Genealogical and Family History
STATE OF MAINE
Compiled under the editorial supervision of George Thomas Little, A. M., Litt. D.
LEWIS HISTORICAL PUBLISHING COMPANY
[Please see Index page for full citation.]
[Transcribed by Coralynn Brown]
[Many families included in these genealogical records had their beginnings in Massachusetts.]
The name of Bradford is one of the most distinguished in the early colonial history of Massachusetts, and the record of the Bradford family from the establishment of the Pilgrims in Holland in 1608 to 1657 includes a great part of the history of the Pilgrim colony. From this famikly have sprung nearly all of the Bradfords of New England.
(I) The first of the name of whom record is known was William Bradford, of Austerfield, Yorkshire, England. He was buried there Jan. 10, 1595-96.
(II) William (2), son of William (1) Bradford, married Alice, daughter of John and Margaret (Gresham) Hanson, June 21, 1584. He was buried July 15, 1591, at Austerfield, Yorkshire, England.
(III) William (3), son of William (2) Bradford, was born in March, 1690, in Austerfield, Yorkshire, England. About 1608 he went to Holland, and was among those who set out from England in 1620 on borad the historic "Mayflower," to settle the Pilgrim........[a line or 2 cut off the scan of this page].........companied on this voyage by his wife, whose maiden name was Dorothy May. They were married at Amsterdam, Dec. 10, 1613. She was accidentally drowned Dec. 7, 1620, from the "Mayflower," in Cape Cod Harbor, during the absence of her husband with an exploring party.
John, born in Holland, who was left behind; he came later and died in Norwich, Conn., without issue in 1678.
With the exception of five years, William Bradford was chosen governor of Plymouth Colony from 1621 to 1657, the year of his death. He was one of the most efficient in directing and sustaining the new settlement, and a writer of the times said of him: "He was the very prop and glory of Plymouth Colony, during the whole series of changes that passed over it."
He was married (second), Aug. 24, 1623, to Alice Southworth, a widow, whose maiden name was Carpenter. She came to Plymouth in the ship "Anne," and was among the most highly respected residents, dying March 26, 1670, at the age of eighty years.
William, Mercy and Joseph Bradford.
Governor Bradford died May 19, 1657, and was lamented by all the New England colonies as a common father. The bodies of himself and wife were buried at Plymouth. Governor Bradford was the only historian of Plymouth Colony, and his history is now of priceless value. His is the only grave of a "Mayflower" passenger the location of which is known.
(IV) William (4), son of William (3) and Alice (Carpenter) (Southworth) Bradford, was born June 17, 1624, and married (first) Alice Richards; (second) Widow Wiswall, and (third) Mrs. Mary (Wood) Holmes. His biographer says: "Mr. Bradford was, next to Miles Standish, the chief military man of the colony. During King Philip's war he was commander-in-chief of the Plymouth forces, and often exposed himself to all its perils. At the Narragansett Fort fight he receied a musket ball in his flesh which he carried the remainder of his life. In that desperate midwinter encounter, when both parties fought for their very existence, nearly a thousand Indians fell a sacrifice, and about one hundred and fifty of the English were killed or wounded. In the war with the Indians Mr. Bradford held the rank of major.
He was assistant treasurer and deputy governor of Plymouth from 1682 to 1686, and from 1689 to 1691; and in the latter year he was one of.......[line cut off top of scanned page]...........was in Kingston, Mass., on the north side of Jones river.
He died March 1, 1704, and by his expressed wish was buried beside the grave of his distinguished father, on Burial Hill, in Plymouth.
Children of 1st wife:
John, William, Thomas, Samuel, Alice, Hannah, Mercy, Melatiah, Mary and Sarah.
Chidlren of 2d wife:
Children of 3d wife:
Israel, Ephraim, David and Hezekiah.
The children just named, fifteen in number, are in accordance with the usual published accounts. His grandson, Ezekiel, who removed from Kingston, Mass. to Maine, in 1782, made a statement during the latter part of his life that his grandfather William had eighteen chldren, three of whom died in infancy.
(V) Ephraim, second of the four sons of Major William (4) Bradford, and his third wife, Mary (Wood) (Holmes) Bradford, daughter of John Wood, alias Atwood, of Plymouth, Plymouth Colony, and widow of Rev. John Holmes, pastor at Duxbury, was born in Plymouth Colony, Mass., in 1690.
He was married Feb. 13, 1710, to Elizabeth, daughter of Wrestling Brewster, granddaughter of Love Brewster, and great-granddaughter of Elder William Brewster. The last two were passengers in the "Mayflower." The records of Plymouth give the name of the wife of Ephraim Bradford as Elizabeth Bartlett, but this is an error, as pointed out by Davis many years ago. Recently the evidence was examined by an expert committee, member of the Mayflower Society, and the statement of Davis fully confirmed, that the wife of Ephraim Bradford was as stated above.
They had ten children, five sons and five daughters.
Elizabeth (Brewster) Bradford died Dec. 5, 1741, in her fifty-first year. She was buried in the old cemetery of Kingston, Mass., near the Brewsters. The exact date of the death of Ephraim Bradford and his place of burial are unknown. His estate, however, was settled in 1746, and there is little doubt that he died that year. While a tombstone was erected to his wife's memory, there is none in the same cemetery to him. He was in all probability buried beside his wife.
He lived in Kingston, Mass., on land bequeathed him by his father, on the north side of Jones' river.
(VI) Ezekiel, the eighth child of Ephraim and Elizabeth (Brewster) Bradford, was born in Kingston, Plymouth county, Mass., ......[rats, another top of the page cut off by the scan]...............1750, to Betsey Chandler, of Duxbury, Plymouth county, Mass. Betsey Chandler was born in Duxbury, Mass., Oct. 28, 1728, and was the daughter of Philip and Rebecca (Phillips) Chandler. She was a descendant of Edmund Chandler, who was a freeman in Plymouth, 1633, thus: Philip (4), Joseph (3), Joseph (2), Edmund (1), all of Duxbury. Joseph (3) emigrated to North Yarmouth, Maine, and died there.
