HISTORY OF NEW LONDON COUNTY, CONNECTICUT,
WITH BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF MANY OF ITS PIONEERS AND PROMINENT MEN.
COMPILED UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF D. HAMILTON HURD
J. W. LEWIS & CO., PHILADELPHIA, 1882
PRESS OF J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO., PHILADELPHIA
[transcribed by Janece Streig]
Votes of 1669-A Blacksmith-Church-Members only to Vote-Admission of Inhabitants-List of Town Debts, 1718-Justice's Courts-Selling Liquor to Indians-Stealing "Water-Millions"-Profane Swearing-Rules and Regulations-Town Clerks from 1678 to 1882-City Clerks from 1826-1882-Mayors of the City from 1784 to 1882-Presidential Electors-Representatives from 1662-1882-Military Record.
1669. "Granted to one of Goodman TRACIE's sonnes 100 akers of land in ye division of ye out lands.
"Granted to Sergent WATERMAN liberty to lay down twenty acres of upland over Showtucket river, and take it up again on the same side of the river, against Potapaug hills, adjoining to some other lands he is to take up, and the town leaves it to the measurers to judge respecting any meadow that may fall within the compass of it, whether it may be reasonable to allow it to him or not."
"Granted to Mr. BREWSTER and John GLOVER two bits of lands on the east side of Showtucket river, near their own land, they two with the help of Goodman ELDERKIN to agree peaceably about the division of it between them, and in case they can't well agree about the division then it falls to the town again."
"Granted to Ch'r HUNTINGTON, Sen'r., an addition to his land at Beaver Brook to the quantity of seven or eight acres to bring his lot to the place where the great brook turns with an elbow."
In 1682. "It is voted y't there shall be a book procures at town charge for the recording of lands, and allso a boat cumpas and y't there shall be allowed to any of the inhabitants of this towne to make a new survey of their land, provided they take their neibors with y'm whose land lyeth adjoining to them."
Dec. 31, 1669. "Ordered by the town concerning the outlands that there shall be only one allotment for the said lands, and very man shall take his allotment in the place where God by his Providence shall cast it, Mr. FITCH only accepted."
Nov. 6, 1679. "The towne have given liberty promising defence to any that shall demolish whatsoever building or fencing is done upon said lands by Samuel STARR."
In 1671, Hugh AMOS was engaged to keep the ferry, and the land made over to him.
Nov. 18, 1679. "The ferry place over the Showtucket shall be at the upper end of the Island against the land of Levt. LEFFINGWELL.-The adjoining lands granted to Hugh AMOS for keeping the ferry are to extend as far as his neighbor ROCKWELL's land.-None to set up a ferry between this place and the mouth of the river.
March 11, 1699. "Granted to Joseph BACKUS so much land upon the hill by Thomas POST's house as may be needful for him to set a shop and coal-house upon, provided he improves it for the above use."
July 7, 1704. "the town being sensible of their need of another blacksmith desire that the son of Capt. EDMONDS, of Providence, may be invited to settle in the town, engaging that coals and a place to work in shall be provided by the town."
This application was not successful. Jonathan Pierce was subsequently engaged as a smith, and land given him for his encouragement both in 1705 and 1712.
In 1680 a grant of two hundred acres of land was tendered to Capt. FITCH for his encouragement in setting up a saw-mill. This was reiterated in 1689, with the condition that if the mill was not forthcoming within two years the privilege should be forfeited. In 1691, no mill had been built, and the town proposed to erect one on its own account. This was not done, and it does not appear that any saw-mill was set in operation within the town limits until about 1700, "In 1690 a committee was appointed to fix upon a suitable position for a fulling-mill.
"In 1704, Eleazer BURNHAM applied for 'liberty to set up a full-mill upon the stream that runs into Shetucket River by the Chemical Spring.' Thirty acres of land were granted to encourage the undertaking, and more promised if the enterprise should prove successful.
"The project, however, failed. Competent workmen in this trade were then scarce in the country. Before the year 1710 there was but one clothier in the whole colony of Connecticut."
"When Providence shall so order (says the act) that there are plenty of acorns, walnuts, or the like in the woods, then it may be considered and determined what liberty to grant in this respect that the swine may have the benefit and profit of it."
"In the time of acorns we judge it may be profitable to suffer swine two months or thereabouts to go in the woods without rings."
"Yokes for swine were to be two feet in length, and six inches above the neck."
"The town street was originally laid out four rods wide in the narrowest part. Most of the branches or side roads leading into the woods are kept as pentways, closed with gates or bars. Mill Lane was the regular avenue to the old Landing-Place. There was not direct path to that rock-incumbered, forest-crowned point between the rivers where now an imposing city sits upon the hill, with her shining garments trailing far around her. The road thither from Mill Lane and No-man's Acre was very circuitous, following the turns of the river and the declivities of the hills. The whole point was considered scarcely worth a pine-tree shilling. For the first fifty years almost the sole use made of that quarter of the town was for a sheep-walk, and for that purpose it was kept within fence and gate."
1670. "It is ordered if any person shall pass with horse or cattle over the general fence and so come through the Little Plain, to or from the town, he shall pay a fine of 5 shillings."
March 2, 1685-86. "Voted, that the town will cut bushes two days this ensueing year; one day on 'ye hill, the other in ye town, and that the townsmen procure hayseed at the town charge."
"No shop-keeper or merchant appears among the early inhabitants. Incidental allusions are found to temporary traders, but for a considerable period most of the commodities required for comfortable house-keeping, not produced among themselves, were probably procured at New London. Alexander PYGAN, and early merchant of that place, but originally from Saybrook, and doubtless well acquainted with Norwich people, had many customers among them, receiving in return for his merchandise the rich produce of the field, the stall, and the daily. A note-book of Mr. PYGAN has been preserved, which contains the names of thirty-two persons in 'Norwich and Windham' with whom he had accounts before 1700.
