Genealogical and Family History
STATE OF MAINE
Compiled under the editorial supervision of George Thomas Little, A. M., Litt. D.
LEWIS HISTORICAL PUBLISHING COMPANY
[Please see Index page for full citation.]
[Transcribed by Coralynn Brown]
[Many families included in these genealogical records had their beginnings in Massachusetts.]
William, Count Tankerville, of Tankerville Castle in Normandy, who came to England with William the Conqueror, was the progenitor of the Chamberlain family in England. He himself returned to Normany, but his descendants remained in England on the land granted to them.
(II) John De Tankerville, son of the former earl, was lord chamberlain to King Henry I, and assumed his title as a surname.
(III) Richard, son of John, was also a chamberlain to King Stephen, and the surname, Chamberlain has since his day been that of his family.
(IV) William Chamberlain was son of Richard.
(V) Robert Chamberlain was son of William.
(VI) Sir Richard Chamberlain was son of Robert (5).
(VII) Sir Robert Chamberlain was son of Richard (6).
The line continues:
Sir Richard (VIII).
William Chamberlain (XII).
The American family of which William Chamberlain was the immigrant ancestor, doubtless belongs to this family, though the line of ancestry is not traced. The Chamberlain coat-of-arms: Gules, an escutcheon argent between eight mullers in orle, or. Quartering: Gules a chevron between three escallops or. Motto: Virtuti nihil invium. Seat: Dunstew in Oxfordshire, England.
(I) William Chamberlain, immigrant ancestor of General Robert Horace Chamberlain, of Worcester, was born in England about 1620. His brother Thomas was one of the three original purchasers of the Dudley farm at Billerica, but he settled at Chelmsford, Mass. Another brother, Edmund, settled first in Woburn, then removed to Chelmsford before 1656, when he sold land at Billerica. Savage aid that Emund finally settled in Woodstock.
William Chamberlain was admitted an inhabitant of Woburn Jan. 6, 1648, and permitted to buy land there. He removed to Billerica in 1654, about the time his brothers left that town, and spent the remainder of his life there. He died May 31, 1706, aged eighty-six yars. His house in Shawshin (Billerica) was on the farm, probably near the Woburn road, in the southwest part of the villlage. His name first appears on the records Oct., 1654, on a petition to enlarge the bounds of the town and to change the name to Billerica (Billerikey in original paper). A little later, when the committee on militia ordered Sergeant Hill's house to be a garrison, William Chamberlain's family was one of those assigned to it.
He married Rebecca ____, who died Sept. 26, 1692, in the prison at Cambridge, where she was heldon the prepostrous charge of witchcraft.
Children, b. at Concord, Mass.:
Isaac, born at Concord, Oct. 1, 1650; died July 20, 1681.
John, died March 3, 1652.
Sarah, born at Billerica, May 20, 1655-56; married John Shedd.
Jacob, born Jan. 18, 1657-58, see forward.
and those also at Billerica:
Thomas, born Feb. 20, 1659.
Edmund, b. July 15, 1660, married Mary Abbott.
Rebecca, b. Feb. 25, 1662, married Thomas Stearns.
Abraham, b. Jan. 6, 1664.
Ann, b. March 3, 1665-66.
Clement, b. May 30, 1669.
Daniel, b. Sept. 27, 1671.
Isaac, b. Jan. 20, 1681.
(II) Jacob, son of William Chamberlain, was born in Billerica, Mass., Jan. 18, 1657-58, He married Experience ____.
1. Jacob, born at Newton, Mass. 1691; died 1771.
2. John, born 1695, at Charlestown, Mass., died 1783.
3. William, born 1697, at Camrbridge, Mass., mentioned below.
4. Jason, born at Holliston, Mass., 1701; died 1770.
5. Ebenezer, born at Westborough, Mass., 1704; ancestor of Westborough and Worcester families, as was also Jacob, his brother.
(III) William (2), son of Jacob Chamberlain, was born in 1697 at Cambridge; died at Rochester, N. H. in 1753. He married, in 1719, Mary Tibbetts. They lived at Rochester and Alton, N. H.
