The History of Middlesex County 1635-1885
J. H. Beers & Co., 36 Vesey Street, New York
1884
Pages 242-263

         



TOWN OF CROMWELL.
BY Rev. M. S. DUDLEY.

[transcribed by Janece Streig]

TRACES OF THE INDIANS.



Very little is known in regard to the occupancy of the territory now embraced in the town of Cromwell, previous to the coming of the first white settlers. It belonged to the same Indian tribe that lived in Middletown. The chief of the tribe, at this time, was SOWHEAG. His castle was in Middletown, not far from Indian Hill. His territory was known by the Indian name of Mattabesett.

Tradition says that there was once an Indian burying ground on the banks of the Connecticut River, in the southern part of the present village. Human skeletons have been discovered, while making excavations for cellars. Captain Abijah SAVAGE used to find these Indian remains, together with kettles, bowls, and other implements of stone, when digging up the earth in his shipyard. The reputed site of this Indian burial place is below South street, along the river, and between the river road and the turnpike. The abundance of stone axes and arrow heads found in the meadows west of the turnpike, on land owned by Bulkley EDWARDS, would indicate an Indian camping ground not far from the site of the present village.

Judging from implements of Indian construction discovered at various times, there was formerly an Indian village or encampment in the Nooks, near the bank of the river, on land now owned by Charles P. SAGE. This point is nearly opposite GILDERSLEEVE's Landing.

Indian arrow heads, stone axes, pestles, and similar articles, abound in this vicinity. Beyond this, there are few evidences of the red man's habitation.

SETTLEMENT.



The early history of this town is closely identified with that of Middletown. The first settlement of Middletown began about 1650, on the north and south sides of Little River, and west of the Connecticut or Great River. These settlements were as near together as practicable, but, owing to the wide meadows on the north side of Little river, the two groups of first settlers were about two miles apart.

The committee, who first visited this region, to prospect for settlement, reported that fifteen families might obtain subsistence. A much larger number were on the ground within one year. In September 1651, town privileges were granted to the colony. In 1653, the place was first called Middletown. The original township included land on both sides of the Connecticut River. The towns of Portland, Chatham, Middlefield and Cromwell were included in the township.

Cromwell embraces the part of Middletown lying north of Little River. It is bounded on the south by that river, west by Berlin, north by Rocky Hill, formerly a part of Wethersfield, and east by the Connecticut River.

The first settlers occupied land along the Connecticut or Great River, near the Little River Meadows included in the southern part of the village.

Among the families who settled on the north side of Little River, were the following, many of whom are represented by lineal descendants, at the present day: John KIRBY, Anthony MARTIN, Thomas RANNEY, David SAGE, John SAVAGE, Samuel STOCKING, Samuel WHITE, Thomas WILCOX, and John WILCOX. MARTIN, SAVAGE, STOCKING, WHITE, and WILCOX came from Hartford; RANNEY from Scotland; SAGE from Wales.

The two settlements were distinguished, at an early date, as Middletown, Upper Hausen (Houses), and Lower Housen (Houses).

The following is Dr. FIELD's account of the first settlement made in Cromwell, called till 1851, Upper Houses or Upper Middletown.

"A part of the early inhabitants settled in Upper Houses, and almost all these erected their dwellings in the lower part of the village, on the street midway between Middlesex turnpike and the river (now called Pleasant street.) These were: Nathaniel WHITE, Samuel STOCKING, George GRAVES, Robert WEBSTER, Joseph SMITH, Daniel HARRIS, John MARTIN, John SAVAGE, Thomas RANNEY, David SAGE, and John KIRBY. Between the upper and lower settlements intercourse was maintained by a fatty across Little River."

The social condition of the early settlements was peculiar, and is an interesting study. As shown by the quotation from Dr. FIELD's address, the first settlements on these lands was in a compact village community. This was for protection and social advantages. The original proprietors each took a small lot at the center for a homestead. They then divided the outlying commons into larger lots or farms, and distributed them at various times, as the lands were surveyed and occasion demanded.

The method of assembling the people for public worship by the use of the drum continued long after the necessity of a military guard was passed. It was the practice in this place, certainly as late as 1736, eighty-six years after the first settlement.

The following votes from the records of the "Upper Houses" Ecclesiastical Society are of interest as referring to this custom, and showing the duties of the drummer to belong to the sexton:

"At a meeting of ye society February 15th 1715, the society agreed with Sam STOWE to beate the drum and sweep the meeting house for the year ensuing, and to look after the doors, for one pound, five shillings money, or as money."

At a meeting held December 17th 1724, "The Society agreed to give Nathaniel RANNEY 15 shillings for beating the drum."

At a meeting held December 14th 1735, "The Society agreed to give Nathaniel RANNEY 16 shillings for beating the drum for the year ensuing, if he can be obtained. Otherwise the committee to hire one as cheap as they can to beate the drum on Sabbath days and other days of public meetings in said Society."

These entries continue year after year for several years, probably till the matter was left to the society's committee without a record of the vote of transfer. There is a record of a vote taken November 1st 1736, in regard to collecting money to pay the expense of "beating the drum and sweeping the meeting house."

PARISH OF UPPER HOUSES.



The separate history of Upper Houses, or Cromwell, begins with the organization of a new parish, known at first as the North society of Middletown, in 1703. The distance between the two settlements and condition of the meadows in times of high water caused great inconvenience at certain seasons. This led to early efforts to secure church and school privileges. At a town meeting held May 5th 1690, the town granted the "North part, by reason of distance that if they provide a sufficient master there, then they to have part of the rate which shall be raised for that purpose, and if they do not provide in that caus, then to pay their whole portion to the schoall of the town, that is for six months."

There was an earlier vote taken in February 1683, to the same effect. Whether the condition in this vote was complied with is not certain. This was the first town action toward a separate school for Upper Houses.

In the same year of the above vote, and at the same meeting, May 5th 1690, action was taken that contemplated a separate parish. At this time, a piece of swamp land was "confirmed" to Mr. RUSSELL. It was 10 acres,

"Against hornet bay at the east end of that swamp, and south of the river, and that the remainder of that swamp land to lye for a parsonage til our neighbors on the north side due stand in need of it, on that side, for the use of the ministry."

It was not, however, until 1703, that the action contemplated by this vote was consummated. In January of that year, the town granted the people of Upper Houses the liberty to have a minister and "meeting hous" separate from the people on the south side of the Little River. They were to maintain the gospel at their own charge. They were within six months or one year, at the utmost, to procure an orthodox and approved minister. Unless this was done, they were chargeable for the gospel in the old parish.

At the May session of the General court, the parish of Upper Houses, Middletown, was incorporated.

"May 1703 Whereas it had been made to appear in this Court that at a town meeting in Midletown or meeting of the inhabitants of Midletown, the 18th day of January 1702-3, upon the request of that part of the said inhabitants living on the north side of the riverett or little ferry river there, by a voat of the inhabitants of the said towne, there was a libertie and priviledge granted to those the said inhabitants thereof living on the north side of the said riverett, at their own proper cost and charge to build a meeting house, and to procure and settle an orthodox minister of the gospel amongst them and to maintain and uphold the publick worship of God amongst them there; and the said inhabitants on the north side the said riverett having thereupon made application to this Court, praying that they may have a confirmation of the said libertie and priviledge, and that by an act of this Court they may be made a distinct parrish and societie by and of themselves, with all such liberties, powers and priviledges, as other societies and congregations in this colonie generally have and do enjoy.

"Be it therefore enacted by this court and the authoritie therof, and it is enacted:

"That all those persons that now are and hereafter at any time shall be dwellers and inhabitants on the north side of the said riverett in the said towne of Midletown, are and hereafter shall be one intire societie and parish by and of themselves, and shall have an enjoy all such powers, liberties and priviledges, as other societies and congregations in this Colonie generally have, or by lawe may have, enjoy and use, for the choosing collectors and levying of rates and money for the charge, settlement and maintenance of their minister, and upholding the publick worship of God among them, from time to time as need shall require." Although there was no separate church organization till January 1715, the parish organization dates from the year of incorporation. It was provided, by the Assembly, that the new parish should pay its rates to the old society until such time as it had a settled minister. Whether, in the interval between the incorporation of the society, and the organization of a church with a settled minister, the people continued to worship with the parent church and to pay their rates there is not certain. Soon after the parish was formed, a church building was erected and so far finished as to be fit for occupancy.

From 1703, this parish, known as the North Society, or the Second Ecclesiastical Society of Middletown, managed its church and school affairs separately. All other local matters requiring action were under the direction of the town of Middletown until the establishment of a separate township, in 1851. About the time that the new parish was formed, the population is estimated at 250. The following is the list of the tax payers, with their rates: James BROWN, 22.00; Widow BUTLER, 6.00; Joseph BUTLER, 13.10; Nathaniel CLARK, 46.14; Daniel CLARK, 65.10; Serj. CLARK, 71.17; John CLARK, 46,14; Isaac CORNELL, 24.00; Joseph CROWFOOT, 18.00; Samuel FRARY, 69.00; Roger GIBSON, 45.10; Samuel GIBSON, 72.00; David HURLBUT, 37.00; John KIRBY, 30.00; Samuel LUCAS, 35.00; William MARK, 25.00; Margaret RANNEY, 3.10; Ebenezer RANNEY, 48.18; Joseph RANNEY, 61.05; John SAGE, 150.00; Capt. John SAVAGE, 89.02; Thomas SAVAGE, 41.10; William SAVAGE, 73.00; Hannah SCOVIL, 27.10; Mary SCOVIL, 15.00; John SHEPHERD, Edward SHEPHERD, 79.00; Samuel SHEPHERD, 21.00; Daniel STOCKING, 59.05; Samuel STOW, 39.05; Thomas STOW sr., 42.00; Thomas STOW jr., 43.00; John WARNER sr., 77.19; John WARNER jr., 75.11; Joseph WHITE, 85.00; Ensign WHITE, 85.10; John WHITE, 18.00; Hugh WHITE, 42.00; Daniel WHITE, 49.17; Jacob WHITE, 88.00; Israel WILCOX, 77.00; Joseph WHITMORE, 44.00. Total, 2,586.03. Whole number of names, 50.

