipe-William D. TRUE, John W. L. COIT.

Envelope Machines-LESTER & WASLEY.

Files-Chelsea File-Works.


Machinery-J. E. BARBER & Co., Sibley Machine Company.

Morocco-S. B. CASE, Wm. T. CASE.

Paper Boxes-Heirs of George BINGHAM.

Picture Cords-Ossawan Mills Company.

Soap-Norwich Soap Company (Gallup & Hewitt).

Steam-Heaters-The Page Steam-Heater Company.

Stockinet-Spaulding & Allen.

Stoneware-George L. RISLEY.

Water Wheels-J. P. COLLINS & Co.

Wood Type-William H. Page Wood Type Manufacturing Company.

Yantic. -The village of Yantic is a manufacturing centre pleasantly located in the western part of the town, near the towns of Franklin and Bozrah. Here are located the immense Yantic Woolen-Mills, owned by E. Winslow WILLIAMS, Esq., son of the late Capt. Erastus WILLIAMS. It is purely a manufacturing village. It has one house of worship,--Grace Church (Episcopal).

Greeneville. -The present flourishing village of Greeneville was bounded by the enterprise of William C. GILMAN and William P. GREENE in 1829. IT rapidly grew into importance as a manufacturing village, and is now one of the most prosperous in New England.

Among the present manufacturing establishments are the following: Shetucket Company Cotton-Mill, J. Lloyd GREENE, treasurer; Chelsea Paper-Mill, CAMPBELL & SMITH, owners, R. H. FRANCE, secretary; Norwich Bleaching and Calendering Company, Moses PRICE, president, W. P. POTTER, superintendent; A. H. HUBBARD & Co., Paper-Mill, L. D. ARMSTRONG, superintendent; H. HOUSTON's Dye-Works, James HOUSTON, proprietor; Durfey's Grain-Mill, F. B. DURFEY, proprietor, Norwich Water-Power Company, Hiram COOK, president, H. L. PARKER, treasurer, H. M. DURFEY, superintendent.

Occum and Taftville are manufacturing villages located in the northeastern part of the town. At the former are located the Occum Woolen-Mills, and at the latter the Ponemah Mills. The Ponemah Cotton-Mills are the model mills of New England. Capital, $1,500,000. John F. SLATER, of Norwich, is president. The Falls and Thamesville are also manufacturing centres.

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