Children, all but 2 youngest, b. at Rochester, and they at Alton:
1. Mary, b. 1720.
2. Rebecca, b. 1722; died 1815.
3. William, b. 1725; died at Lebanon, Maine, 1815.
4. Experience, b. 1727.
5. Ebenezer, b. 1729; mentioned below.
6. Dorothy, died 1825.
7. Anna, born 1733.
8. Samuel, b. 1735; died 1809.
9. Jacob, b. 1738; died 1815.
10. Ephraim, b. 1741; died 1814.
(IV) Ebenezer Chamberlain, son of William (2) Chamberlain, was born in 1729; baptized at Dover, New Hampshire; lived at Center Harbor, N. H. He was a soldier in the colonial wars and also in the revolution. His sons Jonathan and Daniel were also revolutionary soldiers.
He married, 1752, Lucretia ____.
1. Susan, born at Center Harbor or Rochester, in 1753.
2. Ebenezer, b. 1755.
3. Ephraim, b. 1757.
4. Jonathan, b. 1759.
5. Daniel, b. 1762.
6. John, b. 1768.
7. Joshua, mentioned below.
(V) Colonel Joshua Chamberlain, born in 1770, went from Danvers or Cambridge, Mass., to Orrington, Maine, about 1799, where he engaged in shipbuilding, and prospered in this business until in the war of 1812 the English forces ascending the Penobscot river destroyed two of his ships - one lying at the dock and another on the stocks. Not able to recover his shattered fortunes here, he removed in 1817 to what is now Brewer, six miles further up the river, where he took up a large farm, and with his sons interested himself again to some degree in shipbuilding. His home was about half a mile above the toll bridge, where he died Jan. 23, 1857, aged eighty-six years.
He was a gentleman of the old school, a man of note, and colonel of a regiment of militia in the war with England, and for some time in command of the post at Eastport, Maine.
He married Ann Gould, of Danvers, Mass. She died Feb. 19, 1831, aged sixty-eight years.
Amelia, Anna P. (died young), Thomas Gould (also died young), Anna, Joshua, Jefferson, Ebenezer M., John Q. A., and Elbridge Gerry.
(VI) Joshua (2), second son of Colonel Joshua (1) and Ann (Gould) Chamberlain, was born in Orrington, Sept. 24, 1800, and died Aug. 10, 1880. he was a man of much strength of character. He resided in Brewer, where he was a leading citizen in both civil and military matters. He was county commissioner, lieutenant-colonel in the militia, and held other offices.
He married, Oct., 1827, Sarah Dupee, daughter of Billings and Lydia (Dupee) Brastow, of Holden. She was born Aug. 23, 1803, and died Nov. 5, 1888, aged eighty-five. She was descended from Jean Dupuis (1), born about 1660, who came from La Rochelle, France, to Boston, Mass. in 1685; Charles (2), second son of Jean, b. 1695, and served in the colonial wars; Charles (3) Dupee, third son of Charles Dupuis, b. 1735, served in the revolution, and in the army lists of that war the spelling of the name changed to the present form; Lydia (4), fourth daughter of Charles, b. 1770, married Billings Brastow.
Children of Joshua (2) Chamberlain:
1. Joshua L., mentioned below.
2. Horace B., b. Nov. 14, 1834, died Dec. 7, 1861; graduated with honor from Bowdoin college in 1857, and made a brilliant opening in Bangor as a lawyer; married May 11, 1859, Mary A. Wheeler, of Bangor.
3. Sarah B., born Nov. 2, 1836, married July 14, 1867, Charles O. Farrington, a merchant of Brewer; their children are Alice M. and Dana C. Farrington.
4. John Calhoun, born Aug. 1, 1838, died at Castine, Aug. 11, 1867, of disease contracted while in the army; graduated from Bowdoin College in 1859, and from Bangor Theological Seminary in 1864; was in service of the Christian Commission, and chaplain of Eleventh Volunteers in the civil war. He married Sept. 13, 1866, Delia F., daughter of John H. Jarvis, of Castine, later of Bangor.
5. Thomas Davee, born April 29, 1841, was a soldier in the civil war, serving with great distinction in the line and on the staff, rising to the rank of lieutenant-colonel and colonel U.S.V. He married Dec. 13, 1871, Delia F. Chamberlain, widow of his brother, John; resided in New York and afterward in Bangor, where he died Aug. 12, 1896.