Allowing five persons to each tax payer, we have 250 as the population of Upper Middletown Society.

INCORPORATION OF THE TOWN.



About 1850, the subject of organizing the second parish into a new township was agitated. At first, the movement met with considerable opposition from the town, but finally, April 28th 1851, the town voted that it was inexpedient to oppose the North Society in seeking to have said society set off as a distinct town, and instructed its representatives in the Assembly to give aid in securing incorporation.

In the spring session of the Assembly, 1851, the town of Cromwell was incorporated. The list of voters furnished by the town clerk of Middletown, to the first town clerk of Cromwell, in March 1852, contained 214 names.

The first town clerk was Samuel G. WILCOX. The first selectmen were Selden G. ELY, Lorenzo H. TREAT, and Henry RANNEY. The first town representative was MARVIN R. WARNER, chosen to represent the town in the Assembly of 1852.

The population of the town, at that time it became a separate parish, in 1703, was estimated at 250; in 1850, when the town was incorporated, the population was 1,275.

The annual expenses of the town, in recent years, have been about $10,000; the indebtedness is about $30,000. The larger share of this debt was incurred in aiding the construction of the Hartford & Connecticut Valley Railroad. In November 1848, the town voted to subscribe for 2,200 shares of the capital stock of this road. A few more shares were taken at a later date, and, in March 1870, the town issued bonds to the amount of $28,000. The debt of the town in 1877 was $35,514; in 1884, the outstanding debt was $31,200. Deducting the surplus in the treasury, it was $28,283.

There are frequent traces in the records, and some reliable traditions of slave holding.

The names of slaves appear in the earlier church records, showing that they were baptized and received into full communion.

In a will executed by Mr. Joseph SMITH, son of Rev. Joseph SMITH, first pastor of this church, September 20th 1768, there is the following bequest. After naming his five sons and giving them his real and personal estate, he says: "I give them equally my negro man Cliop or Peter. But they or either of them shall not sell him out of the family unless by his own choice, and if he should live to want support more than the can earn by his own labors, he shall be comfortably provided for by my sons at equal expense, if they don't otherwise agree."

Seats in the gallery of the church, south side, were set apart for the use of slaves, and the southwest corner of the old cemetery was assigned as their last resting place.

Soon after the first settlement of Middletown, the section north of Little River began to be called "Upper Houses," or vulgarly "Upper Housen." When it was made a separate parish, it was designated in the official documents as "The Second Ecclesiastical society of Middletown." Frequently in the reports of the Society it is called "North Society," When a post office was established, this part of the town was known as "Middletown, Upper Houses." This continued to be the post office address until about 1820, when it was shortened to "Upper Middletown." In 1851, this parish was incorporated as a separate town under the name of Cromwell.

The following is a summary of a thorough canvass of the town made in January and February 1878, by a Bible distributor under the direction of the Middletown and vicinity Bible Society, and the superintendence of Rev. W. H. GILBERT, agent of the American Bible Society:

Whole number of families, 373; American, 211; Foreign, 162; Irish, 85; German, 51; English, 14; various, 12; total population, 1,617; Protestant families, 257; Roman Catholic, 116; average size of family, 4 1/3.

The following extracts, from the public records, may be of interest to future generations:

"At a special meeting of the Inhabitants of the town of Middletown held on the 28th day of April 1851, agreeable to notice given, it was
"Resolved, That it is inexpedient on the part of this town, to take any measures in opposition to the petition of Elisha TREAT & others of the North Society, to the next General Assembly of this State praying that the said North Society may be set off as a distinct Town. Resolved That the representatives from this town & the Senator of this District be requested to promote & aid in procuring the granting of the petition of Elisha TREAT & others in the next General Assembly."

The act of incorporation is as follows:

"Upon the petition of Elisha TREAT and others, inhabitants of Middletown, in the County of Middlesex, praying for reasons therein set forth that said town of Middletown be divided, and a new town incorporated therefrom, as per petition on file will more fully appear.

"Resolved by this Assembly, That all that part of the town of Middletown lying northerly and easterly of a line beginning at high-water mark on the east bank of the Connecticut river, where said river empties into the Connecticut river, thence directly to the middle of said Sebethe or Little river at its mouth, and thence following the middle of the said river to the point where said river forms the boundary between the towns of Berlin and Middletown, with all the inhabitants residing in that part of Middletown lying northerly and easterly of said line be and the same is hereby incorporated into a separate town to be known and called by the name Cromwell. And the inhabitants aforesaid, and their successors forever, residing or belonging within said limits, shall have, retain and enjoy all the rights, powers, privileges and immunities enjoyed by, belonging to or incident to any other town in this State, except only that said town of Cromwell shall have the right of sending one representative only to the General Assembly of this State. The expense of constructing, maintaining and repairing all bridges crossing said Sebethe or Little River, between said towns of Cromwell or Middletown, including dry bridges and causeys wherever necessary on their side of said bridges, or either of them, for convenient access thereto, shall be equally borne by said towns of Cromwell and Middletown; and if the Middletown and Berlin turnpike shall ever be discontinued, and the maintenance of the same with the bridges now belonging to said turnpike, shall devolve on said towns, or either of them, the expense of maintaining the bridge on said turnpike across the said Sebethe or Little River, including necessary dry bridges and causeys on either side thereof, for convenient access thereto, shall be born equally by the said towns of Cromwell and Middletown.

"Said new town shall pay its proportion (according to the grand list of 1850) of all debts, suits and claims now due and accrued against the town of Middletown, or for which said town may hereafter be made liable by force of any claim now existing.

"The poor of said town of Middletown who were born within the limits hereby incorporated and who have not by residence or otherwise gained a settlement elsewhere in this State than within said limits, shall be deemed inhabitants of said town of Cromwell, and shall be maintained accordingly. And said town of Cromwell shall be liable to maintain all such poor of the town of Middletown as are or may be absent therefrom. Provided, such persons at the time of departure had a legal settlement in that part of the town of Middletown hereby incorporated.

"All the property of whatever nature or description now owned by, due, or belonging to the town of Middletown, or which may hereafter accrue to said town by virtue of any claim, right or title now existing, shall belong to said town of Middletown and said new town of Cromwell in proportion to their respective lists, according to the grand list of 1850; saving and excepting the public records and other property appertaining to the town clerk's office, which shall be and remain the property of the town of Middletown; and the town deposit fund shall belong to and be divided between said towns of Middletown and Cromwell in proportion to the number of their respective inhabitants, according to the census of 1850.

"Always provided, that if, after the organization of said town of Cromwell the selectmen of the aforesaid towns do not agree in the division of the paupers or funds and property belonging to said town on or before the 15th day of October A. D. 1851, the selectmen of either town may apply to John MARKHAM jr., Esq., of Chatham, Romonta WELLS, Esq., of Wethersfield and Norman PORTER, Esq., of Berlin, who or either two of whom, are hereby authorized and empowered to divide said paupers and funds and property, in manner and form aforesaid; which division shall be final and conclusive-the selectmen of both towns aforesaid being first duly notified of the time and place, when and where said division shall be made. The collectors of the state, town and other taxes in the town of Middletown are hereby authorized to collect their respective taxes already levied, due, and in their respective rate-books contained, together with such county tax as may hereafter and before the 31st day of July A. D. 1851, be laid on the grand list of 1850, in the same manner as though this resolve had not been passed.

"Said new town of Cromwell shall belong to, and constitute a part of the 18th Senatorial district. The first town meeting of said town of Cromwell shall be holden in the Congregational meeting house in said town, on the third Wednesday in June A. D. 1851 (afterward changed to the third Wednesday of July 1851) at 9 o'clock A. M.; and Elisha TREAT, Esq., or in case of his failure Dr. Richard WARNER, shall be moderator thereof. And said meeting shall be warned by Bulkley EDWARDS, Esq., or in case of his failure, by Andrew F. WARNER, Esq., by setting up a notification of the same on the public signpost within the limits of said town, and at such other place or places as either of said persons may deem proper, at least five days before said meeting; and said town of Cromwell shall have all the powers it said first meeting incident to other towns in this State, and full right to act accordingly; and the officers elected at such first meeting shall hold their offices until others are chosen and sworn in their stead; and this act shall take effect from and after the day of its passage."

The name of the Second School Society of Middletown was changed to the School Society of Cromwell in 1854, and the name of the Second Ecclesiastical Society of Middletown to the First Congregational Society of Cromwell, in 1853.

CIVIL LIST.



Representatives.-The Representatives from Cromwell have been: Marvin R. WARNER, 1852, 1853; Lorenzo H. TREAT, 1854; John HASKELL, 1855; Joseph EDWARDS, 1856, 1863; Samuel J. BAISDEN, 1857; David EDWARDS, 1858, 1866; Bulkley EDWARDS, 1859, 1864, 1867, 1872; J. D. ALLISON, 1860; Thaddeus MANNING, 1861; Charles KIRBY, 1862, 1869; David H. HURLBUT, 1865; Timothy RANNEY, 1868, 1875; Elisha STEVENS, 1870; Samuel B. WILCOX, 1871; John STEVENS, 1873; John D. BOTELLE, 1874; Henry E. ELY, 1876; Russel FRISBIE, 1877; Isaac H. WARNER, 1878, 1879; George GILLUM, 1880; George S. WILCOX, 1881; Henry W. STOCKING, 1882; George P. SAVAGE, 1883; Charles P. SAGE, 1884.

Town Clerks.-Samuel G. WILCOX, 1851, 1852; Lorenzo S. TREAT, 1852-57; Elizur L. WRIGHT, 1857-61; Charles KIRBY, 1861-70; Samuel B. WILCOX, 1870-72; Stephen P. POLLEY, 1872-1878; R. B. SAVAGE, 1878, 1879; Stephen P. POLLEY, 1879-81; R. B. SAVAGE, since 1881.