"Inn-keepers were considered as town officers. The appointment was one of honor and respectability, and to obtain a license to keep a house of entertainment a man must be of good report and possessed of a comfortable estate. The first of whom we have any notice was Thomas WATERMAN.
"Dec. 11, 1679. Agreed and voted by ye town y't Sergent Thomas WATERMAN is desired to keep the ordinary. And for his encouragement he is granted four ackers of paster land he can conveniently find in ny about the valley going fro his house into the woods."
"To him succeeded, about 1690, Deacon Simon HUNTINGTON. Under date of Dec. 18, 1694, is the following appointment:
"The towne makes coise of calib ABELL to keep ordinary or a house of entertaynmement for this yeare or till another be chosen."
"In 1700 liberty was given to Thomas LEFFINGWELL to keep a house of entertainment. This is supposed to have been the commencement of the famous LEFFINGWELL tavern, at the east corner of the town plot, which was continued for more than a hundred years. "In 1706, Simon HUNTINGTON, Jr., was licensed; in 1709, Joseph REYNOLDS."
Dec. 1, 1713. "Sargent William HIDE is chosen Taverner."
"These were in the town plot.
"The frequency of taverns in the early days of the country, when the population was slender and travels were few, excites some surprise. But our English ancestors had a prescriptive love for a common gathering-place,--not a bar-room, nor a caravansary, nor even a club, but a fireside, a porch, or a bench under the trees, where current events and private opinions might be circulated, and a kind of 'portico parliament' held, with an accompaniment of a mug of flip or a drawing of cider. They have sent down to us a maxim which their own practice contradicted:
"Taverns are not for town-dwellers."
CHURCH-MEMBERS ONLY TO VOTE.
Dec. 11, 1679. Agreed and voted at a town meeting,-- "That the power and privilege of voting in town meetings in ordering any town affairs shall only belong to those who are the purchasers of the said plantation and consequently to their lawful heirs and not to any others who have been or shall be admitted to be inhabitants upon other considerations. Only it is granted to those who are or shall be church members, in full communion, equal privileges with us in the above-mentioned town concerns."
March 7, 1686. "Shetucket river, from the mouth of the crotch of Quinnebaugh, is granted to Serg't Rich'd BUSHNELL and three others with liberty to increase the number to twelve or twenty, for the purpose of making wears and taking fish for the term of seven years, they attending to those things that are customary in other places in New England in respect to opening the weares."
ADMISSION OF INHABITANTS.
"At a towne meeting, January 23, 1678, the Towne having seriously considered the desired of Frederick ELLIS, lether-dresser, respecting his admission into the towne to set up and make improvement of his trade,--we hearing some thing y't doe apeare much discouraging and allso his comeing to us not being so orderly having no testimony from the place from whence he came of his comely behaviour among them, but reports passing rather to the contrary, yet notwithstanding he being providentially amongst us we are willing to take a tryall of him for one yeare provided y't if he carryeth not comely and confortably amongst us y't he shall now at his entrance give security under his hand y't upon a warning given him by the Select Men of the town he shall without delayes remove his dwelling from us."
"1692. Whereas Richard ELSINGHAM and Ephraim PHILIPS have petitioned this town that they may live here one year, the town do agree that they may dwell here in the year ensuing, provided that they then provide for themselves elsewhere."
"SHEEP-WALKS AND A SHEPHERD.
"Several sheep-walks are laid out in different parts of the town to accommodate the several districts. One of these was at Wequonuck Plains, and another, agreed upon in 1673, lay 'between the Great River and the Great Plain, reaching south to Trading Cove.' "Two others were reserved expressly for the benefit of sheep-owners living in the town plot, and nor for farmers, and were called the East and West Sheep-walks. These remained long intact. The eastern reservation, of nine hundred acres, covered the point between the rivers, now the central part of Norwich City. No special appointment of a shepherd to preside over this walk has been found. The West Sheep-walk, of seven hundred acres, extended over West Wawecos Hill, and Richard PASMOTH was appointed the shepherd, Feb. 12, 1682. He was to have a salary of forty shillings per annum and twelve acres of land on the hill for a house-lot, and the sheep-owners were to take their turns with him in guarding and folding the flock on the Lord's days.
"Sheep-raising, however, was never carried to its expected extent in Norwich, and in 1726, the two reservations were relinquished and divided as commons among the inhabitants, according to the following general principles:
"No one to have less than a fifty-pound share. "First-comers who had fallen in estate to be rated as at first. "All other shares to be laid out according to estates in the list."
LIST OF TOWN DEBTS, Dec. 30, 1718.
£      s.      d.
To John TRACY for killing 4 snakes      0      0      8
Th. LEFFINGWELL Jr.       6 do.           0      1      0
Elisha WATERMAN      67 birds            0      2      9 ½
John ROOD                 24 do.               0      1      0
Jabez HIDE                5 snakes            0      0      10
Th. BINGHAM   4 snakes and drumming  1      0      8
Th. LEFFINGWELL Jr. one day to meet New London Committee 0      5      0
Joseph REYNOLDS for a plank              0      1      0
Solomon TRACY one day on Committee    0      5      0
Charges about Preston Line                    6      13      10
Several persons for perambulating at 3s. per day each.