(VII) Governor Joshua L., eldest child of Joshua (2) and Sarah Dupee (Brastow) Chamberlain, was born in Brewer, Sept. 8, 1828. He received his early education in the public schools of the town and later in Major Whiting's military academy at Ellsworth, Maine, where he prepared for West Point. In 1848, however, he entered Bowdoin and graduated from that college in 1852 with highest honors. He then entered Bangor Theological Seminary, where in addition to the studies of the regular course, he gave earnest attention to the Arabic and other oriental languages. During his last year here he received calls to several important churches; but on graduating he was immediately called to Bowdoin College as special instructor in some of the studies of the department of natural and revealed religion. The next year he was elected professor of rhetoric and oratory, and the year after, having been relieved of some of the duties of this chair, he was appointed also instructor in the French and German languages, which service he continued for two years, when he was elected professor of the Modern Languages of Europe. In July, 1862, he received leave of absence from the collge for two years in order to prosecute his studies in Europe, but the war of secession being now serious and a call coming from the President for more troops, he immediately tendered his services to Governor Washburn for any military duty for whikch he might be thought capable. This was strenuoulsy combatted by his colleagues in the college faculty, who carried their opposition to the length of a formal protest. He was offered the colonelcy of a regiment about to be formed; but deeming it wiser first to serve under some officer of the regular army, he accepted the appointment of lieutenant-colonel of the Twentieth Maine infantry, then being organized, of which Adelbert Ames, of the regular artillery, was to be colonel. He entered at once upon the organization on the 8th of August, 1862, and devoting himself to the study and practice of his duties, he completed the organization of the regiment of a thousand men, and on the 29th of that month, it was mustered into the U. S. service for three years or during the war. The command now turned over to Colonel Ames, he assumed his place as lieutenant-colonel, and in that capacity left with the regiment on the next day for the seat of war.
The regiment was assigned to Butterfield's famous Light Brigade, Morell's Division, Porter's Fifth Corps, Army of the Potomac, and immediately entered upon the severe experiences of the Maryland campaign. On the forced march to South Mountain and to the Antietam battle-field, all the qualities of manly endurance and pride were called into exercise. During that battle the regiment occupied supporting positions and made movements of importance under fire, but was not actively engaged. On Sept. 20 a heavy reconnaissance was made across Shepardstown ford of the Potomac in pursuit of Lee's retreating army. Here first the regiment sharply engaged the enemy. This was a serious affair, and Colonel Chamberlain bore a conspicuous part, being especially complimented for his courage and coolness in steadying the troops of the brigade through the treacherous ford and under heavy fire in the repulse which followed the overwhelming attack of Lee's rear guard of Hill's Corps. The regiment was held on the Antietam battle-field for more than six weeks, guarding the fords of the upper Potomac. This led to new experiences - especially in the line of reconnaissance and outpost duty, in all of which Colonel Chamberlain took an active part. This emcampment on the Antietam, owing to the exhalations and drainage from the battle-field, brought dire disease upon the men, more than three hundred being in the hospital with typhoid malarial fever, and severe losses befalling the regiment both among officers and men. This opened a new field for duties of superior and commanding officers - study and practice in the car of men.
Early in November the regiment rejoined the main army near Warrenton Junction, Virginia, and from that time actively participated in all the movements, skirmishes and campmaking, until the battle of Fredericksburg, Dec. 13. Here Colonel Chamberlain had experiences of the most severe and testing kind, the closing of which was the withdrawing of his regiment from the advance front line, by night, across the whole depth of the battle-field, and over the last pontoon bridge left for the recrossing of our discomfited army. He had an active part in all the movements of that winter, including the notorious "Mud March" and its sequel. During this winter he devoted himself assiduously to the study of his duties, having the advantage of the circumstance that all his superiors in command and many of his own rank were graudates of West Point. He induced the younger of them to hold an evening "school of review" in which all the points pertaining to active duties in the field were carefully gone over. There was no better scholar than Colonel Chamberlain.
