The History of Middlesex County 1635-1885
J. H. Beers & Co., 36 Vesey Street, New York
1884



Pages 61-173
TOWN AND CITY OF MIDDLETOWN.
BY HENRY WHITTEMORE.
Part IV


[transcribed by Janece Streig]



INDUSTRIES OF THE TOWN AND CITY, PAST AND PRESENT.


With the close of the Revolutionary war, a new era commenced in the history of Middletown. From being a place of the greatest commercial importance on the banks of the Connecticut River, and the center of the great West India trade (which added so much to the wealth of the town) it was soon to become the great manufacturing center of the State. The busy scenes of long ago-when the shout of the mule driver was heard along the streets, trying to force obstinate brutes on the decks of the West Indiamen, and the rattle of the drayman's cart, delivering his loads of sugar, molasses, and rum to the great warehouses-were soon to cease, and in place of this would be heard the busy hum of machinery; the drayman, instead of carting his load of sugar, etc., would be occupied in conveying the loads of wool, iron, and be occupied in conveying the loads of wool, iron, and other raw materials to the manufactories, and return loaded with heavy cases of manufactured goods.

The last relic of former days was a rum distillery, started in 1791, near the present depot of the Air Line Railroad, by one HALL. This distilled annually, 600 hogs-heads of rum; a contemporaneous writer adds "were it driven steadily through the winter it might distil 1,000." Whether the local consumption of the article was equal to the production "deponent saith not."

The manufacture of cotton and woollen cloth was the first branch of home industry to which capitalists turned their attention.

The Revolutionary fathers remembered the old adage, "in time of peace prepare for war," and the manufacture of firearms became the most important branch of industry in the State, and several hundred thousand dollars of government money found its way annually into the old Middletown Bank and United States Branch Bank.

Large quantities of powder were also manufactured annually. With the close of the war of 1812-1815 capitalists turned their attention to other articles of manufacture, and the inventive genius of America kept pace with the increased demand for home productions. The manufacture of ivory combs, gold spectacles, pewter goods, plated ware, and an almost endless variety of small hardware followed the decline of the manufacture of war materials.

WOOLLEN MANUFACTORIES.-Said Oliver ELLSWORTH, in the convention called at Hartford, In January 1788, to ratify the Constitution: "Connecticut is a manufacturing State; it already manufactures its implements of husbandry, and half its clothing." He referred to the house loom and clothiers' shops. There was not, at this time, a woollen factory in the United States. Whether or not this declaration had the effect of stimulating efforts in this direction is not known; but within four months of that time a company was organized, with a capital of 1,250 ($4,166.66 2/3), to establish a manufactory of woollen cloth in Hartford. Among the subscribers to the stock were Nehemiah HUBBARD and George STARR, of Middletown. It is a noteworthy fact, that the birth of this industry commenced with the ratification of the Constitution of the United States, and when the first Congress assembled, at Federal Hall, New York, on the 4th of March 1789, the president and vice-president of the United States were clad in suits manufactured by the "Hartford Woollen Manufactory." Great difficulty was experienced, at first, in collecting sufficient raw material to keep the factory in operation; but it was presumed that the farmers would be careful "to rear up their lambs and increase the number and improve the breed of their sheep." In 1794, the company declared a dividend of 50 per cent, on the original shares, "to be paid in the finished goods of the company."

In 1810, a woollen mill was established on Washington street by the Middletown Manufacturing Company. The officers were Alexander WOLCOTT and Arthur MAGILL. This was one of the first, if not the first manufactory that ever used steam as a motive power, in this country. The large brick building which stood near the foot and in the rear of Washington street, on the present site of the "deep hollow," was built originally for a sugar house. It was 40 by 36 feet, five stories high, with an extension 40 by 20 feet, which was used as a dye house. The building was fitted up with a 25-horse power engine, and wood was the only fuel that could be obtained at this time. The company employed from 60 to 80 hands, with a capacity for 100. About 40 years per day of fine broadcloth were produced, which yielded an income of upwards of $70,000 per year. Although the cost of fuel was a serious drawback, the company must have made large profits at first, for the Washington Hotel, corner of Main and Washington streets, now the Divinity School, and the large brick hotel, subsequently used by Mr. CHASE as a school, were the outgrowth of this enterprise. The sudden fall in goods at the close of the war of 1812, caused a serious embarrassment, and not long after, this company ceased to do business.

In 1814, another woollen manufactory was started, by John R. WATKINSON, on the Pameacha River, where there was an abundant supply of water for power. The building was of brick, 64 by 34 feet, three stories high. About 40 hands were employed, and upwards of 20,000 pounds of Merino wool were annually manufactured into blue broadcloth. The business was successful until the death of Mr. WATKINSON, which occurred n 1836. It was continued for two years longer by the Pameacha Manufacturing Company, when the manufacture of woolens in this locality ceased for many years.

THE ROCKFALL WOOLLEN COMPANY.-In July 1882, a company known as the Rockfall Woolen Company, for the manufacture of woollen blankets etc., was organized. The old brick building at Staddle Hill, formerly owned and used by Colonel NORTH as a pistol factory, was purchased by the company. The building is 35 by 85 feet, three stories high, with a dye house 55 by 53 feet, two stories high. About 600 pounds of wool are used daily in the manufacture of these goods, giving employment to about 30 hands. The machinery is of the latest and most improved pattern, and requires about 40 horse power to run it. The incorporators of the company were Jonathan A. LANE, Fred. D. ALLEN, Joseph MERRIAM, William J. MITCHELL, John J. BOCKER, and Allen LANE & Company. The officers are Jonathan A. LANE, president; Joseph MERRIAM, secretary and treasurer.

THE MANUFACTURE OF FIRE ARMS, ETC.-The spirit of the Revolution was kept alive for many years after peace was declared, and the militia regiments of the country constituted a standing army ready for any emergency. This created a great demand for fire arms and other implements of war. The time had not arrived when "the swords should be beaten into plowshares and spears into pruning hooks," for several manufactories of these weapons sprung up just before and during the war of 1812-15. Among the first of these was the manufactory of Oliver BIDWELL, on the Upper Pameacha, near the present location of the bone mill. He had a government contract for making guns. He commenced about 1810. Everything at this time was hand made.

About the same time, Colonel NORTH started a pistol manufactory at Staddle Hill, on the West River. He is said to have been the first manufacturer of government pistols in this country. He was at work on his second contract for the government when the war of 1812 broke out. The secretary of war came to Middletown and offered colonel NORTH a very large contract, if he would enlarge his factory so as to supply the government demand. In order to raise the money, he offered his note for discount at the Middlesex County Bank, but it was refused; when Mr. Samuel RUSSELL, who had urged the directors to discount it, at once indorsed the note himself. Colonel NORTH continued for some years to receive large government contracts. His first contract was for 20,000 horseman's or cavalry pistols. He subsequently made carbines, and other weapons. His contract was continued down to a short time previous to the last war. For many years the production was about 10,000 pistols a year. These were all made for the government.