In 1720, John and Simon TRACY were appointed by the town "to make search for the Town Armes, with their magazeans of ammunition and other accotrements for war, injoyned by law," who reported as follows:
"At Lieut. TRACY's two Guns and two pair of Snoe shoes. "At Samuel FALES one gun and at Lieut. BUSHNELLS one Barril of Pouder and one gun and 77 pound of Led. "At Lieut. BACKUSES 344 pound of bullits. "At Ens. LEFFINGWELL's one Barril of Pouder. "At Deacon Simon HUNTINGTON's one half Barril of Pouder and 31 pound of bullets and 400 flints. "At Simon TRACY's one pair of Snoe shoes, and 4 pair of maugosuns-we were also informed yet there was formerly Lent to Mr. John LEFFINGWELL pr Lieut. BUSHNELL 71 pound of Led which sd LEFFINGWELL was obliged to pay in Bullits ye same quantity. "All ye Led and Bullits 523 pound."
THE TOWN POOR.
Feb. 9, 1685-86. "The Corte having ordered Katherine DUNEFFIN to be accounted the poore of Norwich and by them to be provided for, orders two shillings per weeke to be payde by the Town of Norwich for ye bringing up the child for 2 years from this date."
Expenses incurred for the poor rarely appear in the early accounts of the town, but occasionally in the course of years a few items are found, such as "a pair of shoes for Alice COOK, 5s.," "A coat and leather breeches for old RUSSELL, 12s.," "a sheet to bury John NICKOLS in, 10s.," "13 watches with GAYLOR at 2s. per night, £1 6s."
Dec. 19, 1727. "To Thomas BLYTHE for digging GAYLOR's Grave, 5s."
Dec. 17, 1728. "To Jacob HYDE for digging Micah ROOD's grave, 4s."
IN 1723 great amazement seems to have been excited in the townsmen by what they designate "the extraordinary charge of Henry WALLBRIDGE Jr. for entertayneing Christian CHALLENGE in her late sickness and distraction at his house." Yet the whole charge for eight weeks' "nursing, diet, and strengthening salve," going for doctors, four days' waiting and tending, and finally conveying her to Windham, amounts only to £3 5s. 6d. Dr. Calib BUSHNELL's bill "tords the cure of Christian CHALLENGE" stands thus, and will show what a physician's fees then were:
To 3 travells             £0      7      6
to Lusisalig BOLSUM  0      4      0
to 2 times Bleeding      0      1      6
"Dec. 16 day 1745. The town is Dr. to me Jacob HYDE for 208 feet of 2 inch plank improved to make and mend bridges by order of the surveyor of highways. The price of said 208 feet of plank I think must be about 30s. more or less as the town thinks fit."
"Voted, that the selectmen pay Jacob HIDE what is just."
In 1746, Mr. Benedict ARNOLD was chosen grand juryman, but refused to serve.
The town declared that if any one hereafter refuse to serve on the grand jury he shall pay a fine.
1754. "At present the township of Norwich pays the highest tax of any township in the colony."
Justices' Courts.-A few examples of cases of trespass brought before justices of the peace for adjudication will illustrate the condition of society in the first half of the eighteenth century.
The penalties at this time were:
For drunkenness, a fine (5s. to 10s.), or to sit in the stocks a couple of hours.
Not attending public worship when there was no necessary detention, 5s.
Profane swearing, 10s.
Sabbath-breaking, by labor or vain recreation, making disturbance, or laughing during the service in the house of God, 5s.
Assault and battery, or abusive words, blows, and injuries, fines or imprisonment, at discretion of the justice.
Incontinence, births out of wedlock, or too soon after marriage, £10.
"These and actions of debt were cases which a justice's court was considered competent to decide, but appeals were allowed to a higher tribunal.
"If a judgment may be formed from the number of cases and the apparent respectability of some of the delinquents, drunkenness was increasing rapidly in the land. Another species of criminality so prevalent as to excite surprise was perhaps the natural result of an intercourse too little restrained between the young people of different sexes.
"No justice in the county was more popular than Richard BUSHNELL. Cases were brought before him from Windham, Plainfield, Canterbury, Killingly, Preston, North Groton, and North Stonington."
"3rd of June 1708. Joseph BUSHNELL of Norwich complained against himself to me Richard BUSHNELL, Justice of the Peace, for y't he had killed a Buck contrary to law. I sentenced him to pay a fine of 10s, one half to ye county treasury and one half to complainant."
SELLING LIQUOR TO INDIANS.
"March 26, 1718. Mrs. Sarah KNIGHT, Samuel BLISS, Joseph POST, Theophilus ABELL and his wife and ye wife of William HIDE were brought before me R. B. justice of ye peace upon ye presentment of ye Grand Jurors of our Sovereign Lord ye king for selling strong drink to the Indians last Saturday.
"Mrs. KNIGHT accused her maid, Ann CLARK, of selling the liquor, Refusing to acquit themselves by oath they were each sentenced to pay a fine of 20s, to the County Treasury."
"July 20, 1720. Samuel SABIN appeareth before me R. B. Justice of the Peace, and complaineth against himself that the last Sabbath at night, he and John OLMSBY went on to Wawwecoas Hill, to visit their relations, and were late home, did no harm, and fears it may be a transgression of ye law and if it be he is very sorry of it and don't allow himself in unseasonable night-walking."
"An inferior Court held at Norwich ye 19, Sept. 1720. Present R. BUSHNELL Justice of ye Peace. Samuel FOX, juror pr. Complaint, Lettis MINOR and Hannah MINOR Pts. For illegally and feloniously about ye 6 of Sept'r inst. Taking about 30 water-millions which is contrary to Law and is to his damage he saith ye sum of 20s, and prays for justice. This Court having considered ye evidence don't find matter of fact proved, to therefore acquit the Dts. And order ye Ptf. Pay the charge of Presentment.
"May 6, 1721. A complaint was entered by the constable against Samuel LAW, doctor, for profane swearing: he was fined 10s.
"The same year Henry HOLLAND, of Plainfield, was proved guilty of a like offense and adjudged to pay the fine and cost. Not long afterwards HOLLAND was bound over to appear in the next County Court and answer for breaking the peace and the law by saying, 'in a tumultuous violent threatening manner, yt he would take the head of Jona'n TRACY off his shoulders.'