At the opening of the Chancellorsville campaign, the regiment having been inoculated with smallpox by some misconduct in the medical department, and being sequesteered and put into a quarantine camp by itself, Colonel Ames, having been detached as aide on the staff of the corps commander, General Meade, left the regiment so situated in command of Colonel Chamberlain. He immediately rode to general headquarters and begged to have his regiment given some place at the front, his final pleas being "if we can't do anything else, we can give the rebels the smallpox!" This struck the fancy of General Hooker, and at midnight he received a dispatch from General Butterfield, chief of staff, directing him to be at Bank's and United States fords at daylight to take charge of the signal and telegraph lines from headquarters to the several stations on the field of battle, with instructions to put to death any who attempted to disturb communications. While in discharge of duty on the following day he took occasion to join in a chare then being made by his Division, in which his horse was wounded under him. On the night of the withdrawal he worked on the pontoon bridges which were broken up by the freshet, and after all our troops had left that vicinity he withdrew his command - the last on the ground. From this time on his history is part of that of the Army of the Potomac. The mere outline of it would exceed the limits allowed here. His inherited military aptitude, strengthened by early studies, now finding ample scope in campaigning of the severest order, brought him distinction and rapid promotion in command. On May 20 he was promoted colonel, and soon afterward a hundred and twenty men of the Second Maine Volunteers were transferred to his regiment. They were in a state of mutiny, owing to their not being discharged with the original two-years men, and as they had openly refused to obey orders they were sent to Colonel Chamberlain under guard of a Pennsylvania regiment with loaded arms and fixed bayonets, with orders from the corps commander to fire on them if they refused to do duty. Colonel Chamberlain immediately rode to General Meade and got permission to manage the men in his own way. He then took off all the guard, supplied them with proper clothing and food (which had not been issued to them for three days), and assigned them to companies, without giving them any specific orders whatever, expecting them to be treated and behave like other soldiers. He found no troulbe except in the case of one or two who were tried by court martial, and whose sentences he afterwards suceeded in having remitted. These men of the Second Regiment were afterwards among his very best.
At Gettyburg he was sent at the double-quick to a position of great importance and peril, Little Round Top, the extreme left of the Union lines, where for more than two hours he withstood the repeated assaults of Law's brigade of Hood's division. His ammunition at length exhausted, and for the last half-hour using that of the rebel dead and wounded on the slope he had swept repelling the third assault, nearly half his men having fallen, the situation was citical. A heavy force now coming on with confidence of crushing his little command, he met with a bayonet charge, himself with the colors leading, which completely cleared the southern slope of Little Round Top, capturing four hundred prisoners - twice the number of his men. Returning to his appointed position, in front of which lay one hundred and fifty of the enemy's dead and wounded, he made dispositions with some reinforcements for meeting any night assault. At dark he recieved an intimation from his brigade commander that it was desirable to secure the heights of Great Round Top, up whose rugged slope the troops he had repulsed had taken refuge. At once he called his wearing but heroic men, and with no ammunition, with the bayonet alone, in the dense darkness pressed on to the very crest of the mountain, capturing many more prisoners. Thus that decisive part of the field was secured and held, and Lee's plan of battle changed. For this heroic conduct the Twentieth Maine received the personal and official recognition of brigade, division and corps commanders, and Colonel Chamberlain was warmly recommended by all his superiors for promotion to the rank of brigadier-general. His action here was recognized by the award of the Congressional Medal of Honor, the grounds of this as officially stated: "For daring heroism and great tenacity in holding his position on Little Round Top, and carrying the advanced position on the Great Round Top, in the battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 2, 1863.* The promotion was not made; but Colonel Chamberlain was immediately place in command of his brigade, his division commander, General Griffin, declining to receive general officers who were sent for assignment to this brigade. This he devoted himself to bring to the best proficiency. He took an important part in the Culpeper and Centerville campaigns, including the battle of Rappahannock Station, in which his horse was shot under him.
In November, 1863, being worn by long and arduous duty, the exposure of lying out in a heavy snow storm one night without shelter or sufficient covering, brought upon him a severe attack of congestion and fever chills, and he was sent in an almost unconscious state from Rappahannock to Washington, by the only means of converyance, a returning cattle car. After this crisis, as soon as he was able to be out, he made strenuous efforts to return to his command; but was detailed by the Secretary of War to serve on an important court martial sitting in Washington and afterwards in Trenton, New Jersey, where he was for some time detained. He obtained a release with much difficulty, and when the army crossed the Rapidan in May he overtook it near Spottsylvania, and finding his brigade in command of another, General Bartlett, he rejoined his regiment. In less than an hour he was placed in command of a "forlorn hope." Seven select regiments were led by him to a desperate charge by night on a portion of a position that had proved impregnable during the day. In this he showed great skill and achieved a remarkable success. From this time forth he held a command above his lineal rank and was put in positions of responsibility and severe tests. He had a conspicuous part in the battles of Cold Harbor and the North Anna. On June 1st, 1864, General Warren, commanding the corps, made up a splendid brigade of two consolidated brigades from the old First Corps, and a fine new regiment of veterans of Pennsylvania, and assigned Colonel Chamberlain to command it. This took him quite away from his gallant