About half a mile northeast of Colonel NORTH's factory, and on the opposite side of the river, was the factory of Colonel Nathan STARR jr. (father of General E. W. N. STARR, the present town clerk). Colonel STARR, after an absence of some years from his native place returned in 1812, and erected a factory with stone taken from the West River at Staddle Hill. This was fitted up for the machinery for the manufacture of government swords. The building was 81 by 33 feet, three stories high, with an extension, 35 feet square. The government contracts extended through several years, and the annual production was about 5,000 swords; some of these of the finest workmanship and pattern; equal in quality and temper to the best imported goods. Two elegant presentation swords were made here for the State of Tennessee, one of which was presented to General JACKSON, and other to Colonel Richard M. JOHNSON. Another elegant sword was made here for General Edmond P. GAINES, the hero of the Florida war.

Muskets and rifles were subsequently made at this establishment. This manufactory was continued for some years, but government agents were sent to inspect the machinery, and after obtaining the information the government made use of it in fitting up the extensive armories at Springfield, Massachusetts, and Harper's Ferry, Va.

Every available spot in and around Middletown was selected during the war of 1812-15 for erection of factories to supply the government demand, and Middletown was the chief and almost the only source from whence the government obtained these supplies. About this time John R. and J. D. JOHNSON built a factory on Lower Pameacha, about fifty rods below the present manufactory of WILCOX, CRITTENDEN & Co., for the manufacture of rifles for the government. They employed from 25 to 30 hands, and made from 1,000 to 1,200 rifles a year. They did a successful business until 1825 when the government contracts were discontinued.

A powder mill was established, in 1793, on the West River, and for many years it produced, annually, some 5,000 casks. It is still continued by the Rand Power Company, a large portion of the powder being consumed by the Portland quarries for blasting purposes.

THE SAVAGE REVOLVING FIRE ARMS COMPANY was organized August 17th 1859, with a capital of $30,000, for the manufacture of revolving pistols. This company did a large business during the war, and increased their capital to $45,000; but the business was finally given up, and the company disbanded in 1866. The building used by this company is now occupied by the Goodyear Rubber Company.

THE SAGE AMMUNITION WORKS were organized October 29th 1864, with a capital of $75,000, which was subsequently increased to $100,000. The business fell off after the close of the war, and the company ceased to do business about 1866-7. The building used by the company is now occupied by the Middletown Hardware Company.

COMBS.-The manufacture of bone and ivory combs, which some wag denominated "down-east cultivators," was commenced by Ulysses and Julius PRATT, in Potapaug (now Essex) about 1812 or 1814. It was evidently a profitable business, for other factories sprung up in other parts of the country; among these was the factory of HINSDALE & PRATT, established on Miller's Brook, South Farms, in 1817. At a later period another factory was started at Staddle Hill, by Mr. Horace CLARK, on the site of what is known as the Arrowanna Mills.

SHIP BUILDING.-Dr. Field says (in 1819): "In the winter of 1669-70, a shipwright was allowed to build vessels at this place, and shipbuilding has probably been carried on most of the time since that period. Two yards were formerly occupied; one only is improved at the present time."

This immense industry, which was at one time so important an industry, has dwindled down to almost nothing, the only representative at the present time being Mr. Elmer ELY, who is engaged in building pleasure boats, yachts, etc. He uses a portion of the building occupied by COMO & MILLER.

THE SANSEER MANUFACTURING COMPANY.-This company was incorporated in 1823, with a capital of $20,000. For many years an extensive business was carried on. This business consisted principally of the building of various kinds of machinery. One of the first, if not the first back-geared lathe, was made by the SANSEER Company. In February 1845, the old factory was burned. The stock and charter were purchased by LEWIS, PRIOR & Co., who rebuilt the factory and continued the business, which at that time included the manufacture of wooden screws. The foundry was built in the spring of 1856. In 1871 the stock and charter were sold to George S. HUBBARD, who, with his sons, carried on the business for a few years and then sold out to Ira C. FLAGG, John MILLER, and Samuel NORTH. These men remained but a short time, and the property again came into the possession of Mr. HUBBARD. It was recently sold to the RUSSELL Manufacturing Company.

INDUSTRIES OF MIDDLETOWN IN 1850.-In an article on "Middletown, as it is," by E. M. GORHAM Esq., published in the New York Journal of Commerce in 1850, the following account of the manufactories in Middletown at that time is given:

"Commencing with the factories on the Pameacha, a narrow stream which finds its way along the outskirts of the city, over a rocky bed buried between high and rugged banks, we find, first, in one factory, H. L. BALDWIN and F. BALDWIN, the first making bank and store locks, and night latches, employing twelve hands; and the latter plate and closet locks, with eight hands, each turning out their appropriate quantum of work.

"Following up the stream, next comes the factory of William WILCOX & Co., who makes a superior article of plate lock, together with a more common lock of the same pattern, employ twenty hands, and turn off $10,000 worth of locks per year. In another part of the same building, L. D. VANSANDS makes improved blind fasteners and saw strainers to the amount of $10,000 annually, and gives employment to fifteen hands.

"Further on stands the extensive sash and blind, flooring, and planning mill of J. W. BALDWIN, who is driving a profitable business, and keeps employed some twenty-five hands; and again the tweed or jean mill of the Pameacha Manufacturing Company, with its twenty operatives and business of $20,000. Still further on, near the juncture of this and the Sanseer Stream, are the works of William STROUD, where machinery castings, iron dirt scrapers, corn shellers, plows, &c., &c., are made, employing in the different branches twenty hands. In the same buildings NELSON & HUBBARD make rules, squares, and bevels, and employ fifteen hands; A. H. DERBY has also his apartments for the manufacture of Brittania ware; and F. W. ATKINS for making blind fasteners-each and all of whom, judging by the prevailing activity in their several departments, find a ready sale for their labor.

"Crossing from the last named works to south Farms, a village about fifteen minutes' walk from the post office, we find located on the Sanseer stream the three factories of the RUSSELL Manufacturing Company, who have an invested capital of $100,000, and employ about 200 operatives in the manufacture of India rubber suspenders, cotton and worsted webbing, of which they make at the present time the amount of from $150,000 to $200,000 a year. On the same stream stands the machine shop of the Sanseer Manufacturing Company, where are made various kinds of machinery, by some 16 workmen. This company have considerable repute for the excellence and cheapness of their work; more particularly is this true o their machinery for making fine ivory combs.