THE CROMWELL ROADS.



The first highway was that which connected the two settlements on either side of Little River. This road left the Lower Houses a little further from the Connecticut than the present turnpike, and let to the ferry at the point where the present iron bridge spans Little River. Thence the road followed the banks of the river to the site of the tobacco warehouse of Henry W. STOCKING. There it left the river and ran west along the present South street to Pleasant street, then turned north again, running parallel to the river along the line of Pleasant street to Freestone. This was the first public road of Upper Houses, and was extended as the settlement expanded. The short section that ran west from the river, leaving the latter, went on westward about on the route of the present highway around Timber Hill. In sections it ran further south and nearer the Little River meadows. What is now Freestone street was laid out from the corner of Pleasant, eastward to the river, and westward it ran across the Cromwell quarry, north of the old cemetery, and onward over Timber Hill. At the corner of Main street and Freestone, the old road turned north, following the line of the present Main street, along to the foot of Prospect Hill. At the point against Capt. Edward SAVAGE's estate, the road parted as at present and ran around Prospect Hill. The road on the west side was laid out through the ravine at the foot of the hill, instead of along the brow, as at present. The eastern part followed pretty nearly the course of the present road around Prospect Hill. The main road followed the general course of the present Hartford Turnpike. It was much wider, however, than at present. At some points it was further west than the present layout. Another road followed a northerly course along the line of West street. At the common, near the Catholic church, this road bore to the northwest, as at present, and ran west of the new cemetery. This was laid out to the Wethersfield line. The larger part of this road has been thrown up. All that remains is a section from the common near the Catholic church, a short distance north of the new cemetery, and a section west of the Wightman Woods. The Plains School stands in the southeast corner of these woods. In time the river road was extended north from South street to Freestone. The point where this latter street strikes the river used to be known as Captain WEBER's corner. The west extension of the river road was from this corner north about a mile to the stone bridge that crosses the Nooks Brook. Near this bridge there was formerly a ferry known as NORCUTT's Ferry. From it a road ran westward to the Hartford road, which it intersected a little south of Prospect Hill. This road was much used at one time by the citizens in the north part of Portland in going to Hartford. From NORCUTT's Ferry the river road was finally extended to the Nooks, where it met an impassible barrier in the HIGBY Banks. These roads, in the meadows above WEBER's corner, are not used to any great extent except for getting to and from the meadows. There is no general travel. NORCUTT's Ferry is a think of the past. What is known as the Nooks road was laid out by the gift of private individuals. It originally started at the river, some distance from its eastern terminus, and followed the course of the present road till it reached the toy shop. Thence it ran due west of the hill, and intersected the road around the eastern brow of Prospect Hill near the BEAUMONT place. The road that runs west from the Hartford Pike, between the land of George STEVENS and William WARD, is an early road, and one of the ways by which the first inhabitants reached Berlin. These were the principal highways that accommodated the citizens through the early period.

In 1801 or 1802 the Hartford Turnpike company was incorporated. The charter granted the company the right of straightening the old highway where it was necessary. The company began to operate the road in 1803-4. The principal changes in Cromwell were in the meadows and at Prospect Hill. About a mile north of the Little River bridge, the turnpike left the river, ran through the meadows, and intersected the old road again at the corner of Main and Freestone streets. At Prospect Hill, the turnpike ran along the hillside a short distance east of the old road in the ravine. I the days when the stage coach flourished, this turnpike road was a busy scene of travel and traffic. The coaches of the Boston and New York mail passed over the road and announced their approach by the blasts of the stage horn.

EDUCATION.



This historical survey is incomplete without some allusion to the educational interest of this people.

This community, in the early times, possessed the traditional New England attachment to the common school. At the first, there was no separate school at Upper Houses. The children were obligated to go to the lower settlement; this caused great inconvenience. In 1663, the town granted the Upper Houses the privilege of a separate school, if with their proportion of the rates they could procure a teacher. In 1690, a similar vote was passed. It is likely that a separate school was maintained during these years. From the organization of this parish in 1703, this society managed and sustained its won schools. For many years, the town has been divided into five school districts. For several years it has maintained a central school, of higher grades than the district schools offered. This is called the High School, and occupies the building owned by the trustees of the academy.

School children in attendance upon the schools in Cromwell during the winter of 1814-1815:

Lower School, 120; North School, 51; Nooks School, 16; Brick School, 45; Northwest School, 45; total, 277.

On January 1st 1884:

North School, 103; Northwest School, 59, West (Brick) School, 88; Center School, 60; south (Lower) School, 64; total, 374.

THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WARS.



The State of Connecticut, from the beginning, has an honorable record in the military history of the country.

This community also, so far as meager accounts afford light, did its full share toward making and sustaining the reputation of the State.

In the trying period of the French and Indian wars, the middle of the last century, this parish had an organized militia company.

During the French wars, 1755-60, Connecticut raised several regiments, and sent them on the military campaigns. In 1757, four regiments of 3,600 men each were equipped.

It is not possible to give precise information about the men who went from this society.

Through these years the Colonial records show that there was a train band, or militia company, in the North Society of Middletown.

The names of SAVE, SAVAGE, STOW, and others appear amongst the number of those who were commissioned as officers of the General Court. It is fair to presume that from this company the parish sent its quota to the wars.

In 1758, Rev. Edward EELLS, the pastor of the church, served as chaplain of the 2d Regiment, in place of Rev. Joseph FISK, of Stonington, who was appointed by the Assembly. In 1759, he was chosen chaplain, by the Assembly, to succeed Mr. FISK. Whether Mr. EELLS accompanied the troops upon the campaigns of these years, when he served as chaplain, cannot be determined.

The records of the church give the names of three who died in service during the French and Indian wars:

In March 1755, Eleazar FRARY died in camp at Lake George.

In September 1758, Amos JOHNSON died in camp at Lake George.

November 23d 1760, news was received of the death of Joseph WILLARD in the army.

THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR.



Coming down to the period of the Revolution, there is more satisfactory evidence of the part which Upper Houses bore in the struggle for independence. On land and sea the sons of this parish endured hard service, and won for themselves imperishable honor.

They were in the earliest struggles at Ticonderoga, at Bunker Hill, at Boston, and with Gen. ARNOLD in his disastrous Quebec campaign. From the records of the parish, and the scanty, rapidly fading traditions, the following roll of Revolutionary patriots has been preserved:

Asher BELDEN, a pensioner.

Samuel CLARK, baptized May 22d 1743; private.

Nathan EDWARDS, baptized November 14th 1742; private; died in prison in New York.

David EDWARDS, a trooper in the Canada expedition.

Churchill EDWARDS.

Edward EELLS, baptized August 16th 1741; captain, major; family helped by the town during the term of his service.

John EELLS, a drummer in the regiment of his brother, Major Edward EELLS.

Samuel EELLS, baptized January 13th 1744, captain. At time of entering service was pastor of the Congregational church in North Branford. Moved by an earnest appeal from General WASHINGTON, he urged his people to rally for the country's defense one Sabbath morning. At the close of the day's services, he took command of a company of 60 men and went to New York.

John HANDS, a wheelwright in the Revolution.

Abijah KIRBY, a private; died July 22d 1782, in prison in New York.

John PRATT, born in Hartford, captain in the Revolution.

John RANNEY, private; died in prison in New York, on or before July 22d 1782.

John ROBINSON, killed at Norwalk, 1779.

Comfort SAGE, son of Ebenezer, grandson of John, of numerous posterity (189 at the time of his death); captain, colonel (general of militia). A citizen of Middletown, and a member of the North Church after his return from the war.

Nathan SAGE, son of Amos, baptized August 23d 1752; renewed baptismal covenant, November 21st 1773. In the privateering service, then the United States navy. While the British were blockading New York, SAGE, as captain on a vessel, ran a cargo of powder into port after a sharp race with two British cruisers. Was received by Congress then in session in New York. After the war Captain SAGE was appointed collector of the Port of Oswego, N. Y., which position he held till his death, about 1833, 84 years old.

Elisha SAGE, son of Amos, baptized August 17th 1755; private.

William SAGE, son of Amos, baptized January 11th 1749; in battle of Bunker Hill; captain.

Epaphras SAGE, baptized October 16th 1757; private; after the war, was ensign, lieutenant, and captain of the militia; died May 28th 1834, aged 77.

Matthew SAGE, killed in battle in 1776.

Benjamin SAGE, with ARNOLD in Quebec campaign.

Simeon SAGE, son of Deacon Solomon SAGE; three years in the service.

David SAGE jr., died from wounds received at Quebec, 1776.

Daniel SAGE, with ARNOLD in Quebec campaign.

Hosea SAGE, died in service in 1781, at West Point.

Abijah SAVAGE, baptized July 24th 1744. Served as society's committee in 1773. Was among the first to take up arms. Served as lieutenant, commanding a company with ARNOLD in expedition through Maine to Quebec. BRANDIGE, of Berlin, a private in his company, used to tell Justus STOCKING, that "No man possessed more capacity and endurance in getting supplies and in pushing forward the expedition." He became captain later in the service. His family was helped by the town during the time of his service. After his return, Captain SAVAGE repeatedly acted as moderator of the society's meetings, and represented the town in the Legislature.

Josiah SAVAGE, born February 1760; baptized January 11th 1761; was 17 years old when he enlisted, in 1777, taking the place of an older brother, who was feeble.

Nathaniel SAVAGE, born in 1745, baptized October 27th 1745; in the privateer service; he died November 11th 1823, 79 years old. Mr. SAVAGE was at one time a captive on board of a British prison ship. During a remarkably cold season, when the Long Island Sound was frozen over, he escaped from a cabin window of the ship and made his way out of the British territory upon the ice.

Caleb SHELDON, a pensioner; moved soon after the war to Northern Vermont.