Ezekiel (4) lived in Kingston, Mass., on the road from Plymouth to Boston, near "Mile Brook," and here his children were born and brought up.
1. Ephraim Jr., born Dec. 13, 1750, married, 1777, Judith Morton, of New Gloucester, Maine. They had five children. He married (second) Anna Warren, of Portland, Maine, about the year 1800. They had two children. He died Dec., 1817. He lived in New Gloucester, near Cobb's Bridge.
2. Deborah, born July 28, 1752, married Barnabas Winslow, of New Gloucester, Maine, July 24, 1776; died 1827.
3. William (q.v.), born March 9, 1754.
4. Rebecca, born Sept. 22, 1756; married William True, of Minot, Maine, Jan. 18, 1786; died Sept. 22, 1832.
5. Jesse, born March 7, 1758; settled first on lot Number 57, in Turner, Maine, before 1780. He married Judith Weston, of Kingston, Mass., 1781. He was a petitioner for authority to found a Universalist church in 1803, and was selectman of the town 1811-12-14-15; received one vote for representative in the general court of Mass., in 1811, having already served as collector of taxes 1790-91, and member of the school committee 1796. Later if life he removed from lot. No. 57 to lot. 171. He built the first mills at Turner Center, which was for many years known as Bradford Village. He served in the Mass. militia in 1777, for the purpose of guarding the prisoners taken at the defeat of General Burgoyne. He died May 20, 1829. His wife Judith died Nov. 6, 1842. They had nine children.
6. Ezekiel, born Dec. 15, 1759. He settled on lot No. 60 in Turner, Maine, in 1780; married Mary House, of Hanover, Mass., on Dec. 14, 1786. He petitioned the general court of Mass. for the privilege of founding a Baptist society in Turner, Maine, and Buckstown, Maine, June 10, 1791, and a Universalist church in Turner in 1803. He died Oct. 28, 1829, and his wife Mary died April 25, 1852. They had five children.
7. Chandler, born Aug. 15, 1761, settled on lot No. 47, in Turner, Maine. He married Sarah French, of Turner, in 1783. In 1803 he was a petitioner to the general court of Mass. for the privilege of founding a Universalist church in Turner, Maine, and was selectman in the town 1798-1801 and 1804-07. He died in Turner, Feb. 21, 1849. They had thirteen children.
8. Martin, born Oct. 17, 1763; settled first on lot No. 46, and later on lot no. 62, in Turner, Maine. He was married Aug. 16, 1790, to Prudence Dillingham, of Minot, Maine. He was trustee of the Congregational society 1813-32, and known as Deacon Martin Bradford. He was a very prosperous farmer, owning five hundred acres of land at the foot of Brigg's Hill, along the Turner and Minot Line. He died June 7, 1832. His wife Prudence died Sept. 5, 1822. They had six children.
9. Philip, born June 8, 1765; married Polly Bonney, of Turner, April 9, 1789; ided June, 1789. No children. His widow married Benjamin Chamberlain, of Turner.
10. Betsey, born Aug. 22, 1767; married Daniel Briggs Jr. of Minot, Maine, Feb. 14, 1788; died Nov. 2, 1815.
Ezekiel Bradford, the father of these children, removed from Kingston, Mass., to Turner, Maine, with his family in 1782, and died there Sept. 26, 1816; his wife, Betsey (Chandler) Bradford, died Oct. 24, 1811. In the census of 1790, Ezekiel Bradford and his sons, William, Jesse, Ezekiel Jr., Chandler and Martin, appear as the heads of families in the town of Turner, Maine.
On the fine Quincy granite monument, eight feet high and weighing five thousand pounds, erected near their graves in the Upper Street burial grounds in Turner, Maine, largely at the instance and through the energetic efforts of Lieut.-Commander (now Rear Admiral) Royal Bird Bradford, U.S.N., the following insciptions appear:
(On the face)
Great Grandson of Gov. William Bradford
Son of Ephraim Bradford
Born in Kingston, Massachusetts, 1728
Died in Turner, Maine, 1816.
(On the rear)
Born in Duxbury, Massachusetts, 1728
Died in Turner, Maine, 1811.
(on one side)
Six of their sons settled in Turner.
(on the other side)
All honor to our pioneer ancestors.
(VII) William (5), second son of Ezekiel and Betsey (Chandler) Bradford, was born in Kingston, Plymouth county, Mass., March 9, 1754. He was brought up in Plymouth county and lived with his father until he was twenty-one years old. In 1775 he went to Maine; his worldly possessions, when he left his home in Kingston, were, besides some clothing, an ax and one silver dollar. He paid the dollar for his passage in a coaster from Plymouth to North Yarmouth, Maine, but recovered it by cutting enough wood for the coaster's return voyage. He then walked to New Gloucester, Maine, where his uncle, Peleg Chandler, lived.
The township of Sylvester-Canada was given to the heirs of Captain Joseph Sylvester, of Cumberland county, Maine, and of his company, for military services in the investment of Canada under Sir William Phipps in 1690, and was incorporated as the Forty-seventh town of Maine, June 7, 1786. It was named Turner, for Rev. Charles Turner, of Scituate, Mass., who was a distinguished divine, pariot and state senator during the revolutionary war. After the war he settled in Turner and died there. In 1775 the proprietors of Sylvester-Canada, who for the most part lived in Pembroke, Mass., were offering to give away lots in their township in Maine, in order to induce a sufficient number of settlers to locate there to comply with the terms of their charters.