"Leaving the more eastern suburbs, and retracing our steps back to the city, we are attracted when near its center by the commingled sounds of the ponderous machinery performing its part of the labor in the heavy establishment of w. & B. Douglas, who employ about 80 workmen, and are sending into all parts of the country their highly celebrated 'Patent Metallic Pumps, and Hydraulic Rams' -articles that have gained a widely extended name for their superiority over any kind of pumps, or water elevator, now in use. In connection with these, they are making 'Patent Wrought Iron Butts and Hinges," which, like their pumps and rams, are fast superseding in market other and less approved styles. These gentlemen use, of the raw material, of iron some six hundred tons, twenty tons of brass, and in working it up, three hundred tons of anthracite coal. Besides the articles above named they also make of hardware, 'wrought iron washers, well wheels, friction rolls, & c.,' and a new article of 'chain pumps.' Their entire machinery is driven by a powerful and skillfully perfected engine of their own manufacture.

"The Messrs. Douglas have raised themselves, increasing year by year to their present business standing (now from $80,000 to $100,000 per year) entirely by their own inventive genius, artistical skill, and the aptness of their inventions to the wants of the public. And the demand for the labor of their heads and hands is the best evidence that their calculations were based upon no visionary and unsound theory as to what was really needed to supply the deficiency heretofore experienced in finding a successful, convenient, and cheap mode of fording water for the various uses to which their pumps, rams, and other hydraulic machines are applied.

"Next comes Jesse G. BALDWIN, who is largely engaged in the silver-plating business, such as tea, table, and desert spoons, forks, fish and butter knives, soup ladles, &c., together with the manufacture of patent wire, strengthened brittannia, and common brittannia spoons, wares, which, for beauty of finish, diversity of pattern, and favorable notoriety, will not suffer, we will venture to say, in comparison with anything of the kind made in the Union. * * * * He employs thirty hands and does a business from $60,000 to $75,000 a year.

"Continuing on through the city, we find COOLEY & DANFORTH engaged in getting up the patent abdominal supporters and trusses, of Drs. BANNING, FITCH, and BATTLE. Aside from the painful necessity of wearing these artificial props and supports, it would seem almost a pleasure to be braced up in so highly finished and beautifully wrought instruments. F. A. HART & Co., employing about thirty operatives in making silk and cotton corset and shoe lacings, welting cord, shoulder braces, &c. TEWKSBURY & TUTTLE, turning out bevels and squares. H. H. GRAVES & Co., making a very pretty and substantial article of brittannia coffee and tea urns, sugar and cream cups, lamps, and candle sticks, with twelve hands. Nathaniel BACON, a gentleman quite extensively known as the maker of superior bank and safe locks. H. E. BOARDMAN, manufacturer of gaiter boots to the amount of $12,000 per year, employing some fifteen hands. H. W. JOHNSON, making the same style of boots to the amount of $5,000 or $7,000 per year. I. K. PENFIELD, turning out any quantity of patent grommets. PENFIELD & CAMP are doing a business of $6000 per year in the manufacture of JUDD's medicated liquid cuticle, a substitute for sticking and court plasters in surgical operations, and for dressing wounds, a remedial agent that has only to be tried to know its intrinsic value. H. SALISBURY & Co., exclusively engaged in making gold spectacles, to the amount of $20,000 yearly. GLEASON & DICKINSON, doing perhaps a less, but the same kind of business. C. F. SMITH, who has recently commenced the manufacture of sand-paper. This last-named completes the list of wholesale manufacturers in the city.

"Again leaving the city, we will spend a few moments among the factories in Upper Middletown. First in the list is that of J. & E. STEVENS & Co., who are making wardrobe, coat, and hat hooks, surplice pins, door buttons, shutter screws, toy and sad iron stands, axes, tack, shoe, and other varieties of small hammers. We might thus go on in enumeration until we had reached the sum of about seventy different articles made at this establishment. Half a ton of iron wheels for children's toy wagons is here made per week. * * * The Messrs. STEVENS & Co. employ at their works forty hands, and do a business of from $35,000 to $40,000. William P. Allison makes hammers of the Allison, Browns, S. F. Claw, Warner, and cast steel stamps, said to be of very desirable styles and quality, to the worth of $10,000 a year, and keeps employed twelve hands. The Messrs. NORTHs are manufacturing brass knob chamber or shutter bolts, brass knob barrel, flat shutter, and improved tower bolts; also steel spring square bolts and japanned lifting handles; employ ten hands, and do a business of $8,000 to $10,000. KELSEY, WRIGHT & Co. get up a fine article of suspender buckles, to the amount of $12,000 to $15,000, and employ some twenty hands. Still further up, or at the Upper Houses, WARNER & NOBLE manufacture hammers of the same styles as those made by W. P. ALLISON, and do about the same amount of business.

"Once more taking our 'note book,' we will extend observations along the 'Arrowmammett' River, which rises at Durham, flows through Middletown (Middlefield Society), and empties into the Connecticut, affording many excellent water privileges yet unoccupied, besides those already in use. Commencing at the reservoir, some five miles out of the city, is the horn button factory of Alfred BAILEY & Co., who are having a successful run of business. Turning our face toward the city, we successfully meet, in their order, the works of Mark MILDRUM & Co., where are made brass and copper wash basins, coal shovels, sifters, &c.; bone grinding mill of Andrew COE; the Falls Manufacturing Co., at Middlefield Falls, who, with thirty operatives, make suspender twist to the amount of $20,000 per year. This company have just increased the size of their mill, and are otherwise extending business. H. ASTON & Co., pistol factory, in the employ of the United States, have fifty hands, and make six thousand pistols a year, worth $35,000. Blasting powder mill of D. C. RAND, with six workmen; the powder here made is principally used at the Portland quarries. Paper mill of R. F. BROWER; the style is light and heavy hardware wrapping. Carbine factory of NORTH & SAVAGE, at work for the United States. This factory is not now under full blast, having just gone through thorough repairs, in anticipation of an enlarged business. Factory formerly known as STARR's Pistol Factory, now occupied by William ASHTON, in the manufacture of pistols, and James TIDGEMAN & Son, try-squares, bevels, and gauges. Comb Factory of BUCKLAND, STEARNS & Co., who employ sixteen hands and turn off from $25,000 to $40,000 worth of ivory combs annually. It would seem hardly possible for human skill to invent machinery to work more precise, and we might say delicately, than that used at this establishment, or to find ivory combs possessing a more perfect completeness when finished than those made by this firm. And last, though by no means least, the place factory of Austin BALDWIN. Mr. BALDWIN has been long and extensively known as a maker of joiners' planes, and by none better than those who have had occasion to experience the advantages of a good plane over a poor one. Planes of all patterns are here made to the amount of $25,000 a year, by twenty-eight workmen.