James SMITH, captain; died in prison in New York; heard of death, February 20th 1780. Captain SMITH served as collector of the society in 1775. In November of that year he was released from that office.

Samuel SMITH, died in prison in New York; heard of death, July 7th 1780.

Nathaniel STOCKING, died in prison in New York.

James STOCKING, died in prison in New York; the date is about June 4th 1782.

Samuel STOW, baptized August 18th 1745; renewed baptismal covenant, July 10th 1769; a seaman; served as privateer; killed, April 12th 1780. A singular story is told in connection with Mr. STOW's death. A son of Mr. STOW, a mere child, was playing in the yard of the house, standing just on the other side from the Congregational church, a little north perhaps. His heart was as full of the joy of spring and the love of life as would be the heart of any boy of to-day, when he suddenly rushed into the house exclaiming: "Mama, the red coats have killed papa; I saw it." The time was noted. Subsequent news confirmed the boy's vision. This event caused a great sensation. It seems to be a well authenticated tradition. A descendant of the STOW family is the authority.

Jonathan STOW, baptized 1748; private; early in the service; took part in the siege of Boston, in 1775.

William STOW was baptized September 29th 1754; he was the son of Jonathan and Abiah STOW; he had two older brothers, Samuel and Jonathan, in the service. Below, two letters are given copies of which have been kindly furnished by Mr. Charles C. SAVAGE, of Brooklyn, New York, a grand nephew of Mr. STOW. Mr. STOW took part in the battle of Bunker Hill, and the first letter was written soon after that engagement.

          "Roxbury, June 23d, A. D., 1775.
"Dear Parents:
          I having an opportunity to write to let you know that I am well and in high spirits as I hope these lines will find you the same. All those, the scurmage which I wrote to you before the certainty of which, were killed, we cannot tell as yet, but 'tis reported there is about 1,700 of the Regulars, killed and wounded. There was about seventy officers, some colonels. On our side particulars we have not, but it is supposed about sixty or seventy killed and taken prisoners. So no more at present. I remain your loving son till death.
                    "William STOW.
          "Don't forget to send that sealing was and thread."

          "July the 2d, A. D., 1775.
"Honored Father and Mother.
          "I take this opportunity to let you know that through the kind providence of God I am well and in high spirits as I hope these lines will find you. Saturday, the 1st of July, we got fortified upon a hill and placed two twenty-four pounders. They fired twice, the first struck about eight rods from their breastworks, the second went over among their tents. Sunday morning following they began and fired very fast. They fired and sot one house afire. They also threw but hurt no person.
          "N. B.-The particulars of the captives the regulars took we have had letters from them that they have thirty, amongst them on Colonel. O that we had known how it was with them, for tis supposed all the regulars went out except the guard and the town was obliged to stand sentries, for this we had from Liberty men that came out that night. Some of the town's next neighbors got leave to come. I have nothing to write, only how we have fresh beef three times a week and a pint of milk a day and butter, also chocolate and molasses. We want for nothing. I have a little more to write which was transacted this day. We took a barge with eleven men in it. First we fired upon them and killed four, the rest surrendered up to us.
          "So I remain your loving son till death shall pat us.
                    "William STOW.
          "P. S.-I have received the thread and sealing wax by Edward EELLS, Jr.,"

Hugh WHITE, born January 25th 1733; served as collector of the society and moderator of the society's meetings; commissary during the Revolutionary war. In 1784 he left Upper Houses for Central New York, just west of Utica. A large section was called Whitestown. This section induced all of New York State west of a line running north and south through Utica. In 1792 this section contained 6,000 inhabitants. Judge White lived to see it containing over 300,000. He was judge of Herkimer and Oneida county. He died April 16th 1812, aged 79.

Reuben WHITE, born March 10th 1765; died in prison in New York city, about June 1783.

Asa WILCOX, heard of death at West Point, September 30th 1781.

Eliphalet WILCOX, born 1761; baptized September 1761; a privateer; died May 24th 1839, aged 78.

Amos WILCOX, baptized October 23d 1757; was present at the surrender of Burgoyne, October 17th 1777.

This is some uncertainty in regard to the parish in Middletown, to which some of the above belonged. Nathaniel STOCKING and James STOCKING may have belonged to what is now called Cobalt or Middle Haddam. General Comfort SAGE was probably never a resident in Upper Middletown Society. The opinion is that Ebenezer, his father, moved to the city early in life. Abner SAGE is thought to have belonged to Portland.

THE WAR OF THE REBELLION.



The difficulty of making a complete list of those who participated in the struggle for independence, suggested the desirableness of making a Roll of Honor for the Civil war, while its memories were fresh.

For this purpose a committee was appointed by the town in the fall of 1876, to prepare a list of the citizens of this town who participated in the Civil war. Messrs. Ralph B. SAVAGE, Elisha SAGE, and David EDWARDS were this committee. They made an interesting reports at the next annual meeting, embodying the roll of soldiers and many other interesting historical facts. The report was accepted and ordered to be entered upon the town records. The town was prompt and patriotic in its efforts to promote the vigorous prosecution of the war.

April 30th 1861, a special town meeting was held, and the town voted the $2,000, or so much of that sum as might be necessary for the equipment of volunteers and the support of their families, should be appropriated from the town treasury for that purpose.

August 11th 1862, a bounty of $100 each was voted to a sufficient number of volunteers to fill the quota of the town under the call issued by the president on July 1st of that year. August 26th 1862, this bounty was extended to all volunteers for three years, and on that day a bounty of $100 was given to every volunteer under the call for nine months' men.

August 22d 1863, it was voted to give $300 to every man drafter, and $100 to those drafted in 1862.

August 11th 1864, bounties were voted as follows: $100 to volunteers for one year; $200 to those for two years; and $300 to those for three years who should answer the call of the president for 500,000 men.

December 12th 1864, like sums were granted to those who should procure substitutes; and the selectmen were instructed to procure substitutes on the most favorable terms. (From the town records.)

The action of the town to keep the quota of men in the field was successful, as the list of citizens who enlisted shows.

INDUSTRIES OF THE TOWN.



The tillage of the land has been, from the beginning, one of the chief industries of this town. But the river with its deep channel, especially in the earlier days, affording navigation to deep draught vessels, opened a tempting avenue of enterprise, which citizens of energy were not slow to enter. Commerce with the West Indies and with China and various parts of the world was actively carried on in former years. Among the heir-looms in some of the old families are pieces of old china, which were procured in Chinese ports. They were decorated with initial letters and other designs and brought home by sea captains as gifts to wives and daughters. The thrilling adventures of Capt. James RILEY and mate, Aaron SAVAGE, of the brig Commerce, natives of this town, who were shipwrecked on the western coast of Africa and captured by the Arabs, are evidences of the sea-faring ways of former generations. Among those who took part in the Revolution not a few were engaged in the privateer service. There are very few of the old families who have not relics and interesting traditions of the ocean handed down from former days, when some of their ancestors braved the perils of the deep as captains or sailors. Of late years, this business has been confined almost wholly to the coasting trade with the northern ports of the United States, the oyster beds of Virginia, and the Northern West Indies.

In the early part of this century there was an active and lucrative trade carried on with the West Indies. The chief exports were hay and mules, and the imports were rum, molasses, sugar, fruit, and mahogany. At times in those days the wharves of "Upper Houses" were lively. The arrival of a vessel was the signal for boys and girls to rush down to the river for the perquisites, tropical fruits and trinkets from southern ports. Evidences of the commercial enterprise are in Dr. DWIGHT's "Travels Through New England," in 1796 and following years. He passed through Middletown in September 1796. He says:

"The parish called Upper Houses is a beautiful tract of the very fertile land. The village which bears this name and contains a considerable part of the inhabitants, is a thrifty settlement on the southern declivity of a beautiful hill. The houses, about 80 in number, are generally well built, and the whole place wars an air of sprightliness and prosperity. An advantageous trade was carried on by the inhabitants, particularly with the West Indies. From the summit of this hill the prospect of the scenery is eminently delightful." (DWIGHT's Travels, volume I. Page 224.)

In connection with the commercial enterprises of Cromwell, during the latter part of the last century, and the opening of the present, ship building was a considerable industry. One of the ship yards was on the river right now occupied by the present quarry dock. This was owned at one time by Captain Luther SMITH. Another, still further down the river, belonged to Captain Abijah SAVAGE. His yard was just below the MCKEE house, on River street, a short distance south of South street. A little further down was still another yard, belonging to William BELCHER. Sometimes there were vessels on the stays of all of these yards at the same time. There was also an extensive rope walk to supply rigging for the new vessels. This, belonging at one time to Captain WEBBER, stood back from the river, on land now occupied by Bulkley EDWARDS. With the decline of the commercial enterprise of this region these industries have disappeared. As New York grew to be the center of the commercial interests of the country, the talent and capital employed in small ports like this drifted thither, and commercial business languished or disappeared entirely. At present not a single vessel is owned wholly by citizens of Cromwell. There are only two captains of schooners engaged in coasting trade that live in town, viz.: Captain Ralph STOCKING, and Captain Wallace WRIGHT. They are partial owners of the vessels under their command. Comparatively few of the citizens follow the sea. There are a few families that gain a livelihood from the fish of the river. This occupation is chiefly confined to shad and alewives in their season.

MANUFACTURING.