Early in 1776 William Bradford proceded to Sylvester-Canada from New Gloucester, and selected town lot No. 56, where he built a log house and clared some land. He returned to New Gloucester and spent the winter of 1776-77 there. Here he was married to Asenath, daughter of Ebenezer and Rebecca (Winslow) Mason. The exact date of the marriage is unknown, but they were published Nov. 8, 1776. In the spring of 1777 the young couple removed to Sylvester-Canada and lived there the remainder of their lives.
Ebenezer MASON was a revolutionary soldier, serving eight months in Capt. Isaac Parson's company, Co. Prime's regiment. He was a descendant of Hugh and Esther...........[well, rats, another top of the pg cut off in the scan]................and settled in Watertown, Mass., and the son of Jonas and Mary (Chandler) Mason, of North Yarmouth, Maine. Mary CHANDLER was descended from Edmund Chandler, of Duxbury, Mass. thus: Joseph (3), Joseph (2), Edmund (1); therefore William (5) Bradford and his wife Asenath were cousins once removed. Rebecca WINSLOW, mother of Asenath Mason, was descended from Kenelm Winslow, a brother of Edward Winslow, passenger in the "Mayflower." Kenelm came over a few years after Edward and settled in Marshfield, Mass. Rebecca Winslow was also decended from Richard Warren, passenger in the "Mayflower."
William BRADFORD was followed to Maine, first by his brother Jesse. In 1780 his brother Ezekiel Jr. had also located in Turner. He aided in the organization of the town of Turner under the direction of the general court of the commonwealth of Massachusetts. He was made tithingman in 1788; selectman and assessor in 1789; member of the school committee 1796 and 1797; town treasurer continuously 1791-1806 inclusive; was named a candidate for representative in the general court of mass. in 1807 and 1809, and served as selectman of the town in 1810.
He was baptized and received into covenant relations with the Congregational church on the occasion of the second visit of Rev. Charles Turner to the settlement of Sylvester-Canada, Maine, in 1779. The first church organization in Turner, Maine, was composed of fifteen members, twelve men and three women, and their pastor, Rev. John Strickland, a graduate of Yale College, B.A., 1761, M.A. 1764, was installed pastor Sept. 20, 1784, and died in 1823. At the time he took charge of the church at Turner the settlement was made up of thirty families, comprising about two hundred souls.
In July, 1799, William Bradford joined Charles Turner Jr., Israel Haskell, Jacob Leavitt, Daniel Briggs, Daniel Staples and Jabez Merrill in a covenant; "to take laudable care of the religious Christian education of the children, whom God hath graciously, or may give unto us." He was a petitioner for a charter for a Universalist society in Turner, which was graned by the general court after much opposition, June 9, 1804; the names of his sons William Jr. and Asa also appear on the same petition.
The first Universalist church built in Turner was located on his land and near his house on the Lower street. He continued to be a benefactor of this church.......[line or so cut off the top of this scan]...........scendants, in this particular, followed in his footsteps. Recently a stained glass window has been placed in this church in his memory and that of his son William and grandson Phillips.
William Bradford was one of the petitioners to the general court for the privilege "to sell the parsonage and school lots lying in Turner," the petition bearing the date May 28, 1802; on March 15, 1803, he was appointed by the trustees of the church, he being one of the board, "to appraise the ministerial and grammar school lands with reference to their sale." He was a trustee of the church society 1803-12.
Notwithstanding his meagre beginning, William Bradford succeeded financially in his forest home. According to a tax list of Turner for 1794, containing seventy-two names, he paid the third highest tax; the two paying a greater tax being Rev. Charles Turner and Charles Copeland, both among the proprietors of the town. He left a large estate to his children.
He died May 26, 1828. His wife, Asenath, died Dec. 25, 1833.
1. William, born Aug. 6, 1778 (q.v.)
2. Asa, born Feb. 4, 1780; married Betsey Bray, of Minot, Oct. 29, 1801. He was selectman of the town of Turner 1821-25 and 1827-30, and a trustee of the Congregational society of Turner, 1812-13. Asa Bradford succeeded to the home of his father on the Lower street, at the head of Cary Hill road; the house was large, flatroofed and of two stories. Later he moved to the south part of town and built a large brick house on the old county road, near Meadow Brook. He owned a great amoutn of pine timber in this vicinity and built a sawmill on Meadow Brook. He brought the first piano into the town of Turner. He was said to resemble the Chandler family.
He died June 22, 1863, and left a large estate. His wife Betsey died July 3, 1861. They had ten children, but there are no male descendants bearing the name now living.
(VIII) William (6), eldest son of William (5) and Asenath (Mason) Bradford, was the second white male child born in the township of Sylvester-Canada, Cumberland county, Maine, the date of his birth being Aug. 6, 1778.
He was married Oct. 22, 1801, to Chloe, daughter of Isaac and Mary (Stevens) Phillips, of Turner, and they had nine children, three sons and six daughters. Two sons and one daughter died when young. Isaac PHILLIPS was a revolutionary soldier and.......[top line or so cut off the scan of this page].............to the latter part of 1778, in the Mass. militia, or Continental Army. He was credited to the town of Pembroke, Mass., where he was born. His father, Richard Phillips, also marched from Pembroke, Mass., on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775, in Capt. Elijah Cushing's company.
William (6) Bradford was passionately fond of music, and owned the first organ brought into the settlement of Turner, which he had built to his order in Portland, and which was kept in his house, the wonder and admiration of his neighbors. Upon the marriage of his daughter Chloe, who played it, he had the organ removed to her new home, which he had provided, and later to the Universalist Church.
He was devoted to the interests of his native town, frequently serving it in an official capacity. He inherited a large property from his father, and was liberal publicly and privately to the deserving. Six of his children lived to be adults, and he gave each a farm.
(IX) Phillips, son of William (6) and Chloe (Phillips) Bradford, was born in Turner, Maine, Sept. 28, 1816. He married Mary Brett, daughter of Royal and Polly (Reynolds) Bird, of Minot, May 27, 1839, and they lived in Turner.