"Again, in Westfield Society, a pleasant village some two miles west of the city, there is a never failing stream called 'Willow Bridge Brook,' having its rise in the mountains, and flowing into the Connecticut. There are several unimproved water privileges along its course where a fall of twenty to thirty feet might be obtained with limited expense. Although it is but quite recently that attention has been turned to this stream for its course several unimproved water privileges along its course where a fall of twenty to thirty feet might be obtained with limited expense. Although its is but quite recently that attention has been turned to this stream for its manufacturing importance, there are already located here a factory owned by James O. SMITH, extensively engaged in making Japan varnish, which has a large sale; the various articles in the line of tin and Japanned ware, which, owing to a superior quality, has a successful competition in market with the foreign make. Mr. SMITH employs twenty hands, and supplies a demand for his goods to the amount of $25,000 to $30,000 per year. A mill for waving coach lace, with some six operatives, owned by J. B. ROSE. And the factory of H. H. GRAVES & Co., where in addition to their works in the city, they make some $5,000 worth of Brittania ware."

WILCOX, CRITTENDEN & Co., manufacturers of ship chandlery hardware, sail makers, awning makers, and boat builders' supplies, are the oldest and largest manufacturers in their line in the United States, and are locate don one of the oldest mill privileges in the town, at the Pameacha. The original buildings were first used by the Pameacha Manufacturing Company, as store houses, and were mostly of brick; the main one being 40 X 50 feet, with an extension 30 X 105 feet, three stories high, and basement since added, together with a blacksmith shop, and extensive galvanizing and tinning works.

Both water and steam power are used. The business had its beginning here in a small way. In 1848, Eldridge H. PENFIELD, from a suggestion made by Benjamin BUTLER, invented and patented a "brass grommet," or eyelet for sails. He took his uncle, Ira K. PENFIELD, into copartnership, and the firm of E. H. & I. K. PENFIELD made the first sail grommets manufactured in the United States. The business was commenced and carried on for several years, without power, by hand and foot presses, in a very small building in the rear of the drug store, corner of Main and William streets. Each member of the firm worked at the presses, and they employed two young men, one of whom was William W. WILCOX, of the present firm of WILCOX, CRITTENDEN & Co. Eldridge H. PENFIELD, in 1850, sold his interest, and young WILCOX was taken into copartnership under the firm name of PENFIELD & WILCOX. Business increasing, they moved to number 31 William street, a building previously occupied by Lot D. VANSANDS in the manufacture of steel pens. Remaining here a few years, the business outgrew hand machines, and was removed to the Power Company Building, corner of church and Hamlin streets. A steady but not rapid growth had thus far attended the business, and it promised well for the future. In 1859, WILCOX sold his small interest to Ira K. PENFIELD, invented and patented a new grommet, ad began to manufacture by water power, in the basement of the old building known as the Pameacha Manufacturing Company Woollen Mill, owned by Ambrose WOLCOTT.

Having a limited capital, Joseph HALL jr., of Portland, was taken into partnership, under the firm name of WILCOX & HALL. In 1869 Mr. HALL sold his interest to Mr. WILCOX, and a new partnership was formed, consisting of William W. WILCOX, E. Bound CHAFFEE, Albert R. CRITTENDEN, and Homer CHURCHILL, comprising the present firm of WILCOX, CRITTENDEN & Co. The new firm brought force, strength, and capital to the business. They have made large and important additions to the buildings, invented and patented may improvements which have gone into general use, and which are fully appreciated by owners and masters of vessels. Their business requires a large blacksmith shop, an iron and brass foundry, galvanizing and tinning departments, besides several large rooms for finishing goods, with power presses, drops, lathes, and other machinery, giving employment to an average to 150 hands. The galvanizing department is conducted on a large scale, and deserves special notice. They have five tanks of melted spelter or zinc, one of which holds ten tons, and is never allowed to cool. A new grommet, recently invented by W. W. WILCOX, composed wholly of sheet brass, superior in strength and finish to anything which has heretofore been made, is now being introduced by this house, with every prospect of its coming into general use.

A large and complete assortment of sail makers', ship chandlery, and awning makers' hardware is produced by this well known house. Their success has been the result of close attention to business, and keeping abreast of the times by anticipating and understanding the wants of the maritime commerce interest of the country.

THE RUSSELL MANUFACTURING COMPANY.-The manufacture of cotton webbing was commenced, in a small way, by SPAULDING & COLLIS, at the mill privilege near the old PALMER place, on the boundary line between the city of Middletown and Staddle Hill, where they erected a brick mill. This was in 1833. The business was not successful, and the firm became involved. Mr. Samuel RUSSELL, who had then recently returned from China, assisted the firm at various times, and they being unable to meet their liabilities, the machinery and other property passed into his hands.

In 1834, the RUSSELL Manufacturing Company was organized, with a capital of $100,000. The incorporators were Samuel RUSSELL, Samuel D. HUBBARD, George SPAULDING, and others. The first officers were: Samuel RUSSELL, president; George SPAULDING, secretary; and Samuel D. HUBBARD, treasurer. The company purchased of Mr. Samuel D. HUBBARD the mill site and other property on that part of the Pameacha River now known as the Sanseer River, at South Farms, near the old mill privilege granted by the town of Middletown to Thomas MILLER, in 1655. A large brick mill, 80x30 feet, 3 stories high, was erected, and the machinery from the factory of SPAULDING & COLLIS was transferred to the new factory. In 1836 Hon. Henry G. HUBBARD (nephew of Samuel D. HUBBARD), then but 21 years of age, was invited by the company to join with his uncle in the management of its affairs. For the first few years the business was not successful; but Mr. Henry G. HUBBARD having acquired a thorough practical knowledge of the business, he bent all his energies to make it a success. In 1841 he commenced the manufacture of elastic web, which had never before been attempted except on hand looms, a single thread at a time. He obtained the services of a Scotch weaver and soon after invented machinery to weave the web in power looms. This was the first successful effort ever made in this, and probably in any country to weave elastic web in power looms.