There was formerly a cotton factory on the plains, 36 by 26 feet, which was run by water power, having two stories and a basement. This property was bought in 1857 by J. and E. STEVENS (now the J. E. STEVENS Co.). Some time in the early history of this locality, the LEES Brother-William, John, James, and Thomas-who came from England, were identified with the manufacturing interests, and associated wit them Joseph Beaumont, of Yorkshire, who settled in America in 1804. William LEES is said to have built the factory and to have leased it to the co-partners. In the latter part of 1813 or early in 1814, Beaumont entered into partnership with Asa HUBBARD, Anson TREAT, and Horace and Justus STOCKING, under the firm name of Nooks Manufacturing Company. They built a factory, two stories high with basement, on the old town grist mill privilege, then owned by Asa HUBBARD, now occupied by Mr. J. D. ALLISON. The lower floor was used for cotton manufacturing, the upper for woolen. Part of the machinery was built on the premises by Joseph BEAUMONT, and the first wick yarn made in this vicinity, for which there was a good demand, was here manufactured. Yarn for domestic goods and cotton cloth for sheeting were afterward made. This cloth was course and strong, was called "Hum Hum," and sold for 50 cents a yard. The mill at this time contained none of ARKWRIGHT inventions came into general use, thus reducing the price of the former machines to that of old iron. Soon after, improved machinery was introduced, including a mule, 100 spindles for the cotton department, and a pair of jennies for the woolen department. Wick yarn, bed-tick yarn, batting, broadcloth, satinet, etc., were manufactured. Families brought their wool to be carded instead of carding it by hand, as formerly.

In after years, the factory was used in the manufacture of hammers and in polishing wall-paper. The building burned about 40 years ago.

William LEES and Joseph BEAUMONT appear to have had an interest in the original business carried on at this place as late as 1823.

The Eyelet and Ferrule Company.-Chestnut Brook, in Cromwell, was first utilized by James MILLER as a water poser for running a grist mill more than a century ago. About 1820, the old mill building was taken down and another structure erected on the site for manufacturing purposes. The date of its first occupancy is unknown. For sometime Francis R. KICKS carried on business at this place, and about 40 years ago Colonel George R. KELSEY purchased the property for the manufacture of buckles, and continued the enterprise for six or eight years, when he removed to Waterbury. The estate then passed into the hands of the Cromwell Manufacturing Company, who occupied it till 1859, the concern being engaged in the toy and hardware business. A. F. and R. WARNER also made door and shutter bolts in this factory, which was subsequently bought by Mr. DEMOREST, of New York city, and used by E. L. WRIGHT & Co. for the manufacture of metallic eyelets and ferrules. Since the death of Mr. WRIGHT the business has been continued by the Eyelet and Ferrule Company, the property being owned by W. A. STICKNEY.

The upper factory in the Nooks burned about 1881; it was built by Edmund SAGE and occupied by him and his brother Elisha as a foundry. It was not very prosperous and soon passed into other hands. Various branches of business were undertaken without any great success and for some years before fire swept the buildings away, they were vacant. J. H. WARNER, and Martin R. WARNER began the manufacture of harness in this shop with William P. ALLISON in 1846. In 1849, they removed to their present location. Mr. William M. NOBLE entered the firm and they have done a very good though not extensive business.

William P. ALLISON started the business of manufacturing hammers in the shop now occupied by colonel Dean ALLISON who succeeded his father. This factory has always been noted for the excellence of its wares.

The Cromwell Plate Company was started about three years ago, but it bids fair to rival many of its older competitors. Some of the most beautiful goods in the market, and some of the most unique designs, are produced by this company. Every variety of plated ware, except the smaller staple goods, are manufactured here. The company was organized in 1881, under the general law of the State. The directors were Russel FRISBIE, John STEVENS, George GILLUM, Robert COWL, F. W. BLISS, J. WILLIAMS, and George RUSSELL. The officers were: Russel FRISBIE, president; Frank BLISS, secretary and treasurer. The present officers are: Russel FRISBIE, president; Silas CHAPMAN jr., secretary; and W. R. MCDONALD, treasurer. The works of the company are located near the Connecticut Valley Railroad depot. The main building which is of wood, is about 40 by 160 feet, three stories high, with an engine and plating room in addition. The engine is of 25 horse power. Some 50 hands are employed, and the annual sales amount to many thousand dollars.

The Floral Nursery of A. N. PIERSON was established in 1872, for the cultivation and propagation of flowers and plants, this being the first of the kind at Cromwell. The business extends to New Haven, Hartford, New York, and other cities. The annual sales amount to from $12,000 to $15,000 per year. The nurseries cover upwards of 50,000 square feet. During the winter months the business is mainly cut flowers; roses being the specialty. In the spring commences the bedding of plants, the business of which amounts to some 200,000 plants. Mr. PIERSON employs from 12 to 20 hands.

The J. E. STEVENS Company.-The large and extensive works of The J. E. STEVENS Company, manufacturers of iron toys, hardware, &c., is located near the Hartford and Connecticut Valley Railroad. The business was established in 1843, by John and Elisha STEVENS, under the firm name of J. & E. STEVENS. In December 1868, Mr. WALTERS, who became of a member of the firm of J. & E. STEVENS & Co. in 1856, was killed being town from his wagon. In 1860, the widow of Mr. WALTERS, and the remaining partners petitioned the Legislature for a special charter, and organized a stock company under the name of The J. E. STEVENS Company, with a capital of $140,000. The incorporators were John STEVENS, Elisha STEVENS, and Mrs. WALTERS, widow of Joseph N. WALTERS, and Russel FRISBIE. The officers were: John STEVENS, president; W. E. HULBERT, secretary and treasurer; Russel FRISBIE, superintendent. The present officers are: John STEVENS, president; Edward S. COE, treasurer; George GILLUM, secretary; Russel FRISBIE, superintendent. The buildings are eight in number and employment is given to about 100 hands.

CROMWELL HALL.



Cromwell Hall, an institution for the treatment of mental and nervous diseases, stands on a beautiful elevation called Prospect Hill, commanding a fine view of the Connecticut Valley and the surrounding country. It was established in 1877, by W. B. HALLOCK, M. D., a native of Utica, N. Y., who has had several years experience in the treatment of nervous diseases and the miler forms of insanity. A number of patients have been successfully treated each year, and are now "clothes and in their right mind." The healthful locality and pleasant surroundings have no doubt contributed greatly to this result. The average number of patients treated annually is about 13. Accommodations are provided for 17. Associated with Dr. HALLOCK, as consulting physicians, are A. M. SHEW, M. D., superintendent of the State Hospital for the Insane, and Dr. F. D. EDGERTON, of Middletown.

CROMWELL TRACT SOCIETY (UNION).



This society was organized June 11th 1852. The first officers were: president, Mrs. Mary E. BRYAN; vice-president, Mrs. Edwin RANNEY; secretary and treasurer, Miss Mary G. SAVAGE; with committee of two, and nine collectors.

THE FRIENDLY ASSOCIATION AND ACADEMY.



These two institutions were in active operations in the early part of this century in this town, and were a healthful means awakening and developing the mental powers of the young.

As early as 1808, according to Dr. FIELD in his "Centennial Address and Historical Sketches," a debating society was formed. Two years later this society was enlarged, or rather another organization was formed upon a broader and more efficient plan, to which the property of the old society was transferred. This was the Friendly Association, whose first meeting was held February 20th 1810. The object of this association was to promote "the discussion of questions on various subjects, the recitation of dialogues and select pieces, original composition and declamation, together with a permanent library for the use of its members. It has had nearly three hundred members, and a library of about five hundred volumes. This association has had no active existence as a debating society for these many years. So far as can be ascertained, the period of this society's greatest activity and usefulness was between 1810 and 1830. Dr. WARREN says: "When I went to Cromwell (1838) it had passed into its decline. Mr. W. C. REDFIELD, Dr. William TULLY, and others, who had been interested in it at first, had moved away, and there were few to take their places. The library was still used to some extent, but the books were not of a popular character, and were not much sought for."

About five years ago its constitution was modified so as to enable it to maintain a reading room and library without sustaining regular meetings, as the old constitution required. A few new books were added and a reading room was opened in the second story of the high school building-the old Academy. The books, though modern and entertaining, were too few in number to attract readers. The reading room though enjoyed by those who frequented it, was closed in a few months for want of funds.

The first officers of the society, elected February 20th 1810, were as follows: president, Rev. Joshua L. WILLIAMS; vice-president, Silas SAGE; secretary, William C. REDFIELD; treasurer, Allen BUTLER. Of the early members who were particularly active in establishing and maintaining the association, the names of Messrs. William C. REDFIELD, Silas SAGE, Joseph WILLIAMS, and Martin RANNEY may be mentioned.

The purpose, organization, and exercises of the association were similar to the debating societies and lyceums which were very common in the towns and villages of New England till within a recent period. In late years periodical literature has met the want which these institutions supplied.

The exercises of the meeting were various. "They consisted of original compositions, recitation of dialogues and selected pieces, reading of choice extracts, translations from the classics and modern languages, reviews of literary publications, the exhibition of natural curiosities and articles of antiquarian interest, and the performance of chemical experiments."

Lecturers were secured at various times. Among those recorded by Mr. WILLIAMS are Dr. TULLY, Rev. Mr. CROCKER, and Dr. WARNER of this place; Dr. Charles WOODWARD, Isaac WEBB Esq., and Rev. Arthur GRANGER, of Middletown; Prof. A. W. SMITH, and Prof. JOHNSON of Wesleyan University; and Rev. D. D. FIELD, D. D., of Haddam. The subject of Dr. FIELD's lecture was comprehensive, "The buildings, furniture, food, dress, occupation, amusements, education, and religion of our Puritan ancestors."

Between the date of its organization, 1810, and 1850, the date of Mr. WILLIAMS' sketch, 802 weekly and monthly meetings were held.

No precise date can be found as to the establishment of the Academy. Dr. FIELD mentions that "a number of gentlemen in 1782, united together in an effort to build a new school house in the centre, and to sustain a teacher summer and winter. It was the purpose to maintain a school of a higher grade than the average district school of that day. This building, or one that replaced it, stood on the green south of Baptist Church, and in the rear, west, of the old meeting house-the second church edifice of the Congregational Society. This school never had any fund. It was maintained on what was known as the subscription plan. Those patronizing the school paid their share of the expense.