Royal BIRD, born in Dorchester, Mass., was the son of Aaron Bird Jr. and his wife, Joanna Glover. Aaron Bird Jr. served as drummer at various times during the revolutionary war, covering a period of more than two years and commencing with the Lexington alarm on April 19, 1775. He moved with his family from Dorchester to Minot, now Auburn, Maine, in 1800, and settled on what is still known as Bird Hill, overlooking Lake Auburn. Aaron Jr., born in Dorchester April 7, 1756, was the son of Aaron and Ann (Shippie) Bird. Aaron Bird served as first lieutenant in Capt. Lemuel Clap's company, of Dorchester, Mass., and joined the church there in 1642. A record of this family was published in the N.E.H. & G. Register, No. I, Vol. xxv.
Joanna GLOVER, mother of Royal Bird, was the daughter of Enoch and Susannah (Bird) Glover, born in Dorchester, Mass. Feb. 3, 1756. Her father, Enoch Glover, served as a private for a considerable time during the revolutionary war, in the Dorchester company, commanded by Capt. Lemuel Clap. He descended from John Glover, who came in the "Mary and John," arriving.......[line cut off scan]............chester, Mass. A full account of this family will be found in the Glover Memorials and Genealogies, Boston, 1876. Enoch Glover was also a descendant of Thomas Hinckley, the sixth and last governor of Plymouth Colony.
Polly REYNOLDS, wife of Royal Bird, born in Bridgewater, Mass., Sept. 16, 1799, was the daughter of Ichabod and Polly (Brett) Reynolds. Ichabod Reynolds moved with his family from Bridgewater, Mass., to Minot, now Auburn, Maine, in February, 1800, and settled on Briggs' Hill, near the Turner boundary line, and also near the homes of Daniel Briggs, William True and Martin Bradford. He was a captain of militia during the war of 1812, and marched his company to Portland. He was generally known, however, as Deacon Reynolds, of Bridgewater, who was descended from Robert Reynolds, of Boston, the latter made freeman and churchman in 1634. Joseph Reynolds served as private and corporal in various companies of militia during the revolutionary war. He married, Sept. 17, 1772, Jemima Perkins, daughter of Luke and Rebecca (Packard) Perkins, of Bridgewater and Stoughton, Mass. Luke PERKINS served as a minuteman in 1775, in a Stoughton company, commanded by Captain Peter Talbot.
Polly BRETT, mother of Polly Reynolds, born in Bridgewater, Mass. March 1, 1777, was the daugther of Isaac and Priscilla (Jackson) Brett. She was descended from the following "Mayflower" passengers: William Mullins, his wife Alice, and daughter Priscilla; John Alden; Peter Brown; and Francis Cooke.
Phillips BRADFORD was prominent when a young man in the state militia. He was commissioned a captain by Governor Kent, and brigadier-general by Governor Fairfield. He was frequently a town officer, and represented his district in the state legislature. While he lived on a farm he was, like his father and grandfather, always more or less financially interested in lumbering operations and the manufacture of lumber. He was over six feet in height and of military bearing. He was an excellent horseman, and when mounted presented a fine appearance. [you mean unmounted he was only 4 feet tall?] He was universally known as General Bradford.
He died July 24, 1889. His wife Mary died June 30, 1890. They are buried in Turner Village cemetery, where rest of remains of his father and grandfather.
1. Martha Rosetta, born in Turner, Maine, Sept. 11, 1840; married June 14, 1865, Lieut.-Col. Aaron S. Daggett, of Greene, Maine, now brigadier-general U.S. Army, retired.
2. Royal Bird, born in Turner, Maine, July 22, 1844.
(X) Royal Bird Bradford attended the district and grammar schools of his native town, and the academies of neighboring towns. At the beginning of the civil war he was sixteen years old, and urgently requested the permission of his father to enlist in the Union army. Permission was refused on the ground that at the time there was a surplus of older and better developed volunteers to fill the quota of the state; consent, however, was given to prepare to perform the duties of an officer with a view to future service. He sought an appointment to West Point from the member of congress of his district, the late Judge C. W. Walton. The latter at once promised the first vacancy, which, however, did not occur until the summer of 1862. This was a great disappointment to the young man. On Nov. 21, 1861, he was notified by Judge Walton that there was a vacancy at the Naval Academy to which he could be appointed immediately. This appointment was accepted not from choice, the army being then preferred, but solely because it offered an opportunity to enter the service of the government sooner.
After passing the required examination, young Bradford entered the U. S. Naval Academy, then at Newport, Rhode Island, Nov. 27, 1861, as midshipman. He was first quartered on board the old "Constitution," and there commenced his studies and first learned the routine of ship life in this historic frigate. Although entering two months after the academic year commenced, he had at the end of the year, June 1, 1861, overtaken the regular class and advanced to a higher position in it. During the summer of 1862, between academic terms, he was one of a large party of midshipmen who garrisoned Fort Adams, at the entrance of Narragansett Bay, for a period of some weeks, during a threatened raid by a Confederate cruiser. He also cruised on the coast in the sailing sloop-of-war "John Adams," between Nantucket Shoals and the Capes of the Delaware. While this cruise was primarily for purposes of instruction, the ship was always kept in readiness for action.
The remaining three academic terms were spent on shore at Newport, in a large summer hotel which had been rented and fitted by the government for a Naval Academy so far as praticable. The large amount of scientific and astronomical apparatus, models, etc., that had been left behind at Annapolis, Maryland, when the Naval Academy was hastily moved north at the beginning of the civil war, was much missed for instruction purposes. At the end of the second academic term, June, 1863, Midshipman Bradford was granted leave for the summer to visit his home in Maine. At the end of the third term, June, 1864, he cruised off the coast for three months on board the sailing sloop-of-war "Marion," armed vacht "American," and the steam gunboat "Marblehead." While in the latter vessel she was sent by the navy department in search of the Confederate cruiser "Tallahassee," and at one time hopes were entertained of her capture.