In 1850 Mr. Hubbard purchased his uncle's interest and not long afterward that of Mr. Samuel RUSSELL. He continued to make further improvements from year to year. As the business increased new buildings were erected and other mill privileges purchased. There are now six large mills in successful operation; three of these at South Farms, Viz., two weaving and one spinning mill, a spinning mill at Rockfall, in the town of Middlefield, a weaving mill at Staddle Hill, and a spinning mill at Higganum. These are run both by water and steam power. The three spinning mills contain 15,000 spindles which consume 3,100 bales of cotton per year, producing 1,200,000 pounds of double and twisted yarn. This thread goes into the dye house at South Farms, where the various colors are produced. It is thence distributed to the weaving mills, where it goes through the process of winding and warping, and is then sent to the looms. There are 400 looms and 4,000 shuttles weaving elastic and non-elastic webbing of almost every variety and pattern. Suspender webbing, exquisitely wrought in silk in the most elaborate designs, is all produced by machinery as perfect in its movements as clock work. The sales in this line of goods for 1883 were upwards of $800,000 and for other goods over $100,000.

In the several mills there are over 1,000 men, women, boys, and girls employed, earning from one dollar to three dollars per day. The whole of this immense business is under the guidance and control of one man. The most perfect system exists in in every department, and the amount of goods made weekly, together with the exact cost of production and the amount of raw material consumed, are all shown by the books in a such a clear, simple manner that it requires no expert to ascertain the condition of the "Profit and Loss" account. The continued success of the business is owing to a large extent to the co-operation of Mr. HUBBARD's faithful subordinates, many of whom have grown gray in his service, and look up to him with filial price.

The capital of the company has been increased to $600,000, made up entirely from the profits of the business, which yield an annual dividend on this amount.

The present officers of the company are: Hon. Henry g. HUBBARD, president; Samuel RUSSELL, vice-president; Eugene H. BARR, secretary; and Ernest DEMING, treasurer.

THE GOODYEAR RUBBER COMPANY.-There are few persons past the middle age of life but remember the "gum shoes" worn in their childhood. These were about the only goods made from the gum 40 years ago. It would be difficult now to enumerate the immense variety of goods made from this material; and this industry, which started within the last 30 years, is now one of the largest in the country; and the goods manufactured by this company are now found in nearly every pat of the known world. The great difficulties attending the manipulation of the rubber in the beginning, from exposure to atmospheric changes, have long since disappeared, and the goods, in the process of manufacture, being subjected to different degrees of heat are equally adapted to any climate.

The present company was organized in 1875, and the stockholders were composed of men that had been engaged in the manufacture of India rubber goods for upwards of 30 years. The present officers are: F. M. SHEPARD, president, 487 Broadway, New York; D. YOUNG, secretary, Middletown, Conn.; J. A. MINOTT, treasurer, New York. A pat of the buildings occupied by the company were erected in 1854, by Henry C. BACON, and used for the manufacture of mowing machines. The property was subsequently purchased by the Savage Fire Arms Company, and finally passed into the hands of the present company. The buildings, which are of brick, have been enlarged and improved, and now cover upwards of 50,000 square feet of ground room, and are three stories high. Two large steam engines of 300 horse power are required to run the machinery, and from 500 to 600 hands are employed. Several hundred tons of rubber are used annually in the manufacture of these goods. The principal manufactures of the company are boots and shoes, a large variety of clothing, rubber hose, and a line of goods known as "crack proof," made from strictly pure material, without a particle of adulteration. These are the best goods that can possibly be produced from the rubber.

The principal office of the company is at 487 Broadway, New York. The branch offices are at Boston, Chicago, Buffalo, Milwaukee, St. Louis, San Francisco, and Montreal.

CANFIELD RUBBER COMPANY.-The works of this company are located on Main street, in the rear of the insurance building. The special articles of rubber goods made by this company are the "Canfield elastic Seamless Dress Shield," used by ladies to protect their dresses from the effects of perspiration, and the "Canfield Divided Rubber Eraser." The late Jared H. CANFIELD, of this city, the inventor of these specialties, was one of the pioneers in the manufacture of rubber goods. This business was established in 1882, by a joint stock company, under the name of the I. A. CANFIELD Company. This name was changed by an act of the Legislature, in 1883, to the CANFIELD Rubber Company. The names of the corporators were: Ratcliff HICKS, Miss L. C. HICKS, Isaac A. CANFIELD, and Henry O. CANFIELD. The first officers were: Isaac A. CANFIELD, president; Ratcliff HICKS, treasurer; and Henry O. CANFIELD, secretary. The present officers are: Ratcliff HICKS, president; D. M. BALDWIN, treasurer; and Isaac A. CANFIELD, secretary.

The manufactory building is 50 by 150 feet in size, and three stories in height. The machinery is driven by a 60-horse power steam engine, and twenty-five hands are employed in the factory.

The business has increased to such an extent, by reason of the large foreign demand for these goods, that a branch manufactory has been established at Manheim, Germany. The goods manufactured here are sold through houses in New York, Chicago, and London.

W. & B. DOUGLAS, PUMP WORKS.-The manufacture of pumps was commenced in Middletown, in 1832, by William and Benjamin DOUGLAS, who were the pioneers in this enterprise, and from a single pattern and style of pump, invented and manufactured by this firm 52 years ago, the business has increased until upwards of 1,200 different varieties and patterns of pumps are produced by them, together with hydraulic rams and general hydraulic machinery; and the goods are shipped to almost every part of the habitable globe. The business was conducted under the firm name of W. & B. DOUGLAS until after the death of Mr. William b. DOUGLAS, which took place in 1858. In May 1859, it was incorporated as a stock company by a special act of the Legislature, the stock being owned by Benjamin and the heirs of William DOUGLAS. The officers of the company are: Benjamin DOUGLAS, president; John M. DOUGLAS, secretary and treasurer; Joseph W. DOUGLAS (son of William DOUGLAS), mechanical and general superintendent; and Edward DOUGLAS, assistant secretary. The growth of the business necessitated increased facilities. Improvements and additions have been made from time to time, and new buildings erected. The present works cover upwards of two acres of ground. These are fitted up with two large engines of 150 and 250 horse power each. About 300 hands, mostly skilled workmen, are employed. The present capital is $600,000. The goods manufactured here have received the first premium medals at Paris, Philadelphia, Vienna, Melbourne, and other parts of the world.

THE ROGERS & HUBBARD COMPANY.-The works of this company are located at Pameacha. The company was organized under the general law in February 1878. The corporators were: John ROGERS, Wilbur F. BURROWS, Maria e. HUBBARD, and Gaston F. HUBBARD. The first officers were: Gaston F. HUBBARD, president; Wilbur F. BURROWS, secretary and treasurer; and John ROGERS, superintendent.