The teachers employed were generally young men who were pursuing their studies in college, in preparing for college, or for one of the liberal professions. Dr. HUTCHINSON, who has been the resident physician for more than 25 years, was at one time, about 1820, a teacher in the school. Of those who have been teachers since 1830, ten became ministers of the gospel. One of these, Rev. I. P. WARREN, D. D., of Portland, Maine, writes as follows: "I was engaged to teach the academy in the spring of 1838, being then in my senior year at Yale. I continued there till the fall of 1839, when I returned to New Haven to study theology. Rev. Mr. CROCKER was then president of the board of trustees, which consisted of Deacon Isaac SAGE, Edward SAVAGE Esq., Dr. Richard WARNER, Israel RUSSELL, and one to two others. The first summer the school numbered about 30; the winter following about twice as many. An assistant, Miss COMSTOCK, of Hartford, was employed during part of that term. My salary was at the rate of $500 per annum, and was paid by an assessment, pro rata, upon the pupils in attendance. It was the intent o the school to furnish what was then the highest grade of common education, and also to fit young men for college. Of those who were then intending to enter Yale College, I remember Dr. George S. F. SAVAGE, Josiah SAVAGE, Ebenezer BECKWITH, and Dr. Robert HUBBARD. A considerable number of the older pupils were refined young ladies and gentlemen. The school had undoubtedly done much to elevate the tastes and manners of the youth, and indeed the general tone of society in the place. I should add too, that it was during all that period most constantly under the influences of the Holy Spirit. The ministry of Rev. Mr. CROCKER was an eminently faithful and fruitful one, and few years passed without revivals of greater or less extent. The principals of the academy were ministers or candidates for the ministry, and few pupils could have attended the school even for a short time without being brought into personal contact with the truth."

The old building on the green gave way to the brick structure formerly called "The Academy," now occupied by the high school. This building was erected in 1834, at an expense of $1,700. No private or select school has been taught for several years. It is now rented by the trustees of the property to the town for the purposes of a high school. The school known as the high school really unites the grades of both grammar and high school department, and has been efficiently taught for several years by Rev. Henry S. STEVENS.

VILLAGE IMPROVEMENTS.



Until within seven years from the present year, little has been done in a systematic way by the united effort of citizens toward the improvement and adornment of the village. But there have been, at different times, public spirited citizens who have shown an active and useful interest. Of these, Benjamin WILCOX should be mentioned. To him the village in indebted, for the fine avenue of maples on the eastern side of the park just south of Prospect Hill. Dr. Richard WARNER, also, showed much interest in public improvements. It was through his interest chiefly that the trees were planted along the river banks beside the highway leading to Middletown. By the efforts of citizens now living, considerable had been done, before there was any organized work, in the way of laying sidewalks and planting trees in front of their own residences.

In the sprint of 1877, steps were taken toward the organization of a Village or Town Improvement Society. It is an organization of citizens, having this purpose, as stated in its constitution, to wit: "to improve and ornament in every practicable way the public grounds, streets, highways, and other property of the town, by planting trees, fencing and beautifying greens, bettering the roads, attending to drainage and snow paths and doing whatever may render the town more pleasant and attractive as a place of residence. Also to encourage individuals to do for their own grounds what the association attempts for the town generally."

The first officers of the society were elected June 2d 1877, to hold office till the annual meeting to be called in the autumn. These officers were as follows: William E. HURLBERT, president; W. R. MCDONALD, first vice-president; Russel FRISBIE, second vice-president; J. H. TRENT, secretary; E. S. COE, treasurer; and a board of ten, five gentlemen and five ladies, who with the other officers, constitute the executive committee.

In the autumn of 1877, about 370 trees wee planted. Sine the society began its work more than 500 trees have been planted. Something has been done toward improving sidewalks and roadways. The work of improving the commons is about to be taken up. The following is the board of officers chosen November 24th 1879; president, W. R. MCDONALD; first vice president, Russel FRISBIE; second vice-president, dr. HALLOCK; secretary, R. S. GRISWOLD; treasurer, E. S. COE; executive committee, George WILCOX, M. S. DUDLEY, Captain PALMER, Buckley EDWARDs, A. N. PIERSON, Mrs. George GILLUM, Mrs. WHEELOCK, Mrs. M. H. SMITH, Miss Emma SAVAGE, Mrs. H. N. STOCKING.

CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH.



Reference has already been made to the organization of the First Ecclesiastical Society of Cromwell. Very soon after the incorporation of this society, work began on a building for use in public worship.

It was so far completed as to be ready for occupancy, although it was not thoroughly finished till the organization of the church, and the settlement of the first pastor, twelve years later, in January 1715. It is probable that the people worshipped, a part of the intervening time, with the old church in Lower Houses. There is evidence, however, that efforts were made to secure a settled pastor. A Mr. David DEMING was employed for a time, with a view to settlement. He located in town, and bought land, which he sold, at a later period, to Rev. Joseph SMITH.

The deed of land by the society to Mr. SMITH for his settlement shows that they had previously (in 1705) negotiated with Mr. DEMING, and offered him the same piece of property, in case he would settle among them, as their pastor. He never did become their minister, and never obtained a legal title to this land. But he did get possession of land adjoining. This land he bought of Samuel HALL, in 1710, and sold, afterward, to Mr. SMITH. It adjoined the parsonage lot on the south.

It seems probable that Mr. DEMING occupied the society's land, and acted as minister a part, if not all, of the tie between 1705 to 1715. The lot deeded by the society was on Pleasant street. The northern boundary was about the same as the division fence between the lot owned and occupied by William GRAVES, and that immediately north. It ran east to the river, and far enough south to include three acres, more or less.

On the 18th day of February 1714, the committee of the North Society reported that the Rev. Joseph SMITH would settle with them, as their pastor, provided a suitable maintenance was guaranteed. The sum fixed upon was 65, to be increased as the society was able. The society immediately took measurers to complete its house of worship, which was finished and dedicated on the same day the Mr. SMITH was installed and settled as pastor of this society. On the same day, also, a church of 93 members was formed. All but two of these were from the old church in Middletown. The following is the list of original members. Captain John SAVAGE, Mrs. John SAVAGE, Sergeant William SAVAGE, Mrs. William SAVAGE, Mr. Thomas RANEY, Mrs. Thomas RANNEY, Mr. John RANNEY, Mrs. John RANNEY, Mr. Joseph RANNEY, Mrs. Joseph RANNEY, Mrs. Samuel STOW, Mrs. Samuel STOW, Widow Nathaniel WHITE, Mr. Joseph WHITE, Mrs. Thomas WHITE, Mrs. Daniel CLARK, Mrs. Jonathan WARNER, Mrs. Nathaniel SAVAGE, Widow SHEPARD, Samuel HALL, Samuel GIBSON.

Summary: By letter, 21; profession, 2; total, 23.

All except HALL and GIBSON were received from the old society in Middletown.

On the 10th of February 1716, one year after the organization of the church, the first deacons were elected. Sergt. William SAVAGE and Sergt. Samuel HALL. Mr. SMITH, the first pastor, was removed to this place from Horse Neck, Greenwich, at the expense of the Society. He had served them, for a short time, as preacher. His chief occupation, previous to settlement in Upper Houses, was that of teacher. He was the son of Philip SMITH, of Hadley, Massachusetts, a graduate of Harvard, class of 1695. There is evidence that Mr. SMITH continued, for a time, to teach pupils, after his establishment in this parish. Among his pupils was Samuel JOHNSON, D. D., missionary of the Church of England in Connecticut, and first president of King's College, New York. Young JOHNSON, who had very reluctantly left the school, in his native place, Guilford, taught by Mr. Jared ELIOT, who abandoned teaching for the ministry and settled as pastor in Killingworth, now Clinton, "was sent from home and placed under the care of Joseph SMITH, pastor of a newly organized church in Upper Middletown, now Cromwell. Though a graduate of Harvard College, Mr. SMITH was not a scholar who inspired his pupil with much respect for his attainments; and after trying in vain for six months to make progress in his studies, he left his poorly qualified master and returned to Guilford." * [BEARDSLEY's Life of Samuel JOHNSON.]

Mr. SMITH was probably a man of affairs rather than of books. He must have been possessed of considerable property, for he began, at an early date, to purchase real estate in his new home. The records, during his pastorate, are very meagre. It is impossible to determine how many joined the church in the course of is ministry. Mr. SMITH's pastorate continued till his death, September 8th 1736.

On the 6th of September 1738, he was succeeded by the Rev. Edward EELLS. Mr. EELLS was a graduate of Harvard College in 1733. At the age of 26 he entered on his first pastorate in this society, and continued to serve the same people till his death, October 12th 1776, aged 64 years. His father, the Rev. Nathaniel EELLS, of Scituate, Mass., preached his ordination sermon, in which he commended his son to the people over whom he was set as overseer in spiritual things. Mr. EELLS served the people of this parish well, and endeared himself to their heats. He held an honorable position among his ministerial brethren. In 1759, Mr. EELLS was one of the scribes in the council called to consider the difficulties that had arisen between Rev. Mr. DANA and the church at Wallingford. This was a celebrated controversy known as the "Wallingford Case." Mr. EELLS wrote a pamphlet in vindication of the action of the council. In 1767, he preached the election sermon before the General Assembly. From 1761 till his death, he was one of the trustees of Yale College. Three of his sons, Edward, Samuel, and John, took part in the Revolutionary war. The house he occupied was situated directly west of the old cemetery in the southwest corner of the cross roads. Mr. EELLS had great pride in his fruit orchard, lying south and west of his house. From his home there was a fine prospect toward the river, and southward, overlooking Portland and Middletown. Of this pleasant homestead, so carefully kept during the occupancy of its owner, nothing remains except the well. The land is part of the Joseph EDWARDS estate, being a portion of the property that formerly belonged to one of Mr. EELLS successors, the Rev. Joshua L. WILLIAMS.