About this time, Midshipman Bradford's entire class, feeling qualified to perform duty afloat and desiring to participate in active war service, petitioned the navy department to be ordered to cruising ships. The petition, however, was refused. The last academic year was concluded in June, 1865, and upon the final examination held, in addition to the semi-annual examination, Midshipman Bradford was graduated No. 3 in a class of fifty-nine members. The first five of the class, when arranged in order of merit, were then designated "Stars," or "the five most distinguished of their class." Graduation was followed by a third cruise for instruction, especially in seamanship, navigation and steam, in the sailing slooo-of-war "Macedonian," and the steam gunboats "Marblehead" and "Winnipeg." This cruise along the coast of Long Island Sound ended at Annapolis, Maryland, the Naval Academy meantime having been moved back to that town. At Annapolis there was another examination in navigation and steam, both severe and unexpected. Five of the fifty-nine members of Midshipman Bradford's class failed to pass this examination and were turned back to the next class. Finally, on Sept. 25, 1865, the class was detached from the Naval Academy and fairly launched into active service.
Midshipman Bradford's next duty was on board the U.S. ship "Swatara," a new, fast steam sloop-of-war, built on the model of the famous Confederate cruise "Alabama," and just completed at the Washington Navy Yard. He reported for this service Oct. 20, 1865. then following a cruise in the West Indies, during which every island of any importance was visited. On this cruise he performed the duty of a watch and division officer; also the duty of an engineer officer. The "Swatara" .............[again, a line or so cut off the top of the scan....this is happening too often!]..................C., in May, 1866, and on June 4 following he was transferred to the U.S. steamer "Rhode Island," flagship of the North Atlantic Station. He served in this vessel as watch and division officer, cruising along the Atlantic coast as far north as Hallifax and south to the West Indies, until Dec. 1, 1866. He was then promoted to ensign, and ordered to the U.S. steamer "Iroquois," fitting out at the New York Navy Yard for the Asiastic Station.
The "Iroquois" sailed from New York for Hong Kong, Feb. 3, 1867. The cruise out was a very interesting one, the ship calling at the following ports: Guadaloupe, West Indies; Rio de Janeiro; Cape Good Hope; Madagacar; Comoro Islands; Aden; Muscat; Bombay; Singapore; and Manila, arriving at Hong Kong on Nov. 1, 1867. After refitting the "Iroquois" sailed for Japan and arrived at Nagasaki early in Dec., 1867. The Mikado of Japan at that time lived in retirement at Kioto, the ancient capital. The country was practically ruled by the Shogun, called by foreigners "Tycoon"; he resided at the great city of Yedo. Japan was then made up of a number of small domains ruled by princes called Daimios. Each Daimio had life and death power over his subjects, maintained a separate army and navy, issued such laws and regulations as he saw fit, and generally governed in accordance with the old feudal system. Daimios were, however, required to pay certain taxes to the Shogun, and to live six months of each year at Yedo, in order to prove their loyalty. Their soldiers were hereditary fighting men, called Samurai; they carried two swords, thrust through a girdle or sash, one short, for use at close quarters, and the other very long and heavy, for use with both hands. Both were very sharp, and carried in wooden lacquered scabbards, bottom up, in order not to dull the razor-like edge. No professional man, farmer or artisan or tradesman could even aspire to the honor of wearing two swords.
After many centuries of hermit existence, Japan had, in accordance with the treaty made by Commodore Perry in 1854, opened the ports of Hakodate in the north and Simoda in the west to American trade. Foreigners were not permitted to visit other than open ports. Both Hakodate and Shimoda were unimporant villages, and the latter was soon destroyed by an earthquake. In 1859 the important ports of Nagasaki in the south and Kanagawa, better known as Yokohama, on an arm of Yedo Bay, were opened to foreign commerce. No other ports were accessible at ........ [ line or two cut off].............Nagasaki, and the Japanese of all classes were living in the same manner they had for centuries. The government of Japan had agreed to open the ports of Osaka, Hiogo and Kobe, the two latter two miles apart and sixteen miles from the former, located on the inland sea, Jan. 1, 1868. To Kobe the "Iroquois" proceeded, and on the appointed day fifteen American, England and French men-of-war were there present. At noon the ports were declared open, salutes fired, ships decorated, etc. An American consulate was immediately established on shore, and traders commenced at once to land with their goods from merchant ships which had assembled in readiness. The inhabitants of these ports had never before seen white people, but the lower classes were friendly and courteous. While the "Iroquois" was at anchor off Osaka, in company with three other American men-of-war, on Jan. 11, 1868, Rear-Admiral H. H. Bell, U.S. Navy, commander-in-chief of the American Squadron on the Asiatic Station, together with his flag lieutenant and ten seamen, were drowned while crossing the bar at the mouth of the Osaka river, by capsizing of their boat. The admiral was at the time attempting to reach Osaka in order to take leave of the American minister previous to sailing for home.
Soon after the ports of Osaka, Hiogo and Kobe were opened, there were rumors that the powerful Daimios Satsuma, Choshiu and Tosa of the south, were opposed to the policy of the Shogun in opening Japan to foreigners. Satsuma's capital had been bombarded in 1863 by a British squardon on account of the murder of an Englishman near Yokohama by his Samarai. The town of Shimonoseki, on the straits of that name, in the domains of Choshiu, was bombarded in 1864 by a combined squardron for permitting merchant ships to be fired on while on the straits.