old Twentieth Maine, whose fortunes he had shared in every battle except the Wilderness. With this veteran brigade he continued the campaign, crossing the James river, and on June 17th moved on Petersburg in advance. On the morning of June 18th he carried a strong advanced position of the enemy a mile beyond our main army. In order to hold this, he established two batteries of artillery on the crest, and entrenched his lines. He was expecting an attack here, when he received a verbal order through an unknown staff officer to assault the main line of rebel works at Rive's salient, then strongly manned with artillery and infantry, all within musket range of the crest he was holding. Forming his six regiments in double lines, he ordered a strong artillery fire from his guns on the crest, and under this he led the charge with his whole staff, when the terrible fire of the enemy, case-shot, canister and furious musketry, swept every one from his side, his flag-bearer was killed, his own horse shot under him, and his front line shattered. Lifting up his fallen flag, he led his troops almost to the enemy's entrenchments. At a desperate moment, wheeling to give a command, Colonel Chamberlain was shor through body from hip to hip, severing small arteries and fracturing the pelvic bones. Balancing himself with the point of his sabre, he managed not to fall until his men had passed him in their charge, when the great loss of blood brought him to the ground. Believing the wound to be mortal, he refused to be taken from the field, until all was fairly lost. There was no hope of his life, and an obituary notice was sent to the northern papers. He was, however, carried sixteen miles on a stretcher and sent to Annapolis Naval School Hospital. General Grant, without waiting longer for the authorities to act upon previous recommendations, promoted Colonel Chamberlain on the field, to the rank of brigadier-general, the solitary instance in the history of our army. He was assured of his promotion before he was borne from the field, but the official order published to the army reached him after his arrival at Annapolis. The following is a copy of the order:
Headquarters Army of the U.S.
Special Order No. 39, June 20, 1864.
Col. J. L. Chamberlain, 20th Me. Inf'ty Vols., for
meritorious and efficient services on the field of battle,
and especially for gallant conduct in leading his brigade
against the enemy at Petersburg on the 18th inst., in
which he was dangerously wounded, hereby, in pursuance of authority
of the U.S. Secretary of War,
is appointed Brigadier General U. S. Volunteers,
to rank as such from the 18th day of June, 1864
subject to the approval of the President.
U.S. Grant, Lieutenant General.
For two months General Chamberlain lay at Annapolis at the point of death, and at the end of five months, and before he could mount a horse or walk a hundred yards, he resumed command of his brigade. Its position at that time was on the extreme left of our front line before Petersburg, and the duties were unremitting and responsible. In the subsequent operations against the Weldon railroad, General Chamberlain had an active part, being sent with his command to make proper dispositions by night and to keep the enemy at bay along an extensive front, while the rest of our troops destroyed the railroad. A severe snow storm and sleet added to the severities of the operation, and on the last of January, 1865, his wounds had become so aggravated that his corps commander insisted on his being sent to Philadelphia for surgical treatment. While suffering under this, and without much prospect of permanent recovery, he received many tempting offers to leave the military service and accept positions in civil life. Wishing, however, with such strength as might be given him, to stand by his men and his country to the last, he declined these offers, stole a march upon his surgeons, and leaving his room for the first time after he had taken it, started a painful journey to the front again, where he arrived after an absence of a month. His brigade now consisted of new regiments of veteran troops from New York and Pennsylvania, and his post was the extreme advance on Hatcher's Run, and in immediately contact with the enemy. On March 29 our great offensive movement commenced, and, as had before been confidentially announced to General Chamberlain, he was to have the costly honor of leading the advance and opening the campaign. With his single brigade and a battery of regular artillery, he encountered the enemy on Quaker Road, their force consisting of cavalry and infantry of Johnson's and Anderson's commands, and in number, as was afterward ascertained, five times his own. After a long and severe battle in which at different times he had both his flanks turned, his center broken, and lost four hundred men and eighteen officers - every one of his mounted officers, including his personal staff, being either killed or wounded, his own horse shot under him and himself twice painfully wounded in the breat and arm - the enemy was driven from his position, which enabled the army to occupy the long coveted Boydton plank road. For conscpiuous gallantry in the action of this day General Chamberlain received from President Lincoln the brevet of major-gneral. Suffering from accumulation of wounds, he was suddenly summoned on the second day after, to take command of our extreme left on the Boydton road, with two brigades and two batteries of artillery to repel an attack which was then beginning. Two divisions of his corps on his right were soon thrown back in great confusion from an advanced position they were endeavoring to maintain against a vigorous assault of the enemy, and while General Chamberlain was rallying these troops and reforming them in the rear of his own, he was asked by the commanding general to throw forward his command and attempt to stem the torrent then sweeping the front, and if possible regain the field lost by the other two divisions. General Chamberlain assented, and while the engineers were trying to bridge the stream in our front, he and his men dashed through it in the very face of the enemy, and gained a foothold on the opposite steeps, drove the rebels back to the field of the former struggle. While pressing them back upon their works, General Chamberlain was ordered to halt and take the defensive as a matter of precaution. Seeing, however, that his men were much exposed, and that the enemy's strong position could be carried by a tactful maneuver, he solicited permission to make an assault, which he did with rapid and complete success, carrying the works, capturing a battle flag and many prisoners, and effecting a lodgement on the White Oak road.