"1722, Nov. 16. Complaint made by Mr. Isaac WHEELER of Stonington against William HOLDRIDGE of Stonington, for an assault with sword, at the house of said HOLDRIDGE in Stonington: he was bound to appear at the County Court, giving £20 security."
"An Indian, being found drunk, was brought before Mr. Justice BUSHNELL and sentenced according to the statute, namely, to pay a fine of ten shillings or receive ten lashes on his naked body. The Indian immediately accuses Samuel BLISS of selling him that afternoon that which made him drunk, to wit, two pots of cider. The fine for selling cider or ardent spirits to an Indian was twenty shillings, one-half to go to the complainant. The Indian thus obtained just the sum requisite to pay his own mullet and set his body clear. The record of this affair is as follows:
"Feb. ye 7-1722-3. Apenanucsuck being drunk was brought before me R. BUSHNELL, Justice of ye peace. I do sentence ye sd Apeonunchsuck for his transgression of ye law to pay a fine of 10s, or to be whipt ten Lashes on ye naked body, and to pay ye cost of his prosecution, and to continue in ye constable's custody till his sentence be performed.
"Cost allowed is 6s. 6.
"John WATERMAN promises to 6s 4.
"Apeanochsuck accused Samuel BLISS yt he sold him 2 pots of cider this afternoon. Mr. Samuel BLISS appeared before me and confessed his let sd Indian have some cider and I do therefore sentence sd BLISS to pay ye fine of 20s, for ye transgression of ye law one half to ye town and one half to complainant."
"R. BUSHNELL, Justice."
"Isaac HUNTINGTON, Esq., was another noted justice, some of whose minutes have been preserved. A few cases will be given in an abridged form.
"In 1733 a charge was brought against Thomas AVERY, Ebenezer BALDWIN, Abiall MARSHALL, and David BINGHAM, single men and boarders or sojourners in the town, that they 'did covean and meet in company with sundry others att ye house of William WATERMAN ye 4th day of June last, it being Sabboth evening.'
"No complaint was made of any disturbance or impropriety of conduct. It was the bare fact of a social meeting on Sunday evening which was presents as 'contrary to law.1 [1 "In County Court, 1715, Paul DAVENPORT, of Canterbury, appeared and acknowledged himself guilty of a breach of the law by riding from Providence to Canterbury on the Sabbath-day, and paid the fine of 20s."]
"Ebenezer BALDWIN pleased not guilty, and replied to the charge as follows:
"'True it is we did convean with the company and att ye time and place sett forth in ye Complaint, but he saith, he is not guilty for these reasons, first, he is not a single person, as having an apprentice by indenture, 2dly, he is not a boarder, having ye care of a family, 3dly, he is not a sojourner as living in ye place where he was born and bred.'
"The Court is of opinion he is guilty, and fines him 5s. and costs. Appeal granted to be heard in ye County Court.
"July 12. John DOWNER and Samuel HAMBLETON for profane the Sabbath day by oystering, fined 5s. and costs.
"2d day of November, 1738. Present Isaac HUNTINGTON Justice of Peace.
"Mary LEFFINGWELL daughter of Daniell LEFFINGWELL of Norwich, single woman, was brought before this Court to answer the complaint of one of ye grand jurors of our Lord the king who upon oath presents that ye said Mary LEFFINGWELL on the 24th day of September last, it being Saboth or Lord's day (and not being necessarily detained) did not duly attend ye public worship of God on the said 24th day in any congregation by law allowed as by the presentment dated October 7th 1738 and the writt dated Oct 30, 1738 on file may appear.
"The said Mary pleaded not Guilty. Butt not being able to prove to the satisfaction of this Court that she was necessarily detained; nor that she did attend the said worship, this Court is of opinion that she is guilty in manner and form.
"And it is therefore considered the said Mary LEFFINGWELL pay as a fine to ye treasury of ye town of Norwich the sum of five shillings and cost of suit. Taxed £0.10.8. Judgment satisfied.
"In 1749, Mr. HUNTINGTON's record shows that a person was fined 20s. for playing cards, and another 5s. for laughing in meeting.
"In 1756 three sons of Capt. John FILLMORE, Jr., viz., Nathaniel, Comfort, and Amaziah, were brought before Mr. Justice HUNTINGTON, charged with driving the rate-collector from their father's house, armed with clubs, and making threats and abusive language. Being minors, they were released without penalty, but the record intimates that their father was implicated in the misconduct of his sons. The family were probably Separatists, and refused to pay rates for the support of the regular ministry.
"These lads were between thirteen and seventeen years of age. Nathaniel, the oldest, was subsequently a soldier in the French war and also in the war of the Revolution. He settled in Bennington, Vt., and was grandfather of Millard FILLMORE, thirteenth President of the United States.
"To show that this rigid supervision of the public morals continued until a late period a few minutes of cases of trespass will be given from MS. Papers of Richard HIDE, Esq., justice of the peace between the years 1760 and 1780:
"A man presented for profane swearing, having been hears to say at the public house-damn me. Sentenced to pay the fine of 6s. and the costs, 6s 3d.
"Another for a similar offence, the culprit using the words Go to the Devil. Fine 6s., costs 8s 10d.
"A breach of peace by tumultuous behavior,--fine 10s., costs 18s. 8d.
"1771. A young woman presented for laughing, in a meeting for public worship, at Mr. GROVER's, Sabbath evening-two females for witnesses-culprit dismissed with a reprimand.
"1774. Eben'r WATERMAN Jr. presented by a grand juror, for profaning the Sabbath, in the gallery of the meeting-house in West Society, by talking in the time of divine service in a merry manner, to make sport. Plead guilty-fine 10s.