At 5 a.m., Jan. 31, 1868, a native boat came alongside of the "Iroquois," which was then anchored off Osaka. It contained three men all dressed as boatmen; one sculled the boat, and the other two appeared to be passengers; the latter brought a note from the American minister to the captain. In effect the note stated that the bearers were distinguished Japanese officials who asked for shelter for a brief period. At 8 a,n, the same morning, one of the Shogun's ships came in from Yedo, and the two officials left the "Iroquois" and went on board. Subsequently it was ascertained that one of the officials was ......... [aarrggh, another line cut off]................by hostile soldiers from the south who had defeated his troops in the suburbs, and that he desired an asylum until he could take passage to Yedo.
On Feb. 1, 1868, all foreigners were ordered to quit Osaka, as their safety could not be guaranteed. The "Iroquois" took on board the American, Prussian, Italian and Dutch ministers, several foreign counsuls, their secretaries, clerks, interpreters, servants, etc., also some legation guards who were Shogun men, and transferred them to Kobe; the English and Franch officials took passage in their own ships. The following night the rebels took possession of Osaka, and thus began the "War of the Restoration," it transpiring that the Daimois of the south had undertaken to depose the Shogun and resotre the Mikado to the power of a ruler de facto, which he had not enjoyed for seven hundred years, In this they were successful, although the war did not end until July, 1869, the last fighting taking place on the island of Yesso, near Hakodate, a portion of which was witnessed by the officers and crew of the "Iroquois." The Shogun himself retired from office soon after the Osaka affair, declining to oppose the Mikado. Thus ending the Shogunate of Japan. Some of the northern Daimos took the matter up, however, and the war was really between the North and the South. Kobe was made headquartes of foreign officials and ships. Before the port was opened, a plot of land had been cleared and graded for use as a resident section for foreigners; it was known as the "Foreign Concession." Near it the Japanese had erected a large custom house. This was used as a residence by foreign legations. Marine guards were landed to protect it, and ships were anchored near the shore in such a manner that their batteries commanded the town.
A few days after Osaka was abandoned, Feb. 4, 1868, a body of about two hundred Japanese troops, armed with muskets, swords and spears, from the south, marching through Kobe en route north, fired at some spectators on the "foreign concession"; only three or four were hit and they were not badly wounded; one was an American man-of-warsman. The legation guards charged these troops on the double quick, when they scattered and ran to the hills nearby. The prearranged danger signal was made at the consulate building, and all the ships present - American, English and French - landed infantry and artillery, took possession of the town and surrounded it with troops. The following night about a half-dozen Japanese ............[line cut off]................combined with foreign forces with practically on (no?) resistance, and taken to Kobe and held there under the guns of the ships; some of the steamers were armed. Four days later an officer of high rank from the Mikado's forces at Osaka came to Kobe to treat with the foreign ministers and naval forces. It was then learned that the Japanese officer who had ordered his men to fire on the foreigners had done so because the latter had not knelt and touched their foreheads to the ground when ordered, as the Japanese spectators had done. The foreign ministers demanded that this officer be executed; this was agreed to, but a concession was asked and granted that he be permitted to commit hara-kiri instead, in order to save the honor of his family and prevent his estate from being sequestered. A few days later he committed hara-kiri, a witness from each nation represented at Kobe being present. The affair took place in a temple; the condemned officer was required to draw blood only to save his honor, which he did along the abdomen with a sharp knife while kneeling. A knife for that purpose was usually carried by a Samurai on one side of his sword scabbard. A friend stood by him with a two-handed sword, and as soon as blood appeared, severed his head from his body with a draw-cut in the twinkling of an eye. [is this gruesome enough for you?!]
The seat of war advanced northward, and affairs about Kobe became more peaceful. The "Iroquois" was soon the only American guardship there. Near the end of February smallpox appeared among the crew, and she sailed for Yokohama, where the English had established a foreign hospital for contageous diseases. At this time the art of vaccination was unknown in Japen, and smallpox was practically epidemic every winter. Many of the crew of the "Iroquois" had the disease, and three died of it; the officers escaped probably from the fact that they were vaccinated, as they were equally exposed with the men.
In the light of present day (1908), Japan having become a great nation, this bit of personal experience of Ensign Bradford in old Japan is of interest.
Ensign Bradford was promoted to master March 12, 1868, and to lieutenant March 26, 1869. It should be understood that no officer can, under the law, be promoted until he is pronounced physically qualified to perform all of his duties at sea by a board of naval surgeons, and also until a professional board has pronounced him mentally, morally and professionally qualified. On Feb. 19, 1869, ......[line cut off]................."Iroquois." At that time the coast of China and of Japan were without aids to navigation, such as lighthouses, beacons and buoys; charts were imperfect, and gales, especially in winter, were frequent. During the early autumn the much-dreaded typhoon was prevalent. The "Iroquois" encountered one of these fearful storms on the coast of Japan, between the entrance to Yedo Bay and the inland sea, Aug. 20, 1869, and came near being lost. The navigator on that occasion received special commendation of his captain for services rendered in saving the ship from being wrecked. Navigation duty in the China Sea was then particularly difficult. Both Chinese and Japanese pilots were skilful, however, and they were frequently employed when leaving or entering port.
At that time it was difficult to obtain good food in Japan. The natives lived almost exclusively on rice and fish, the latter fresh or preserved; the ew additions to this diet were mostly in the way of relishes or sweets. They had not then, as they did later, learned to raise vegetables, fowls, cattle, etc., for foreigners. In China there was a fairly good market, but milk, butter and mutton were rarely obtained, and the era of canned food had not arrived. It was also impossible to travel much for pleasure, especially in Japan. Foreigners were not allowed outside of treaty ports without a permit from the government and the company of armed guards. Indeed, much of the time officers were required, when on shore, to wear their uniforms and carry revolvers.