The following is the roll of deacons who have served this church since its organization:

Samuel HALL, February 10th 1716; W. SAVAGE, February 10th 1716 to January 25th 1727; S. STOW, to September 28th 1741; J. WILCOX to May13th 1751, died, 68; S. GIPSON to March 18th 1748, died 76; s. SHEPERD, December 3d 1745 to April 9th 1750; I. WHITE, January 15th 1749 to June 27th 1769, died, 71; W. SAVAGE to 1774, died, 74; T. JOHNSON, January 9th 1766 to December 26th 1774, died, 56; J. KIRBY, November 29th 1770 to September 12th 1783, died, 65; S. SAGE, January 26th 1775 to June 7th 1795, died, 74; T. GIPSON, January 14th 1784 to March 23d 1810, resigned; A. SAGE, February 22d 1790 to March 23d 1810, resigned; J. HUBBARD, December14th 1807 to August 23d 1808, died, 63; B. PARMELEE, March 23d 1810 to April 6th 1822, resigned; R. SAGE, July 1817 to March 13th 1826, died, 49; J. R. WILCOX, November 11th 1822 to January 4th 1839, resigned; I. SAGE, October 29th 1826 to September 30th 1861, died, 75; R. WARNER, January 4th 1839 to September 1st 1843, resigned; J. STEVENS, September 1st 1843 to February 5th 1875, resigned; G. H. BUTLER, July 6th 1862, acting; R. B. SAVAGE, April 30th 1875, acting.

The first recorded votes, dated January 13th 1715, were upon the matter of church membership, and are very obscure.

"It was voted and agreed upon that relations should not be a binding term of admission into this church, but persons might use their liberty in that case."

"It was voted and agreed upon by the church at the same time, that persons not scandalous and of competency of knowledge, should have the seal of baptism upon their desire, they owning the covenant."

The church, in its early organization, had two covenants, one a baptismal covenant, the other a full communion covenant. The use of these two covenants continued till 1805, during which year the last instance of receiving a member by a renewal of covenant is recorded, and was formally given up about 1809.

The Baptismal or "Half-way" Covenant did not entitle those who took it to the communion. It gave them the privilege of having their children baptized. This privilege was forfeited if at any time the "half-way" covenanters were guilty of unchristian conduct, and could only be restored by confession and promise of amendment. The "half-way" covenanter could be received to full communion by making confession of unchristian conduct and accepting the full communion covenant. The act of confession was known as "rendering Christian satisfaction for sin." In popular parlance it was called "walking the broad aisle," because those who made confession walked into the broad aisle of the church while the minister read their confessions. The whole number of cases of rendering satisfaction for offenses between the years 1738, when the first record was made, and 1805, was 160.

The Half-way Covenant was repealed about 1809-10. Rev. Mr. WILLIAMS made its discontinuance a condition of his settlement as pastor of the church. On the 7th of March 1810, the following vote as adopted:

Voted, "That the former practice of requiring a public confession of the sin of fornication and other sins on admission to the Church, be abolished."

From 1810 to 1876, the number of cases of discipline resulting in excommunication or withdrawal of fellowship was fourteen individual cases and seventeen offenses.

The pastors of the church have been: Joseph SMITH, began January 5th 1715, ended September 8th 1736, died; Edward EELLS, began September 6th 1738, ended October 12th 1776, died; Gershom BUCKLEY, began June 17th 1778, ended July 7th 1808, resigned; Joshua L. WILLIAMS, began June 14th 1809, ended December 29th 1832, died; Zebulon CROCKER, began May 2d 1833, ended November 14th 1847, died; George A. BRYAN, began June 13th 1849, ended October 20th 1857, resigned; James A. CLARK, began June 16th 1858, ended December 2d 1863, dismissed; William K. HALL, began March 1864, ended April 1st 1865; Horatio O. LADD, began November 23d 1865, ended December 16th 1867, resigned; Thomas M. MILES, began 1868, ended 1870; A. C. HURD, began 1871, ended 1873; Myron S. DUDLEY, the present pastor, began February 25th 1874.

The meeting house, erected when the society was incorporated, completed and dedicated at the time of Mr. SMITH's settlement, served the wants of the people till 1736. Toward the close of that year, steps were taken toward building a new hose. The society agreed to cut timber for the house "the latter end of January or the beginning of February," 1735. The house was not ready to raise till March of the following year.

The raising of the ponderous timbers of a meeting house was a formidable undertaking in olden times.

A committee on raising was appointed: Sergt. SHEPERD, Hugh WHITE, and John WARNER. The parish was divided into three parts, and each section directed to furnish dinner on the day the committee should order. The people were to furnish drinks for the dinners, but the society agreed that what drinks were expended in raising the meeting house should be borne by the society.

The house was immediately prepared for occupancy, though not entirely finished till some years later. It was 55 in length and 36 in width. It stood on Main street, just south of the present Baptist church. At first it was close to the roadway, so that the people dismounted immediately upon the steps. In 1813, it was moved back four or five rods by permission of the County Court. The basswood tree now standing on the common was near the southeast corner of the building. The house was very simple in its construction, though massive in frame. There were three entrances, each one on the north, east, and south sides, opening directly into the audience room without a vestibule. It had two rows of windows. Inside there was a gallery on three sides, stairways leading to it not enclosed, square pews and a lofty pulpit with sounding board over it. About 1825, the inside was remodeled by closing the north and south entrances, taking a vestibule from the east side of the audience room beneath the front gallery, and replacing the squares with narrow pews n the center of the house. This house stood till the present edifice was erected in 1840, at an expense of six thousand three hundred eighty-five dollars and eight-seven cents ($6,385.87), and dedicated January 6th 1841.

Mr. EELLS was succeeded, In June 17th 1778, by Rev. Gershom BULKLEY, the first pastor who did not die in office. He was dismissed in 1808. The close of his pastorate marks the first period in the history of this church. It was a period of somewhat formal church life. Great stress was laid upon some sort of connection with the church. Everybody must be baptized. One was hardly fit for any civil position if he was not a member of the church. In some cases he was ineligible. Great emphasis was laid upon the conformity of the outward life to the principles of the Gospel; not so much upon the spirituality of that life.

This church during this period shows a slow but uniform growth. The period of revivals had not come. The average annual additions by profession and renewal of covenant (profession, 3; renewal, 6;) was nine and one-half during Mr. EELLS' pastorate of 38 years, and a trifle over nine during that of Mr. BUCKLEY's, of 28 years, (profession, 2.5; renewal, 6.5). There was little variation in the reception of these members. Not one year passed without receiving members either by full confession or renewal of covenant.

There were added under Joseph SMITH's pastorate, 1715-36; by profession, 53; by letter, 21; total, 74; under Edward EELLS pastorate, 1738-76; by profession 116; by renewal, 227; by letter, 17; total, 360; under Gershom BUCKLEY's pastorate, 1778-1805; by profession 69; by renewal, 176; by letter, 11; total, 256; under J. L. WILLIAMS' pastorate, 1809-32; by profession 210; by letter, 21; total, 231; under Z. CROCKER's pastorate, 1833-47; by profession, 95; by letter, 49; total, 144; under George A. BRYAN's pastorate, 1849-57; by profession, 33; by letter, 34; total 67; under James A. CLARK's pastorate, 1858-63; by profession, 47; by letter, 15; total, 62; under W. K. HALL's pastorate, 1864-65; by profession, 11; by letter, 1; total, 12; under H. O. LADD's pastorate, 1865-67; by profession, 17; by letter, 10; total, 27; under T. M. MILES' pastorate, 1868-70; by profession, 10; by letter, 10; total, 20; under A. C. HURD's pastorate, 1871-73; by profession, 10; by letter, 12; total, 22; under M. S. DUDLEY's pastorate (unfinished), 1874-76; by profession, 9; by letter, 12; total, 21.

In regard to the additions attributed to the pastorate of Rev. Mr. CLARK, it should be stated that most of the additions by profession were due to a special season of revival interest under the lead of Rev. Erastus COLTON, and were received into membership by him before Mr. CLARK was installed as pastor. Mr. COLTON was here only a short time and hardly held the relation of pastor or acting pastor. He labored as an evangelist. This is according to the recollection of those acquainted with all the circumstances.

From very early times the Assembly's Catechism was taught in the district schools in this State. The time for recitation was upon Saturday noon, as the closing exercise of the week. After there were other denominations than those who accepted the Assembly's Catechism, and before the establishment of Sunday schools, each denomination used in the day school a catechism to meet its peculiar views. This practice would of course lead to more or less friction, which was finally removed by transferring the catechisms to the Sunday schools. It was to this cause that the Sunday school owes it origin in many New England towns.

The Sunday school of this church was organized in 1817 or 1818, the time of the great revival under Dr. NETTLETON.

Its sessions were held in the morning at nine o'clock in the school house on the green, south of the Baptist church. The services consisted in answering the questions of catechism, and the recital of passages of Scripture and hymns committed to memory. A certain number of verses so learned and recited entitled the scholar to the reward of a book at the end of the session, closing with the coming of winter, proportioned in value to the number of verses recited. One teacher recollects a pupil who would recite more than one hundred verses at a lesson, taking up nearly the whole session.

After a time the school was transferred to the church, and sandwiched between the morning and afternoon services.

The first superintendent, so far as can be ascertained in the absence of written records, was Deacon Rufus SAGE, and Miss Ursula SMITH, assistant superintendent. The teachers of the academy, generally supplied from Yale College, were sometimes chosen superintendents. The following members, among others, of this church, have served as superintendents: Jairus WILCOX, William B. STOCKING, afterward missionary to the Nestorians, Richard WARNER, G. S. T. SAVAGE, A. S. GEER, John STEVENS, William M. NOBLE, and George H. BUTLER.

BAPTIST CHURCH.



Rev. Henry S. STEVENS, of the Baptist church, has prepared a sketch of that organization, which is given below.

The Baptist Church of Cromwell was organized in 1802. Early in January, of that year, several persons, who were members of the Baptist church in Hartford, met at the house of Eleazar SAVAGE, to consider the propriety and feasibility of forming a church of their own persuasion in this town.