At the battle of Five Forks on the following day, Gen. Chamberlain had command of two brigades on the extreme right - the wheeling flank. In the midst of the battle, when the rebels made a furious attempt to regain their works by a flank attack, putting in every man of his own command and a mass of skulkers and fugitives from other commands on a new direction to break the force of this onset, he led the charge, leaping his horse over the parapet, already wounded by a rifle ball. His command captured 1050 men, nineteen officers and five battle flags - one half the captures of the division. On the next day he was ordered to take the advance and strike the South Side railroad. Here he encountered Fitz Hugh Lee's division of cavalry, which he drove across the railroad, intercepting a train of cars from Petersburg with several military and civil officers, and routing the enemy from the position. In the subsequent pursuit, Gen. Chamberlain had the advance nearly all the time, capturing many prisoners and vast quantities of material. At Jetersville, on the Danville railroad, he went to the assitance of our cavalry which was severely attacked on a cross road. In the final action at Appomattox Court House, when, having marched all night, he came up with our cavalry, which was heriocally holding its ground against Stonewall Jackson's old corps of infantry, he double-quicked his men in to relieve the cavalry, and forming under General Sheridan's eye, pushed forward against the enemy. The other troops forming on his left, the foe was driven before them to the twon, when the flag of truce came in and hostilities ceased. [whew! this was more than I ever wanted to know about the civil war!]
General Chamberlain was present at the conference preliminary to the surrender, and being assigned to his old command - the Third Brigade, First Division - was appointed by the commanding general to receive with his troops the formal surrender of the arms and colors of Lee's army, April 12, 1865. Immediately afterwards, assigned to the command of division, Gen. Chamberlain occupied a line twenty-five miles out from Petersburg on the South Side railroad for some time. This division had the advance in the triumphal entry of the army into Richmond, as also the advance of the Army of the Potomac in the final review in Washington.
When the army was broken up he received an assignment to another command intended to go to Mexico, but the active operations of the field now being over, he applied to be relieved from duty that he might have the surgical treatment which his wounds required, and was mustered out of service Jan. 16, 1866.
In the arduous and trying campaigns through which he passed, General Chamberlain made a record honorable to himself and to the state. During his period of service he commanded troops in twenty-four battles, eight reconnaissances, skirmishes without number, and with advance and rear guards in contact with the enemy upwards of a dozen times. With his own command alone he fought several independent engagements, every one of which was successful against superior numbers. His captures in battle number 2,700 prisoners and eight battle flags, no portion of which can be claimed by any other command. He was six times struck in action by shot and shell, three times narrowly escaping with his life. Immediately after the surrencer of the rebel army, Gen. Chamberlain was made the subjec of special communication to headquarters of the army by Major General Griffin, his corps commander, in which this officer urged Gen. Chamberlain's promotion to the full rank of major-general, for distinguished and gallant conduct in the battles on the left, including the White Oak Road, Five Forks and Appomattox Court House, where, says General Griffin, "his bravery and efficiency were such as to entitle him to the highest commendation. In the last action, April 9, his command had the advance, and was driving the enemy rapidly before it, when the announcement of General Lee's surrender was made." The recommendation was cordially approved by General Meade and General Grant, and forwarded to Washington for the action of the government, where assurances were given that the promotion should be made.
General Chamberlain was rarely absent from the field of duty. He had but four days' leave of absence. At all other times when not in the field, he had been either ordered away for treatment of wounds, or president of a court-martial by order of the War Department. But no part of his record reflects greater satisfaction than his relations with the men under his command. He made it a point of duty and of affection to take care of his men. He never ordered troops into positions that he had not first personally reconnoitered, and though his losses in killed and wounded have been severe, they were never made in retreating. The noble and faithful men entrusted to his care never in a single instance failed to execute his orderes or to carry out what they deemed to be his wishes, although unexpressed. In all the various fortunes of the field he never left one of his wounded in the lines of the enemy nor one of his dead without fitting burial.