On Nov. 22, 1869, Lieut. Bradford was transferred from the "Iroquois" to the flagship of the station, the U.S.S. "Delaware." The captain of the "Delaware" had been the captain of the "Iroquois," and it was at his solicitation that the lieutenant consented to prolong his service on the China station another year. The "Delaware" was a fine new frigate of large size, with full steam and sail power, and her handsome appearance, excellent quarters, additional comforts and numerous officers and men made the change attractive. On Nov. 29, 1869, the "Iroquois" sailed for home. Lieut. Bradford's cruise continued without material change; the flagship in time of peace generally visits the most pleasant ports, and her officers have the most interesting experience.
At the close of the War of the Restoration, the Mikado removed his residence from Kioto to Yedo, and changed the name of the latter to Tokio. Yokohama, probably from its close .............[line lopped off]..........favorite port of foreigers and foreign ships, and here the flagship spent considerable time. Early in the summer of 1870 the "Delaware" left Japan and sailed south; calling en route at Hong Kong, she arrived at Singapore on June 30. This is one of the most delightful towns in the east to visit. It is the capital of the English Straits settlements and has a large official social circle. Although only a degree and a half north of the equator, a constant sea breeze prevents excessive heat; the homes of foreigners are in the suburbs, their houses being built to guard against heat only, on small elevations and surrounded by handsome grounds. It is truly a land of fruit and flowers and perpetual summer. Here the "Delaware" awaited her relief, the U.S.S. "Colorado," Rear-Admiral John Rodgers, and finally, after her arrival, sailed for home Aug. 22, 1870. She called at Cape Town, South Africa, and at St. Helena, both ports of much interest, and arrived at New York Nov. 19. At that time the Suez Canal had not been completed, and long ocean passages were made under sail. All were much pleased to learn that their distinguished commander-in-chief, Rear-Admiral Stephen C. Rowan, had recently in his absence been promoted to a vice-admiral.
A detail for duty in this squadron is usually regarded with much satisfaction, as it affords an opportunity to visit some of the most interesting parts of the world. Nothing unusual occurred until December, 1873, when the entire squadron was ordered to Key West, Florida, to be held there in readiness for war with Spain over what is known as the "Virginius Affair." The "Wabash" arrived at Key West Jan. 3, 1874. The differences between the U. S. and Spain having been amicably settled, the ships of war which had gathered at Key West, about forty in number, were drilled in tactical exercises, target practice, the use of torpedoes, etc., and then dispersed. The usual term of service of the "Wabash" at sea, without overhauling at a navy yard, having expired, the commander-in-chief, with his staff and senior officers, were transferred to the U.S.S. "Franklin," April 1, 1874, and with them Lieut. Bradford. The "Franklin" returned at once to the European Station, and the cruise then went on as before. This ship was a very happy one, and service on her presented a great contrast to the hard duty on the China Station.
In August, 1874, Lieut. Bradford, owing probably to long continued duty in a hot climate, had a relapse of his former illness. The admiral, on the advice of the surgeon, granted him indefinite leave for the purpose of recovering his health. Then followed a journey to the Italian lakes and Switzerland. The rest, cool mountain air, delightful scenery and experience generally pleasing to the senses soon had its effect, and in six weeks he returned to his ship again well. A very interesting cruise to the Levant followed. At that time a cruise at sea for a lieutenant was usually of three years duration; indeed, Lieut. Bradford had made one in the east of four years.
On April 14, 1875, he was unexpectedly ordered home for duty as an instructor for the second time at the Torpedo Station. It was explained later that this order was owing to the difficulty in obtaining officers qualified for this duty. He reported at Newport, May 20, 1875. The importance of torpedo warfare and the scientific knowledge involved therein made it imperative that officers of the navy, expecially those who had graduated from the Naval Academy before the sciences involved had developed, should become conversant with this new branch of their profession. Then followed a year and eight months of patient instruction and experiment, the former geneally by lectures and the latter both laboratory and field work, mostly manual. Much care was necessary when experimenting with new kinds of explosives, and the demand for results was so great tht there was very little leisure time.
On Dec. 18, 1876, Lieut, Bradford was ordered as executive officer, or second in command, of the U.S.S. "Alliance," a new ship, fitted out at the Navy Yard, Norfolk, Virginia. He reported for this duty on Dec. 21, 1876. This was an especially good detail for an officer of his rank. The "Alliance" was commissioned Jan. 8, 1877, but was not ready for sea until March 9, when she sailed for Lisbon, Portugal. She made a full three years cruise on the European Station. Owing to the Russo-Turkish war, the first half of the cruise was spent almost exclusively in the Levant, with headquarters at Smyrna, but visiting the various ports from Alexandria to Constantinope, inclusive, looking after American missionaries and other American interests. During the summer of 1878 the ship went north as far as Havre, France, enabling her officers to visit the Paris Exposition of that year; she returned to the Mediterranean in August, however. During the summer of 1879 she went north as far as Stockholm, Sweden, and Revel, Russia, and visited all of the principal ports on the coast of Europe and some of Great Britain. The "Alliance" sailed from Villefranche, France, for home by way of Gibraltar and Madeira, Oct. 16, 1879. The passage across the Atlantic was made by the southern route under sail. She arrived at Boston on Dec. 8, and there found orders to proceed to Norfolk, Virginia, where she arrived on the 14th. At the time of this cruise it was customary to have a great deal of drilling with spars, sails, boats, etc. The "Alliance" was known in this ................... [here we go again, another line or so cut off the top of the scan of this page] .....................beaten at any form of exercise. Lieut. Bradford was detached from the "Alliance" on Jan. 2, 1880, and for the third time ordered to the Torpedo Station as an instructor. After passing the necessary medical and professional examinations, he was promoted to lieutenant-commander, to date from No. 30, 1878, the day his promotion was due.