Later, January 19th, at a prayer meeting held at the home of Comfort RANNEY, the matter was farther considered, and a decision made to ask the opinion of the church in Hartford. Also, a committee of two persons was appointed to communicate with that body, concerning forming a church here, and the dismission from it of its members resident here for that purpose. The Hartford church favored the project, and appointed a committee to confer farther with the people here. February 6th, the people met, by arrangement, for the purpose of organizing. They had, first, "a meeting for prayer, for wisdom, and direction;" then "heard read the confession of faith;" then entered into covenant relations as a church of Christ," to be called "The Second Baptist Church of Middletown." Those present on that occasion, uniting to constitute the church, numbered 16 persons; seven men and nine women. Their names were as follows: Eleazar SAVAGE, Steven TREAT, John TREAT, Comfort RANNEY, Timothy SAVAGE, Josiah GRAVES, Willard RANNEY, Sarah SAVAGE, Molly SAVAGE, Mary RANNEY, Ruth RANNEY 1st, Ruth RANNEY 2d, Percy SAVAGE, Rachel WILCOX, Sally SAVAGE, Betsey TREAT.

Timothy SAVAGE was elected clerk of the church.

March 20th, the church "adopted Articles of Faith," those commonly known as the "New Hampshire Confession of Faith." Social conference and prayer meeting were held at the dwellings of the people for some time prior to and subsequent to the forming of the church, and occasionally some minister preached at these meeting, but the first "call" to any one to perform ministerial labor among them was given April 8th 1803, when the church "agreed with Rev. Eber MOFFAT to preach two-thirds of the time, and agreed to give him thirty-four pounds, to be divided among the brethren according to their abilities, after deducting whatever may be secured by contributions."

January 21st 1804. Rev. Nehemiah DODGE "was applied to preach one half of the time for six months."

June 1805, Rev. Daniel WILDMAN "agreed to preach for the church one half of the time during the ensuing year."

May 1806, Mr. John GRANT "was engages, for two hundred dollars, to preach one-fourth of the time." Soon after beginning to preach, Mr. GRANT was ordained. In May 1808, he was "engaged to preach one-half of the time," and he continued pastor of the body until July 1810. In 1817, Rev. Frederick WIGHTMAN was called to the pastorate, and continued as minister of the church until 1832. Subsequently, Mr. WIGHTMAN was pastor from 1837 to 1839, making an aggregate pastoral care of 17 years. Later he returned to this town to reside, and died here at a good old age.

In 1803, the church built a plain frame edifice for a meeting house on the West Green, and held their public meeting there until 1833, when the house was moved to the central part of the village and placed on a lot nearly opposite the present site of the post office. Worship continued in this house until November 3d 1853, on which day a new house of worship, located a little north of the old one, built during the pastorate of the Rev. C. W. POTTER, and largely through his instrumentality, was dedicated. This latter edifice was remodeled, somewhat, internally, in 1872, and is the house of worship of the church at the present time.

About 350 persons have been in membership with the church, most of them having joined by baptism on profession of their faith. For the latter ordinance nature has furnished a baptistery in the beautiful river flowing by the side of our town.

Sabbath school work has been steadily done. The church has been favored with several "revival" sessions. The people have tried to aid in every good work they were able to; have contributed often and according to their ability to missions and other charitable enterprises; and have gone a-begging but very little.

METHODIST CHURCH.



Mr. Elisha STEVENS has furnished items for a brief sketch of the Methodist Episcopal church.

One of the results of the religious awakening which occurred in 1857, was the formation of a Methodist class of about 20 members. The revival interest from which this class sprung was confined principally to the part of town known as The Plains. This was the beginning of the Methodist Episcopal church. Its congregation worshipped for a time in an old church building formerly occupied by the Baptists.

In the fall of 1858, movements were made toward building a new church. In November of that year the edifice was commenced, and in June 1859, it was dedicated, Dr. CUMMINGS of the Wesleyan University, preaching the dedication sermon.

Rev. Azra HILL, an active worker in the revival mentioned above, and a graduate of Wesleyan University, was the first pastor. Among those who have served as pastors for one or two years besides Mr. HILL are: Rev. Messrs. LITTLE, WAGNER, REYNOLDS, and A. C. STEVENS. During most of the time, since the establishment of the church, the pulpit has been supplied with students from the University of Middletown.

CATHOLIC CHURCH.



The corner stone of St. John's Catholic Church was laid in 1881, by Right Rev. Bishop MCMAHON, assisted by a number of the clergy of the diocese. The sermon on that occasion was preached by Rev. Chancellor HARTY, of the cathedral.

Rev. Father TIERNEY read the Latin document placed in the corner stone, after which he gave, in English, a translation of the writing. Rev. Father HAGERTY, of Portland was master of ceremonies.

The church was dedicated April 22d 1883, by Rev. Bishop MCMAHON. The lot contains four acres, and there is a parochial residence near the church.

June 3d 1877, Rev. F. P. O'KEEFE celebrated the first mass ever said in Cromwell; and until the dedication of the new church, services were held in a public hall.

CROMWELL CEMETERY.



The ground first used as a cemetery was in close proximity to the meeting house. It was a plot of ground just south of the site of the first church building, and southeast of the present residence of Mr. Joseph EDWARDS. This lot was granted by the town of Middletown. "At a meeting held January 13th 1712-13, the town (Middletown) granted to the inhabitants on the north side of the river (Little), an acre of land between Capt. John SAVAGE's and Samuel GIBSON's, their homesteads, for a burying ground; and Capt. SAVAGE, Samuel GIBSON, and John WARNER jr., were appointed a committee to lay it out, where it may be most convenient and least prejudiced to outlots." The ground has been enlarged to two acres, and was the sole burying ground in the eastern part of the town until 1855, when the present Cemetery Association was organized and the cemetery now occupied-about three-fourths of a mile north of the old ground-was opened.

During the year 1879, active measures were taken to put the old cemetery, which had been much neglected and suffered to grow up with weeds and bushes, into order. The town, to which the lot belongs, appropriated $175 to be expended in improvements. A good work has already been done in clearing the surface of weeds, in righting up the monuments, and, where possible, in bringing them into some sort of regularity. The foot stones have been removed, and the mounds above the graves leveled. The plan is to secure a good, smooth surface, well turfed and free from weeds. It is proposed, also, by private subscriptions, to decorate the lot with ornamental trees and shrubbery. Thus, what has long been a disfigurement and a disgrace, bids fair to become an attractive and a pleasing feature in the landscape.

One of the first inhabitants of this place-tradition says the first-to find a resting place in this cemetery, was Thomas RANNEY. His monument, a brownstone slab, has evidently crumbles away considerably. It is only about eighteen inches high. The following inscription is deciphered with difficulty:

"Here Lies
The Body Of
Thomas RANNEY,
SENR. Lived 97 years. Died June
June 21st, 1713."

The tablet in the table monument of Rev. Joseph SMITH, the first pastor of the Congregational church-is lost. At a business meeting of the Congregational church held in November 1879, it was voted to renew the tablet in Rev. Dr. SMITH's monument. The renewed inscription is as follows:

"Rev. Joseph SMITH, first pastor of the Congregational church, died Sept. 8, 1736, 62."
Inscription renewed 1880.

The monument of his widow, which stands beside the table monument, has this inscription:
"Here lies the remains of Mrs. Esther SMITH, the Relict to the Rev. Mr. Joseph SMITH, who departed this life, May ye 30th, A. D., 1760. In the 89th year of her age."

"This monument is sacred to the memory of the Rev. Edward EELS, Pastor of the Second Church of Christ in Middletown, who departed this life Oct. ye 12th, A. D., 1776, 64, and in the 39th year of his ministry.

"Remember those who have spoken unto you the word of God."

"In Memory of the
Revd.
Joshua L. WILLIAMS
Pastor of the 2d church
in Middletown,
who died
Dec. 29, 1832,
In the 48th year of his age,
And the 24th of his ministry.
"Faithful, beloved and much lamented he departed in peace.
"Christ in him was the hope of Glory."

Beside the grave of Mr. WILLIAMS stands two monuments evidently marking the graves of his father and mother, who outlived him. They are examples of brevity as regard to the inscriptions upon them.

"Rev. Joshua WILLIAMS
died
Feb. 8, 1836.
75.
Mary WILLIAMS
Died May 16, 1838.
77."

"Rev. Zebulon CROCKER was born in Willington, March 8, 1802. Graduated at Yale College, 1827. Ordained May 2, 1833. Died Nov. 14, 1847, 45." "Friends who knew his worth have erected this stone."

"Sacred to the memory of Amos SAGE, son of Captain Nathan and Mrs. Huldah SAGE, who died at Port-au-Prince, January 25th 1791, in the 18th year of his age. Much lamented by his father, mother, sister, and friends, he bid fair to make the honest man."

"Here lies interred the body of John SAGE, who departed this life, January 22d, A. D., 1751. In the 83d year of his life.

"He left a virtuous and sorrowful widow, with whom he lived 57 years and had fifteen children, twelve of whom married and increased ye family by repeated marriages to the number of twenty-nine, of whom there are fifteen alive. He had one hundred and twenty grand-children, one hundred and five of them now living, forty great-grand-children, thirty-seven of them now living, which makes the numerous offspring one hundred and eighty-nine."

This is upon a slate tablet set in a freestone table monument. Upon a second tablet of slate in the same stone is the following inscription:

"Here lies the body of Mrs. Hannah SAGE, once the virtuous consort of Mr. John SAGE, who both are covered with this stone, and there has been added to the numerous offspring mentioned above, forty-four births and marriages, which make the whole two hundred and thirty-three. She fell asleep September the 28, 1783. In the 85thyear of her age."

It is said that none of the descendants of John SAGE and his "numerous offspring" reside in town. Also that there are five hundred and five families descended from him scattered through 34 States and four territories.

PROMINENT MEN.



REV. WILLIAM R. STOCKING.
WILLIAM C. REDFIELD, A. M.
EBEN WILCOX.
RUSSEL FRISBIE.

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