The business of the company is the manufacture of bone knife handles and knife scales, elephant ivory, Sitka ivory, and bone collar and sleeve buttons, and fancy articles in bone and ivory, and also bone meal. The company occupies three brick buildings, one 43 by 28 feet, four stories in height; one three stores high, 16 by 40; and one 40 by 24, four stories; all connected. The machinery id driven by water and steam, with an aggregate of 70 horse power. Sixty hands are employed, and the annual sales are from $75,000 to $100,000.

THE MIDDLETOWN PLATE COMPANY.-The business of the Middletown Plate Company, for the manufacture of fine plated ware of almost endless variety and pattern, in tea setts, waiters, pitchers, ice setts, water setts, cake baskets, etc., was established in 1863 by Edward PAYNE. The company organized in 1866, under the general law, with a capital of $20,000. The incorporators were: Edward PAYNE, Henry BULLARD, and Elmore PENFIELD. The first officers were: Elmore PENFIELD, president; Henry BULLARD, secretary; Edward PAYNE, treasurer. The present officers are: G. H. HULBERT, president; Thomas H. B. DAVIS, vice-president; James H. KELSEY, secretary; Edward PAYNE, treasurer; and Henry BULLARD, superintendent. Three large brick buildings on HUBBARD street, 150 by 40 feet, 4 stories high; 145 by 32 feet, 3 stories high; and a frame building 150 feet long, 2 stories high, are occupied by the company. These buildings are fitted up with the latest and most improved machinery, and about 200 hands are employed. The company manufacture mostly standard goods.

THE VICTOR SEWING MACHINE COMPANY, which was formerly the Finkle & Lyon Manufacturing Co., carried on a successful business for many years, producing as high as 22,000 machines in a year. The company was organized in 1864, with a capital of $900,000. The company ceased to do business in 1883.

THE MIDDLETOWN HARDWARE COMPANY.-The works of the Middletown Hardware Company, for the manufacture of furniture hardware, are located near those of the Stiles & Parker Press Company. The company was incorporated under the general law in 1870, with a capital of $10,000. The incorporators were Edward PAYNE, Elmore PENFIELD, William E. HULBERT and Selah A. HALL. The present officers are: Elmore PENFIELD, president; William E. HULBERT, secretary and treasurer. The buildings are of brick; the main building is 35 by 100 feet, two stories high, with three additional buildings, 20 by 30, 20 by 20, and 18 by 25 feet. The machinery is run by a steam engine of about 35-horse power, and the company employs from 25 to 30 hands, mostly skilled workmen.

THE MIDDLETOWN SILK COMPANY.-One of the first attempts at silk culture in this country was made by the Middletown Silk company, which was organized in October 1838. The objects of the company were "to cultivate, raise, manufacture, sell and traffic in mulberry trees, mulberry sud, silk worms, and eggs, silk, and cocoons." The capital stock of the company was $10,000. Richard HUBBARD was president of the company.

The names of the other officers are not given. A large piece of land was leased, near the Mortimer Cemetery, where several mulberry trees were set out and extensive arrangements made for their cultivation. The business did not prove to be financially successful, for the final report made in 1848, shows that the expenses had absorbed the whole amount of the capital stock.

L. D. BROWN & SON.-A large and successful silk manufactory has been in operation, at South Farms, for several years. Machine twist, sewing, and all kinds of twisted silks are made at this manufactory. The business was established in 1850, by L. D. BROWN, at Gurleyville, Tolland county, Connecticut. It was afterward moved to Atwoodville, and Mr. H. L. BROWN, the son, was taken into the firm. The business was removed to its present location in 1871. The building is of brick, 45 by 100 feet, three stories in height, and is fitted up with machinery of the latest improvements for the manufacture of these goods. The power is supplied by a 50-horse power steam engine. About 150 hands are employed, and upwards of 35,000 pounds of raw material are consumed annually. The goods are sold principally through the houses at No. 27 Lincoln street, Boston, and at No. 486 Broadway, New York.

THE STILES & PARKER PRESS COMPANY.-On Walnut street, near the Connecticut Valley Railroad, are the extensive works of the Stiles & Parker Press Company, for the manufacture of drop hammers, presses, dies, and other tools for the manufacture of sheet metal goods, drop forgings, etc.

The company was organized in 1871, under the general law, with a capital of $90,000. The incorporators were: Charles PARKER, Henry G. HUBBARD, C. F. BROWNING, N. C. STILES. The officers were: H. G. HUBBARD, president; N. C. STILES, treasurer; C. F. BROWNING, secretary. The present officers are: D. A. STILES, president; N. C. STILES, treasurer; Howard R. CLARK, secretary. The buildings are of brick. The main building is 35 by 175 feet, 3 stories high; blacksmith shop, 30 by 75 feet, 1 story high; foundry, 80 by 100, 1 story high; and three other small buildings. A 60-horse power engine is used, and from 75 to 100 hands employed. The sales amount to about $150,000 annually, and the goods are shipped to every part of the country.

THE UNION MILLS are located at the foot of Union street. The business of milling was commenced at this place, in 1854, by a joint stock corporation called the "Union Mills." The persons incorporated were Samuel RUSSELL, Henry G. HUBBARD, John M. HUBBARD, Erastus BRAINERD, and George N. WARD. The old part of the building was originally used as a store-house for West India shipments. An addition was made in 1854, and another in 1865. In 1876 the property was purchased by George a. COLES; and is operated by COLES & WEEKS. The mills are run by a thirty-horse power steam engine. The number of persons employed is five. The mills have been in successful operation since 1854, and about 6,000 tons of raw material are used annually.

WINDOW BLIND FASTENERS.-Zoar is a small settlement about 1 miles from Middletown. It was formerly called Greenville, from a man named Green who settled at the place. About 1835, Mr. Lot D. VANSANDS came here from Middletown and commenced the manufacture of blind fasteners and saw rods, and a peddler naned [named] BARNES suggested that the name should be changed because Lot had fled from Middletown, as did his illustrious predecessor, 3,000 years ago, from the burning city.

WINDOW SPRING BOLTS.-A manufactory of window spring bolts was established at Zoar, in 1868, by Messrs. BABCOCK. A portion of the work is done at the works of the Wilcox Manufacturing Company, but the finishing is done in the framed building of Messrs. BABCOCK. Five or six hands are employed, and from 2,000 to 2,500 gross are annually produced. They are sold mostly to jobbers.