"To Richard HIDE, Esq., of Norwich, one of his majesty's Justices of the Peace for the county of New London, comes Ezra HUNTINGTON of said Norwich, one of the grand jurors of said county, and on oath informs and presents, that Asa FULLER, apprentice to said Ezra HUNTINGTON, and Ede TRAP, son to Thomas TRAP, and Lemuel WENTWORTH, son to James WENTWORTH, and Hannah FORSEY, and Elizabeth WINSHIP, a minor, and daughter of the widow WINSHIP, all of Norwich aforesaid, did, in Norwich aforesaid, on the evening following the 27th day of May last, it being Sabbath or Lord's Day evening, meet and convene together, and walk in the street in company, upon no religious occasion, all which is contrary to the statute of this colony in such case made and provided.
"For evidence take Peter LATHAM and Unice MANNING.
"Dated in Norwich, this 11th day of June, 1770."
TOWN CLERKS OF NORWICH.
Christopher HUNTINGTON, 1678-1702; Richard BUSHNELL, 1702-26; Isaac HUNTINGTON, 1726-64; Benjamin HUNTINGTON, 1764-65; Benjamin HUNTINGTON, Jr., 1765-78; Samuel TRACY, 1778-79; Benjamin HUNTINGTON, Jr., 1779-1801; Philip HUNTINGTON, 1801-25; Benjamin HUNTINGTON, 1825-28; William L'HOMMEDIEU, 1828-29; Benjamin HUNTINGTON, 1829-30; Alexander LATHROP, 1830-36; John H. GRACE, 1836-37; Simeon THOMAS, 1837-39; Othniel GAGER, 1838-1882.
City clerks since 1826, when the town plot was separated from the city:
1827, John A. ROCKWELL, four years; 1831, Alexander LATHROP, who died in July, 1836; George PERKINS, eight years; 1844, David YOUNG, seven years; 1851, Levi Hart GODDARD, four years; 1855, John L. DEVOTION; 1856, Charles BADD; 1857, Othneil GAGER; 1861-69, John L. DEVOTION; 1879, H. N. RATHBUN; 1871-73, John L. DEVOTION; 1874, James M. MEECH; 1875, Charles C. RIPLEY; 1876, James M. MEECH; 1877-81, Charles W. GALE.
The City of Norwich was incorporate din 1784. The following is a list of mayors from its incorporation to the present time:
Benjamin HUNTINGTON, 1784-96; John McLarren BREED, 1796-98; Elisha HYDE, 1798-1814; Calvin GODDARD, 1814-31; James LANMAN, 1831-34; Francis A. PERKINS, 1834-35; Charles W. ROCKWELL, 1835-38; Charles J. LANMAN, 1838-39; William C. GILMAN, 1839-40; John BREED, 1840-42; William P. GREENE, 1842-43; Gurdon CHAPMAN, 1843-45; John BREED, 1845-46; Charles W. ROCKWELL, 1846-47; John DUNHAM, 1847-49; William A. BUCKINGHAM, 1849-51; Lafayette S. FOSTER, 1851-53; Erastus WILLIAMS, 1853-55; William L. BREWER, 1855-56; William A. BUCKINGHAM, 1856-58; Amos W. PRENTICE, 1858-60; James S. CAREW, 1860-62; James Lloyd GREEN, 1862-66; Lorenzo BLACKSTONE, 1866-70; James A. HOVEY, 1870-71; James Lloyd GREEN, 1871-75; Hugh H. OSGOOD, 1875-76; Charles OSGOOD, 1876-77; Hugh H. OSGOOD, 1877-82.
PRESIDENTIAL ELECTORS FROM NORWICH.
Joshua HUNTINGTON, 1805, Thomas JEFFERSON elected; opposition candidate, C. C. PINCKNEY.
Calvin GODDARD, 1813, James MADISON elected; opposition candidate, De Witt CLINTON.
Charles W. ROCKWELL, 1845, James K. POLK elected; opposition candidate, Henry CLAY.
William A. BUCKINGHAM, 1857, James BUCHANAN elected; opposition candidate, John C. FREMONT.
John T. WAIT, 1864, Abraham LINCOLN re-elected; opposition candidate George B. McCLELLAN.
Henry BILL, 1868, Ulysses S. GRANT elected; opposition candidate, Horatio SEYMOUR.
Henry P. HAVEN, 1872, Ulysses S. GRANT re-elected; opposition candidate, Horace GREELEY.
Henry B. NORTON, 1880. James A. GARFIELD elected; opposition candidate, Winfield Scott HANCOCK.
REPRESENTATIVES FROM 1882 TO 1882.
1662.-Thomas LEFFINGWELL, Thomas TRACY.
1663.-Hugh CALKIN, Thomas TRACY, Thomas LEFFINGWELL.
1664.-Hugh CALKIN, Francis GRISWOLD.
1665.-Hugh CALKIN, Francis GRISWOLD, Thomas LEFFINGWELL.
1666.-Hugh CALKIN, Francis GRISWOLD.
1667.-Thomas TRACY, Francis GRISWOLD.
1668.-Francis GRISWOLD, Benjamin BREWSTER, Thomas LEFFINGWELL.
1669.-Francis GRISWOLD, Hugh CALKIN, Thomas LEFFINGWELL.
1670.-Thomas TRACY, Thomas LEFFINGWELL.
1671.-Francis GRISWOLD, Thomas LEFFINGWELL, Hugh CALKIN.
1672.-Thomas TRACY, Thomas LEFFINGWELL, John MASON.
1673.-Thomas TRACY, Thomas LEFFINGWELL.
1674.-Thomas LEFFINGWELL, Simon HUNTINGTON, John MASON.