On returning to his native state and the paths of peace, General Chamberlain quietly resumed his professorship in Bowdoin College. He was not long allowed to remain there, however. In recognition of his distringuished service and ability, he was elected governor of the state, by the largest majority ever given for that office. He was re-elected the three following years, and left the gubernatorial ofice with an enviable record. His administration marked an epoch in the material advances of the state. Soon after leaving the office of governor in 1871, he was elected president of Bowdoin College and discharged the duties of that office for twelve years. He resigned in 1883, but continued his lectures on political economy until 1885. He was professor of mental and moral philosophy fron 1874 to 1879. In 1876 he was commissioned major-general of state militia and was in command at the capitol during the political troubles in January, 1880, when his determined stand against minatory movements ended the opposition of a turbulent faction which threatened civil war.
In 1878 he was appointed commissioner to the Universal Exposition at Paris, France. For his service here he received a medal of honor from the French government. In the following year the U. S. government published his report on the Exposition, embracing the subject of education in Europe. This received remarkable commendation from all quarters. In 1867 Governor Chamberlain received the honorary degree of LL.D. from Bowdoin College, having already received the same from Pennsylvania College in 1866. During the years 1844 and 1889 he was engaged in railroad construction and industrial enterprises in Florida. In 1900 he was appointed by President McKinley surveyor of the port of Portland, and has since filled that position. As a writer, lecturer and orator, Governor Chamberlain has no superior in the state. He has given numerous lectures and public addresses, with a wide range of topics. In 1876 he delivered at the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia an elaborate public address entieled "Maine; her place in History." On invitation this was repeated before the Legislature of Maine in1877, and afterward published by the state and given wide circulation. He wrote a remarkable series of papers on the Spanish war, and has since given valuable addresses on historic places and events in Maine, and many tributes to historic personaes, the last being one on Lincoln Memorial Day in Philadelphia, which is considered remarkable for its truthfulness and eloquence. He has held many offices of honor, among them that of president of the Webster Historical Society, vice-president of the American Huguenot Society, president of the Society of the Army of the Potomac, commander of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the U. S., and commander of the Grand Army of the Republic in the state of Maine. He is now president of the Chaberlain Association of America, and of the Maine Branch of the National Red Cross. He is also an active member of many literary and scientific societies.
The home of Gen. Chamberlain is in Brunswick and amidst the classic shadows of Bowdoin College. It is a historic spot, and was formerly known as the old Fales house built by Captain Pierce in 1820. By others it has been called the Longfellow house, as it was here that the poet brought his young bride in 1830, and for some times he made his home. Fales was the second owner of the place, and it was during his occupancy that the Longfellow occupation occurred. At that time he was professor of modern languages in Bowdoin, and in after years he was often heard to say that those were the happiest years of his life. The property finally passed into the possession of Rev. Dr. Roswell D. Hitchcock, and was purchased from him by General Chamberlain in 1861. At that time the present owner was the professor of modern languages in Bowdoin and his financial ability was by no means equal to his good name and high standing in the community as a man of honor. For this reason the president of the principal local bank came to him and assured him that he could have all the money he wanted, to conclude the purchase. In this manner the old house passed into the hands of the young college professor has since been one of the most charming homes in Maine.
On returning to Brunswick after the civil war, with the stars of a major-general on his shoulders, and being soon governor, he found the old house would hardly hold his visitors. It was enlarged by simply raising it and putting another story beneath it. Thus the original house remained intact, only it was one story higher, while the lower portion was built more up to date. It is now a very spacious mansion, containing no less than twenty full-sized rooms.