THE WILLIAM WILCOX MANUFACTURING COMPANY.-The manufacture of hardware goods was commenced, in Middletown, within the present century, and now almost every class of goods used in the hardware line is manufactured in Middlesex county. Among the most successful manufactories of this character is that of the William WILCOX Manufacturing Company, for the manufacture of plate locks, padlocks, and wood hames. The works are situated on the Pameacha Creek, Zoar, on the old mill site of Lot D. VANSANDS, from whom this locality was named. The business was established by William WILCOX, about 1845, for the manufacture of locks, etc. In 1860 Samuel BABCOCK and George W. ATKINS were taken into the firm. In 1875 a stock company was organized under the name of William WILCOX Manufacturing company, with a capital of $50,000. The incorporators were: William WILCOX, Samuel BABCOCK, George W. ATKINS, and Charles G. ATKINS, of Middletown. The first officers were: William WILCOX, president and treasurer; and Charles E. ATKINS, secretary. The present officers are the same. Two or three large buildings are used. They are fitted up for the use of water and steam of about 20 horse power. The establishment employs 90 to 100 hands, with a capacity of 150, mostly unskilled labor.

THE MIDDLETOWN MALLEABLE IRON WORKS.-A short distance beyond the works of the William WILCOX Manufacturing Company, are the Middletown Malleable Iron Works, where all kinds of malleable iron castings are made out of iron brought by rail from Detroit, Michigan. The proprietor, F. L. KELLSEY, is a grandson of the celebrated inventory, Franklin, who many years ago constructed the steamboat Experiment. The business has been in successful operation since 1882. The buildings were erected in 1880. The main building is 125 by 40 feet, one story high. Two other smaller buildings are used. From 30 to 40 hands are employed, and upwards of 300 tons of charcoal iron consumed annually.

ALLISON BROTHERS, SOAP MANUFACTURERS.-This business, which is located at Nos. 7 and 9 Sumner street, was established here about 1810, as appears by an advertisement in the Hartford Courant of January 3d of that year, showing the dissolution of the firm of PRATT & ALLISON, of Hartford, Connecticut. Mr. ALLISON, grandfather of the present proprietors, came here soon after the dissolution, and established the tallow chandlery business near the location of the present works. The business is probably the oldest of the kind in the county. The present buildings are of brick, the main structure being 60 by 60 feet, two stories in height, with an extension, 20 by 30 feet, one story high, provided with a steam engine and boiler of 30-horse power. They employ about 15 hands, and the sales are nearly 2,000,000 pounds per annum.

HALL BROTHERS' FILE WORKS.-In 1865 J. W. HALL & co. established this industry in the old dye house of the Pameacha Manufacturing Company, now owned by WILCOX, CRITTENDEN & Co. At first, but two hands were engaged in the work, which was principally recutting files. The business increased, and in 1872 E. C. HALL, a brother of J. W., became a partner in the concern, under the present firm name. The business has continued gradually but steadily to increase, and the manufacture of new files has become a considerably large department of the work. Twelve hands are now employed here, and a large amount of work is turned out. Most of the files made here are sold directly to large shops or manufactories that use them.

This firm has recently established a shop in New Britain, Connecticut, with a capacity equal to the one here.

SADDLERY HARDWARE.-The works of W. H. CHAPMAN & Co., for the manufacture of all kinds of saddlery hardware, including chime bells, etc., are located on the old Middlesex Turnpike, about 100 rods from the bridge. The business was established at the present location in 1876, in the building formerly used by the Middletown Shirt Company. The buildings were originally erected for the manufacture of fire arms. The main building, which is of brick, is 30 by 90 feet, three stories high. There are also a frame building, 26 by 50 feet, one-and-a-half stories high, a brick foundry, 14 by 20 feet, and a japanning room, 20 by 20 feet. These are provided with a 25-horse power engine. About 75 hands are employed, and the annual production is from $80,000 to $90,000.

THE STANDARD FIRE WORKS MANUFACTORY.-The manufacture of fire works is another branch of industry recently established in Middletown, the first of the kind ever erected in the State. The Standard Fire Works Manufactory of HADFIELD & BIDWELL is located on Berlin street, about half a mile from the city of Middletown. This was started in 1851 for the manufacture of all the popular varieties of fireworks, from the simple pin wheel to the most elaborate and artistic designs known to the trade. Large quantities of standard goods are manufactured annually for the trade. In addition to this, special orders of the most extensive character are filled for hotels, lawn parties, and public celebrations. Mr. HADFIELD, of this firm, formerly represented one of the oldest manufactories of the kind in this country. Fourteen frame buildings are used for manufacturing and storing goods, and from 15 to 20 hands employed.

I. E. PALMER, ARROWANNA MILLS.-This is one of the most important manufacturing establishments in the town of Middletown, and was started by Mr. PALMER about a quarter of a century ago. The goods manufactured at this establishment embrace canopies, mosquito nettings, screen cloth, sheer-finished linings, and hammocks. The mills are located about a mile from the business center of Middletown, on the Arrowanna River, and consist of several wooden buildings. Both steam and water power are used, and about 100 persons are employed. The business was at first conducted under the style of the Howe Spring Bed company of New York city, with Mr. PALMER as a partner in this particular branch of the business. The successive proprietors have been: MELLEN & WILCOX, PALMER & KENDALL, PALMER & ALLEN, and since the fall of 1881 I. E. PALMER has been the sole proprietor. January 1st 1863, a mill was started at Norwich, Conn., with Mr. PALMER's improved machinery, for the manufacture of picture cords. In 1879 this became the Ossawan Mills Company, with Mr. PALMER as president. In 1876 he organized the PALMER Tentering Machine Company. Mr. PALMER is a native of New London county in this State, and has always been a manufacturer. Between thirty and forty patents have been granted to him.

GLOBE MANUFACTURING COMPANY.-The buildings of this company are situated on the West River, on the road leading to Rockfall. The goods manufactured at this establishment include builders' hardware and an extra fine quality of edge tools, said to be equal in temper and finish to any imported goods in the market. The company was organized in 1849 under the general State law. The officers are: G. F. DAVIS, of Hartford, president; Frederick S. WORK, secretary and treasurer; T. K. WORK, general manager. The main building is 225 by 40 feet, one story high, with an extension 60 by 38 feet, three stories high, and another 36 by 24 feet, two stories high. In addition to these are the galvanizing room and a large brick office and packing room. To run these extensive works requires about 140-horse power and about 75 skilled operatives.