1675.-John MASON, Thomas TRACY.
1676.-Thomas TRACY, Thomas LEFFINGWELL.
1677.-Thomas TRACY, Thomas LEFFINGWELL, Simon HUNTINGTON.
1678.-Thomas TRACY, James FITCH, Jr., James FITCH.
1679.-James FITCH, Thomas LEFFINGWELL, Benjamin BREWSTER.
1680.-James FITCH, William BACKUS.
1681.-Benjamin BREWSTER, James FITCH, Thomas LEFFINGWELL.
1682.-Thomas LEFFINGWELL, Benjamin BREWSTER, Thomas TRACY.
1683.-Thomas LEFFINGWELL, Thomas TRACY, William BACKUS.
1684.-Thomas TRACY, William BACKUS, Thomas LEFFINGWELL.
1685.-Thomas LEFFINGWELL, Simon HUNTINGTON, Thomas WATERMAN.
1686.-Benjamin BREWSTER, Thomas LEFFINGWELL.
1689.1-Benjamin BREWSTER, Thomas LEFFINGWELL, William BACKUS. [1 Charter government suspended, October, 1687, to May, 1689.] 1690.-Benjamin BREWSTER, Thomas LEFFINGWELL.
1691.-Thomas LEFFINGWELL, Richard BUSHNELL, John BIRCHARD.
1692.-Benjamin BREWSTER, Richard BUSHNELL.
1693.-Thomas LEFFINGWELL, Richard BUSHNELL, Benjamin BREWSTER.
1694.-Benjamin BREWSTER, Richard BUSHNELL, John TRACY.
1695.-Benjamin BREWSTER, William BUSHNELL,1 Thomas LEFFINGWELL. [1So in the record, for Richard BUSHNELL probably.] 1696.-Thomas LEFFINGWELL, Richard BUSHNELL, Benjamin BREWSTER.
1697.-Benjamin BREWSTER, Richard BUSHNELL, John TRACY.
1698.-Richard BUSHNELL, John TRACY, Solomon TRACY.
1699.-Richard BUSHNELL, John TRACY.
1700.-Thomas LEFFINGWELL, Solomon TRACY.
1701.-John TRACY, Solomon TRACY.
1702.-Richard BUSHNELL, Solomon TRACY.
1703.-Richard BUSHNELL, Thomas LEFFINGWELL, Solomon TRACY.
1704.-Richard BUSHNELL, Solomon TRACY, Joseph BACKUS.
1705.-Richard BUSHNELL, Solomon TRACY, Joseph BACKUS.
1706.-Solomon TRACY, Richard BUSHNELL.
1707.-Richard BUSHNELL, Solomon TRACY, Samuel GRISWOLD.
1708.-Richard BUSHNELL (clerk), Solomon TRACY, Joseph BACKUS.
1709.-Richard BUSHNELL (clerk), Solomon TRACY, Joseph BACKUS.
1710.-Richard BUSHNELL, Christopher HUNTINGTON, Solomon TRACY.
1711.-Richard BUSHNELL (clerk), Solomon TRACY.
1712.-Richard BUSHNELL (clerk), Joseph BACKUS.
1713.-Richard BUSHNELL (Speaker), Joseph BACKUS.
1714.-Richard BUSHNELL, Joseph BACKUS.
1715.-Richard BUSHNELL (Speaker), Joseph BACKUS.
1716.-Richard BUSHNELL, Joseph BACKUS, Thomas LEFFINGWELL.
1717.-Richard BUSHNELL (Speaker), Solomon TRACY, Joseph BACKUS.
1718.-Richard BUSHNELL, Joseph BACKUS.
1719.-Richard BUSHNELL (Speaker), Joseph BACKUS, Daniel TRACY.
1720.-Richard BUSHNELL (Speaker), Jabez HYDE, Benajah BUSHNELL, Jabez PERKINS.
1721.-Joseph BACKUS, Jabez HYDE, Benajah BUSHNELL, Thomas ADGATE.
1722.-Joseph BACKUS, Jabez PERKINS.
1723.-Joseph BACKUS, Jabez PERKINS, Thomas ADGATE.
1724.-Joseph BACKUS, Benajah BUSHNELL, Christopher HUNTINGTON, Thomas ADGATE.
1725.-Joseph BACKUS, Jabez HYDE.
1726.-Joseph BACKUS, Jabez HYDE, Thomas ADGATE, William HYDE.
1727.-Joseph BACKUS, James HUNTINGTON.
1728.-Joseph BACKUS, Jabez HYDE, Jabez PERKINS.
1729.-Jabez HYDE, Joseph TRACY, Benajah BUSHNELL, Joseph BACKUS.
1730.-Joseph BACKUS, Benajah BUSHNELL, Jabez HYDE.
1731.-Joseph BACKUS, Isaac HUNTINGTON, Joseph KINGSBURY, Jr.
1732.-Jabez HYDE, Simon LOTHROP, Jabez HUNTINGTON, John EDGERTON.
1733.-Joseph BACKUS, Jabez HYDE, Joseph TRACY.
1734,--Hezekiah HUNTINGTON, Joseph KINGSBURY, Jr., Benajah BUSHNEL, Jabez HYDE.
1735.-Benajah BUSHNELL, Joseph TRACY, Simon LOTHROP, Hezekiah HUNTINGTON.
1736.-Benajah BUSHNELL, Hezekiah HUNTINGTON, Joseph TRACY, Isaac HUNTINGTON.
1737.-Hezekiah HUNTINGTON, Joseph TRACY.
1738.-Hezekiah HUNTINGTON, Joseph KINGSBURY, Samuel BACKUS.
1739.-Hezekiah HUNTINGTON, Joseph KINGSBURY, Samuel BACKUS.