It is doubtful if there is another house in all Maine beneath whose roof so many distinguished guests have been entertained. Generals Grant, Sherman, Sheridcan, McClellan, Porter, Warren, Ayers, Griffin and Howard have all partaken of its hospitality. Its walls have echoed the brilliant conversation of Sumner, Wilson, Schurtz, Evans, Fessenden, Bradbury, Morrill Frye, Hale and Blaine, and others famous in our national history. Hosts of literary men have been its guests. Ut was here that Longfellow came in 1875 when he delivered his famous "Morituri Salutamous," and while here he occupied the same rooms that had been hijs in earlier days. The old poet was affected to tears as the flood of tender recollections came sweeping over him. This home is filled with antique furniture, much of which is connected with prominent persons of the past, rare and valuable paintings and stauary, and relics of the civil war, too far numerous to be particularized here. On the wall of his favorite office is a tapestry picture of the General's old war horse, Charlemagne, that carried him through nearly all of his battles in the civil war. Three times he was shot down, but, like his master, rallied and went on. Once on a headlong charge a bullet aimed at close ranged square at the general's heart was caught by his horse's neck and then struck the General a glancing blow in the left breast, inflicting a severe wound, but leaving him his life. At the close of the war the horse was brought home to Brunswick, where for many years he was the playmate of the children and pet of the family. On his death the faithful animal was given an honorable burial at the General's seaside cottage, "Domheban," in Brunswick, and an inscription cut in the rock above hkis grave, which is kept with loyal care.
The library and study are two interesting rooms in the old mansion. Here are more than two thousand volumes of well chosen books, and by the cozy open fire the old warrior reads and meditates. There are many valuable trophies of war in this room as well as objects of literary and historic interest. Connected is a small "den" containing more books, and on the wall hangs a rebel battle flag captured by Gen. Chamberlain in a racing charge just before Appomattox. Just above this flag is a huge cavalry pistol with a history. In the famous charge on Little Round Top, Gen. Chamberlain was mewt by a rebel officer with sword and pistol in hand. One barrel was discharged full at the General's head. Although but ten feet away, the bullet missed its mark. The officer, who belonged to the Fifteenth Alabama Regiment, then rushed at the Union leader with his sword. Gen. Chamberlain met him, and, being the more expert swordsman, soon had him at his mercy. Seeing that the case was hopeless, the confederate officer surrendered both sword and pistol to Chamberlain and gave himself up as prisoner. Many other war relics are here. The cap and sword of General Griffin, who commanded the Fifth Corps, are in this room. At the battle of Five Forks, Gen. Griffin lost his sword, and Gen. Chamberlain instantly rode to his side and offered him his, which was accepted and used during the remainder of the war. Gen. Chamberlain quickly replaced his weapon by taking the sword of a fallen South Carolina officer, which he wore until the close of the war. Several years later Gen. Chamberlain received his own sword and the division flag from the War Department at Washington. Gen. Griffin's cap and the division bugle which had sounded all the battle calls of the war were sent at the same time to the Bruswick hero who had last commanded that splendid division.
In the main library the great flag of the division hangs from the ceiling, while on one wall is the last flag surrendered by Lee on the field of Appomattox. The personal falg of Gen. Chamberlain, bearing the red maltese cross, is also here, dimmed by battle smoke and torn by shell and bullet. A precious memento is this, and even dearer to its owner than the bust of Grant, by Simmons, that stands close by. Over the fireplace in this library are the stars of the first flag of the old Twentieth Maine regiment, first commanded by General Ames and then by Chamberlain. Here, also, serving as a match box, is the base of a shell that burst at the General's feet in the battle of Gettysburg. It was a conical shell and it shows that when it exploded five pieces flew off into the faces of Chamberlian's men. In an adjoining closet is the coat that Gen. Chamberlain wore when he was shot through the body in front of Petersburg and promoted by Grant. Another coat bearing the stars of a general has the left breast and left sleeve torn and shredded by shot or shell at the battle on Quaker road in the final campaign of the war.
General Chamberlain married, in Brunswick, Dec. 7, 1855, Frances Caroline Adams, who was born in Boston, Mass., Aug. 12, 1826, and died in Brunswick, Maine, Oct. 18, 1905. She was the daughter of Ashur Adams and Amelia Wyllys Adams of Boston, and was a lineal descendant of Mabel Marlakenden, the "Princess of New England."
Harold Wyllys. Grace Dupee, was born in Brunswick, Oct. 16, 1856, and married April 28, 1881, Horace Gwynne Allen, who is a distinguished lawyer in Boston.
[trans note: confusing, whose children?] The children are:
1. Eleanor Wyllys, born in Boston, Dec. 13, 1893; Beatrice Lawrence, b. Jan. 24, 1896; and Rosamund, b. Dec. 25, 1898.
2. Harold Wyllys Chamberlain, born in Brunswick, Oct. 10, 1858, and graduated at Bowdoin College in 1881; studied law in Boston University, and successfully practiced in Florida for four years.
He has since interested himself in electrical engineering and has invented valuable improvements in that line, which he is now applying in practical work in the city of Portland.