THE J. O. SMITH MANUFACTURING COMPANY.-Where this factory now stands, in Westfield, Middletown, there was originally a cider brandy distillery, owned by Nathaniel BACON. In 1826 the property was purchased by John SMITH, who then began the japanning business, which is said to have been the first enterprise of the kind in the United States. In 1828 J. O. SMITH, son of the above-named gentleman, succeeded his father in the business. From 1858 to 1878 the firm name was J. O. SMITH & Sons-four of Mr. SMITH's sons having at different times been members of the firm. It was re-organized in 1878 as a joint stock company, with J. O. SMITH, as president; and H. E. SMITH, secretary and treasurer. The incorporators were James O. SMITH, Samuel C. WILCOX, of Berlin, Julius W. BURR, of Berlin, and Thomas B. ODELL, of New York. The capital stock was $30,000. The present officers are: Samuel C. WILCOX, of Berlin, president; H. E. SMITH, secretary and treasurer. In 1874 the buildings were composed mostly of wood, being at that time one wooden two story structure 125 by 25 feet, one sledge and machine shop, and other one story buildings, with one brick block 80 by 21 feet, and covered quite an extensive area. These buildings were erected at different times, as the business increased and included an old village school house and a Baptist church, which were moved on to the grounds in former years. The fire which occurred in 1874 demolished all these structures except the old cider brandy distillery. Immediately after the fire, the works were rebuilt, mostly of brick, and now comprise five shops of the following dimensions: one 80 by 27 feet; one 103 by 21 feet; one 60 by 21 feet; and one 50 by 50 feet. The company manufacture signplates, japans for tin, iron, and wood enamels, and do a general japanning and enameling business. The sales room of the firm is at 51 John street, New York city. About 45 hands are employed in the factories.

THE TOBACCO BUSINESS.-Charles H. WHITE is a tobacco dealer and manufacturer of cigars. He formerly employed about 50 hands, but now he employs 30 in assorting and packing. He has two framed warehouses, with a capacity of 2,500 cases. He sells mostly in St. Louis, and other western cities.

TRUSSES.-E. C. DANFORTH's manufactory of trusses, body braces, supporters, spinal braces, pile springs, etc., is at Pameacha, in the same building with WILCOX, CRITTENDEN & Co. the business was established in 1846, by Josiah DANFORTH, father of the present proprietor, and was continued by him till his death, in 1873. It has since been conducted by E. C. DANFORTH. Six to eight-horse poser is used and seven to eight hands are employed.

PICTURE FRAMES.-The manufacture of frames is a new branch of industry, established within the last ten years, by Mr. Charles R. POTTER. It was established at first merely to supply the local demand, but having increased his facilities from year to year, he is now able to compete with New York, Boston, and Philadelphia houses, and received large orders for goods from these and other large cities. One of his specialties is the manufacture of gold and silver plate mats of which he is the inventor.

PAPER BOXES.-The large number of manufacturers in Middletown and adjoining towns consume an immense quantity of paper boxes for packing goods, etc. To meet this demand, Mr. E. M. TAINTOR established, in 1850, a paper box manufactory, which continued in successful operation under his management, until 1883. He then sold the business to Mr. Gilbert r. BURDICK, who had been in his employ as foreman for a number of years. The building occupied for the factory is 50 by 10 feet. From 25 to 50 hands are employed, producing $15,000 to $20,000 worth of goods per annum.

COMP & MILLER.-Among the old buildings of Middletown there are some very elaborate specimens of hand carving, scroll work, mouldings, etc. At the time these buildings were erected only the wealthier class of people could indulge in such an extravagance. Now, the mechanic of moderate means may adorn his house with the most beautiful specimens of scroll work, mouldings, brackets, etc., all of which are produced at the manufactory of COMO & MILLER, by machinery, at a trifling cost. The business was established by them in 1877. They occupy a portion of the large brick building at the foot of Centre street, which is fitted up with a 60-horse power engine and boiler, and furnish most of their class of materials for the builders in this locality.

THE MIDDLESEX NICKLE PLATING COMPANY.-The business of this company is carried on in the rear upper story of WILCOX, CRITTENDEN & Co's. factory. The business of the company is filling orders for large manufactories throughout the country. The firm was formerly William H. HALL & co., who recently sold out to DUNN & CASHEN, the present owners.

CILBERT'S [GILBERT'S] PLANING AND SAW MILL.-The factory of Charles GILBERT, builder and contractor, is locate done mile north from the city of Middletown. Mr. GILBERT commenced business at this place in 1870. When he purchased his premises, there were no buildings thereon. He now has a fine residence and a planning and saw mill, the latter being run by steam. He is engaged in the manufacture of wood-work for building purposes. There are 6 men employed in the shop.

O. F. GROVER'S FACTORY.-O. F. GROVER's shop is situated in Middletown, on Butternut street, west of Indian Hill Cemetery. The business was started in 1856, on Washington street, near the Arrowanna Mills.

Mr. GROVER originally manufactured only printers' sticks. In 1865 he build his factory on the present site and now manufactures a variety of printers' tools. He employs four or five men. Mr. GROVER is the inventor of the "clamp" or "slide" stick, so much in favor among members of the craft who ply the "art preservative," and which is so universally used throughout the United States.

Mr. GROVER is a native of Middletown, and was born in 1830. He served an apprenticeship at the blacksmith's trade, and the idea of embarking in his present business was suggested to him by a printer who had experienced the difficulties of setting, and resetting the old "screw" stick.

MCCOY'S GRIST MILL.-The site on which this mill now stands, has long been used for milling purposes. There was an old mill thereon when the land was purchased by Mr. George MCCOY from Mr. Wellington JOHNSON, who formerly lived in the Johnson Lane District. It is said that the first building was erected by one MARKHAM, probably a century ago. The present mill was built by Mr. MCCOY, in 1864. It is run exclusively by water power.

THE JOHNSON BRICK YARD.-Caleb JOHNSON's brick yard is located about three-fourths of a mile south of the railroad station at Newfield, and nearly two miles north from the city of Middletown. In 1856, Mr. JOHNSON commenced the brick business at this place, in connection with Mr. Harvey WARD. They manufactured about 500,000 brick per annum. About 20 years ago, Mr. JOHNSON purchased from Mr. WARD the interest of the latter in the enterprise, and has since conducted the business alone. He now employs from 15 to 18 men, and manufactures 1,500,000 to 1,800,000 brick yearly. These are sold in the surrounding cities.

THE TUTTLE BRICK YARD.-George L. TUTTLE started this yard in 1846. He was formerly a resident of Windsor, Connecticut. When he commenced the business, at his present place, which is near the Newfield railroad station, about two miles north from Middletown city, he made annually but 100,000 bricks. From this small beginning the enterprise has grown to be an important industry of the town. The yearly product of the yard is now from 1,500,000 to 2,000,000 bricks. These are mostly shipped to surrounding cities. Mr. TUTTLE also owns a large farm in this vicinity, and is quite extensively engaged in agricultural pursuits. He has at present 125 acres under cultivation, on which are grown the various crops common to this section. He also keeps from 20 to 25 head of stock on his premises.

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