1740.-Hezekiah HUNTINGTON, Joseph HUNTINGTON, Samuel BACKUS.
1741.-Joshua HUNTINGTON, Isaac HUNTINGTON, Isaac TRACY.
1742.-Joshua HUNTINGTON, Isaac HUNTINGTON, Joseph KINGSBURY, Simon LATHROP.
1743.-Joshua HUNTINGTON, Simon LATHROP. Hezekiah HUNTINGTON.
1744.-Joshua HUNTINGTON, Hezekiah HUNTINGTON, Ebenezer BACKUS.
1745.-Joshua HUNTINGTON, Hezekiah HUNTINGTON, Ebenezer BACKUS.
1746.-Hezekiah HUNTINGTON, Ebenezer BACKUS.
1747.-Ebenezer BACKUS, Daniel HUNTINGTON, Hezekiah HUNTINGTON.
1748.-Hezekiah HUNTINGTON, Ebenezer BACKUS, Isaac TRACY.
1749.-Ebenezer BACKUS, Isaac TRACY.
1750.-Ebenezer BACKUS, Jabez HUNTINGTON, Ebenezer HARTSHORN, William WHITING.
1751.-Joseph TRACY, Jr., Ebenezer HARTSHORN, William WHITING.
1752.-Philip TURNER, Isaac TRACY, Elisha TRACY.
1753.-Isaac TRACY, Elisha TRACY, Jabez HUNTINGTON, Simon TRACY, Jr.
1754.-Isaac TRACY, Joseph TRACY, Jabez HUNTINGTON, Daniel LOTHROP.
1755.-Isaac TRACY, Elisha TRACY, Elisha FITCH.
1756.-Isaac TRACY, Joseph TRACY, Jabez HUNTINGTON.
1757.-Isaac TRACY, Jabez HUNTINGTON (clerk), John PERKINS.
1758.-Jabez HUNTINGTON (clerk), Isaac TRACY, John PERKINS.
1759.-Jabez HUNTINGTON (clerk), Isaac TRACY, Daniel LOTHROP.
1760.-Jabez HUNTINGTON (Speaker), Isaac TRACY 1761.-Jabez HUNTINGTON (Speaker), Isaac Tracy.
1762.-Jabez HUNTINGTON (Speaker), Ebenezer BACKUS, Ebenezer HARTSHORN.
1763.-Jabez HUNTINGTON, Isaac TRACY, Daniel LOTHROP.
1764.-Daniel LOTHROP, Ebenezer BACKUS.
1765.-Daniel LOTHROP, Samuel HUNTINGTON, Isaac TRACY, Wm. MORGAN.
1766.-Isaac TRACY, John DURKEE, Joseph TRACY.
1767.-Isaac TRACY, Joseph TRACY.
1768.-Joseph TRACY, Elisha LOTHROP, Elisha FITCH.
1769.-Elisha FITCH, Elijah BACKUS.
1770.-Elisha FITCH, Chris LEFFINGWELL, Elijah BACKUS.
1771.-Samuel TRACY, Benjamin HUNTINGTON.
1772.-Rufus LATHROP, Benjamin HUNTINGTON, Isaac TRACY.
1773.-Rufus LATHROP, Benjamin HUNTINGTON, Isaac TRACY.
1774.-Isaac TRACY, Benjamin HUNTINGTON.
1775.-Benjamin HUNTINGTON, Samuel HUNTINGTON, Isaac TRACY.
1776.-Benjamin HUNTINGTON, Rufus LATHROP.
1777.-Benjamin HUNTINGTON (clerk), Rufus LATHROP, Elijah BACKUS, Elisha LATHROP.
1778.-Benjamin HUNTINGTON (Speaker), Jabez PERKINS.
1779.-Nathaniel NILES, Aaron CLEVELAND, Benjamin HUNTINGTON, Jabez PERKINS.
1780.-Nathaniel NILES, Jabez PERKINS, Elisha LATHROP.
1781.-Nathaniel NILES, Benjamin HUNTINGTON, Joshua HUNTINGTON, John BACKUS.
1782.-Barnabas HUNTINGTON, Samuel LOVERT, John BACKUS, Elisha LATHROP.
1783.-Elisha LATHROP, John BACKUS, Chris. LEFFINGWELL.
1784.-Elisha LATHROP, John BACKUS, Chris. LEFFINGWELL.
1785.-Elisha LATHROP, Chris. LEFFINGWELL, Barnabas HUNTINGTON.
1786.-Elisha LATHROP, Barnabas HUNTINGTON, Jed. HUNTINGTON, Nathaniel BACKUS.
1787.-Jed. HUNTINGTON, Jared TRACY, --BACKUS, --TRACY.
1788.-Jed. HUNTINGTON, John M. BREED, Elisha HYDE.
1789.-Elisha HYDE, Elijah BACKUS, Chris. LEFFINGWELL.
1790.-Elisha HYDE, Chris. LEFFINGWELL.
1791.-Benjamin HUNTINGTON, Elisha HYDE, Joseph WILLIAMS.
1792.-Elisha HYDE, Joseph WILLIAMS.
1793.-Joseph WILLIAMS, John BACKUS, Elisha HYDE.
1794.-Elisha HYDE, Roger GRISWOLD (clerk), Joseph WILLIAMS.
1795.-Elisha HYDE, Asa SPALDING, Joseph WILLIAMS, John BACKUS.
1796.-Joseph WILLIAMS, John BACKUS, Elisha HYDE, Asa SPALDING.
1797.-Joseph WILLIAMS, John BACKUS, Elisha HYDE, John TURNER.
1798.-John BACKUS, Eben. HUNTINGTON.
1799.-Elisha HYDE, John TURNER, Jona. FRISBIE.
1800.-Elisha HYDE, John BACKUS, Jacob DEWITT.
1801.-Elisha HYDE, Jacob DEWITT.
1802.-Elisha TRACY, Jacob DEWITT, Elisha HYDE, Nath. SHIPMAN, Jr.
1803.-Elisha HYDE, Nathaniel SHIPMAN, Jr.
1804.-Asa Spalding, Benjamin COIT, Nath. SHIPMAN, Jr., John BACKUS.
1805.-Nathaniel SHIPMAN, Benjamin SNOW.
1806.-Nathaniel SHIPMAN, Benj. SNOW, Cushing EELLS, Jona. DEVOTION.
1807.-Cushing EELS, Newcomb KINNEY, Simeon THOMAS.
1808.-Simeon THOMAS, Peter LANMAN.
1809.-Thomas L. THOMAS, John FANNING.
1810.-Cushing EELLS, Daniel L. COIT, Moses BENJAMIN, Ezra LATHROP.
1811.-Moses BENJAMIN, Jabez HUNTINGTON, Daniel L. COIT.
1812.-Benj. SNOW, Nath'l SHIPMAN, John HYDE, Moses BENJAMIN.
1813.-Ezra LATHROP, Nathaniel SHIPMAN, Joseph WILLIAMS.
1814.-Nathaniel SHIPMAN, Joseph WILLIAMS.
1815.-Nathaniel SHIPMAN, Newcomb KINNEY, Charles THOMAS.
1816.-Chas. THOMAS, Roger HUNTINGTON, Elisha TRACY.
1817.-Ezra LATHROP, Roger HUNTINGTON, James LANMAN (clerk).
1818.-Cushing EELLS, Newcomb KINNEY, Charles THOMAS, Erastus COIT.
1819.(2)-Calvin GODDARD, Newcomb KINNEY. (2) Under the new constitution only one session a year has been held, in May.
1820.-Roger HUNTINGTON, Erastus COIT.
1821.-Elisha TRACY, Asa ROATH.
1822.-Charles ROCKWELL, Elisha TRACY.
1823.-Elisha TRACY, George HILL.
1824.-Elisha TRACY, David TRACY.
1825.-Roger HUNTINGTON, Newcomb KINNEY.
1826.-Charles P. HUNTINGTON, Cushing EELLS.
1827.-Frank T. LATHROP, George Hill.
1828.-Charles P. HUNTINGTON, Ichabod WARD.
1829.-Charles P. HUNTINGTON, Epaphras PORTER.
1830.-John DEWITT (clerk), Charles F. LESTER.
1831.-Charles P. HUNTINGTON (clerk), Jona. G. W. TRUMBULL.
1832.-William H. LAW, Charles P. HUNTINGTON.
1833.-Charles P. HUNTINGTON, James LANMAN.
1834.-Charles W. ROCKWELL, Roger HUNTINGTON (Speaker).
1835.-Charles P. HUNTINGTON, Samuel TYLER.
1836.-Charles W. ROCKWELL, Lewis HYDE.
1837.-Lewis HYDE (clerk), Enoch C. CHAPMAN.
1838.-Gurdon CHAPMAN, James STEDMAN.
1839.-Roger HUNTINGTON, L. F. S. FOSTER.
1840.-Lafayette S. FOSTER, Charles BLISS.
1841.-Benj. W. TOMPKINS, John DUNHAM.
1844.-Zebulon R. ROBBINS, Roger HUNTINGTON.
1845.-Henry STRONG, Charles W. ROCKWELL.
1846.-L. F. S. FOSTER, Gardiner THURSTON.
1847.-L. F. S. FOSTER (Speaker), Charles Bliss.
1848.-L. F. S. FOSTER (Speaker), Thomas L. STEDMAN.
1849.-Henry MCNELLY, Alba F. SMITH.
1850.-James STEDMAN, Edmund D. ROATH.
1851.-Philo M. JUDSON, Benj. DURFEY.
1852.-Jeremiah HALSEY, Samuel CASE.
1853.-Jeremiah HALSEY, Oliver WOODWORTH.
1854.-L. F. S. FOSTER (Speaker), Moses PIERCE.
1855.-Edmund PERKINS, John D. PARK.
1856.-Stephen W. MEECH, Henry H. STARKWEATHER.
1857.-S. W. MEECH, Samuel H. GROSVENOR.
1858.-George W. GOULD, Charles N. FARNAM.
1859.-Jeremiah HALSEY, James A. HOVEY.
1860.-John T. ADAMS, Jeremiah HALSEY.
1861.-John T. ADAMS, Amos E. COBB.
1862.-John T. ADAMS, Samuel B. CASE.
1863.-John T. ADAMS, John A. STERRY.
1864.-John A. STERRY, George PRATT.
1865.-Samuel MOWRY, George PRATT.
1866.-D. W. PERKINS. I. H. BROMLEY.
1867.-John T. WAIT, Paul B. GREENE.
1868.-Joseph SELDEN, William R. POTTER.
1869.-Edward HARLAND, George PRATT.
1870.-L. F. S. FOSTER, T. C. GORDON.
1871.-John T. WAIT, Lorenzo BLACKSTONE.
1872.-Alba T. SMITH, A. S. BOLLES.
1873.-John T. WAIT, S. T. HOLBROOK.
1874.-Allen TENNY, Willis R. AUSTIN.
1875.-Paul B. GREENE, Willis R. AUSTIN.
1876.-S. T. HOLBROOK, George R. HYDE.
1877.-A. W. PRENTICE, Horace WHITAKER.
1878.-Edward HARLAND, I. W. CARPENTER.
1879.-J. S. LATHROP, I. W. CARPENTER.
1880.-J. P. BARSTOW, I. W. CARPENTER.
1881.-J. P. BARSTOW, J. S. LATHROP.