The duty of Lieut.-Commander Bradford at the Torpedo Station was much the same as before. In 1882-83, however, he was, without being detached from his station, assigned to a large amount of board and special duty: on naval regulations, rates and pay of enlisted men; on an electric lighting of ships. On May 23, 1883, Lieut-Com. Bradford was detached from the Torpedo Station and ordered to the Navy Yard, New York, to superintend the installation of incandecent electric lights on board the U.S.S. "Trenton." Although a few passenger steamers were then lighted by electricity, the "Trenton" was the first man-of-war in the world to be so lighted. It was believed for a long time that the shock of gunfire would break the delicate carbon filaments of incandescent lamps, and for this reason the lamps of the "Trenton" were mounted on spiral springs. Subsequently it was ascertained by trial that these springs were not necessary, and that gunfire did not materially affect incandescent electric lamps. Lighting ship so fwar by electricity was an event of immense importance in connection with their efficiency and the health and comfort of the officers and crew. As kerosene and kindred liquids were never permitted to be carried by ships of war, there was no intermediate step between candles and oil for illuminating purposes and electricity. It is not too much to say that the huge, complicated battleships of today (1908) could not be efficiently maintained or fought without electric lights on board.
On June 22, 1883, Lieut.-Com, Bradford was ordered as executive officer of the "Trenton." She was at the time fitting out for a cruise, and considered the best ship in the navy. He then superintended her preparation for sea in addition to the installation of electric lights on board. The "Trenton" was placed in commission Sept. 18, 1883. On Octg. 1, 1883, while the "Trenton" was still at the New York Navy Yard, Lieut.-Com. Bradford was ordered by the Navy Department to Willimantic, Connecticut, to report on the efficiency of a Brush storage battery for electric lighting and power pur..............[another line or two cut off] .......................the department on this subject.
After various trial trips along the coast, the Trenton sailed Dec. 1, 1883, for the Asiatic Station, via the Mediterranean and Suez Canal. The Corean ambassador to the U. S. and two of his attaches took passage in the ship on return to his own country. At Marseilles, France, two electric serchlights, with dynamo and appurtenances, the first ever used in the navy, were installed on board under the supervision of Lieut-Com Bradford. The ship arrived at Hong King, May 1, 1884, calling at the following ports en route: Fayal, Gilbraltar, Marseilles, Naples, Port Said, Suez, Aden, Bombay, Colombo and Singapore. Soon after he arrival, the Trenton proceeded to Japan and from thence to Corea to land her distinguished passengers. She became the flagship of Read-Admiral John Lee Davis, U.S.N., a Nagasaki, Japan, June 30, 1884. It had been fifteen years since Lieut-Com Bradford left Japan, and the changes that had occurred and progress made in the meantime were to him simply a marvel; this was especially true in naval and military matters. During the War of the Restoration the navy of Japan was made up mostly of merchant vessels with improvised gun emplacements. The officers were greatly deficient in knowledge of seamanship, navigation, gunnery and steam machinery, and the crews of ships were without uniforms or discipline. In 1884 Japan had good foreign built men-of-war that would have been a credit to any nation, also dock yards where modern ships were being built, officers and men were well dressed in neat nautical uniforms and well disciplined.
When war between France and China began in 1884, the foreign neutral ships of war were stationed, by agreement of their respective flag officers in command, at the various Chinese ports, to protect foreign citizens and their property from the lawless acts of Chinese mobs, so common in time of war. It fell to the lot of the Trenton to go to Shanghai in August, 1884. This is an exceptionally unhealthy port in summer, and after three weeks climatic exposure there, Lieut-Com. Bradford had a return of his former internal catarrhal malady originally contracted in China, necessitating treatment at the U.S. Naval Hospital at Yokahama. He left the ship at Shanghai, Aug. 27, 1884, and returned to her at Nagasaki, Nov. 19, 1884. The rest, cooler climate and hospital treatment were so beneficial that he was able to again perform his arduous duties as executive officer of the Trenton. The cruise continued on the coasts of Japan, Corea and China until the spring of 1885, the ship then being at Hong Kong. With the return of hot and rainy weather, his health again failed, and he was in such a serious condition that a board of medical officers recommended his transfer to the Naval Hospital in California. Under orders from the admiral, he sailed by mail steamer from Hong Kong, March 24, for San Francisco. His departure from China was none too soon, as he was very ill en route. Upon arrival in California, April 19, he became an inmate of the Naval Hospital at the Mare Island Navy Yard. The fine climate of California, with its dry atmosphere, warm days and cool nights, abundance of flowers, home comforts and companionship and good medical attendance, soon had its effect, and he commenced to improve. On June 25 he was transferred by order of the navy department to the Naval Hospital, Navy Yard, New York, where he arrived July 7, and from thence to his home in Maine.
His health had so far improved that on Aug. 27, 1885, he was ordered to attend a course of lectures at the Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island, on naval and military strategy and international law. From this duty he was detached on Sept. 30 following, and ordered on special duty under the Bureau of Navigation, Navy Dept., for the purpose of preparing a new book on naval regulations.
On Oct. 9, 1885, he was, in addition, ordered to superinend the installation of electric lights on board the new steel cruisers "Boston" and "Atlanta"; these were the first cuisers of the new steel navy to be completed, and the contracts for their construction did not include a provision for the installation of electric lights. There was so little known on the subject at the time that the location of each lamp, lighting mains, dynamos, etc., had to be personally made by Lieut-Com. Bradford. For the performance of these duties he was provided with an office at Newport, R.I., and an assistant.
During the year 1886 he served as a member of the following naval boards: To test a new automatic electric and pneumatic steering apparatus installed in the U.S.S. "Tallapoosa"; to test a pneumatic dynamite gun; to test various types of electric generators; and to test various inventions applicable to the naval service.
On Jan. 6, 1887, he was ordered as "Inspector of Electric Lighting of Ships of the Navym" and took charge of the entire naval electric lighting service, personally preparing all specifications and superintending all work. Contracts were made for lighting ships building and already completed, and specifications prepared to be included in the contracts for new ships. On Nov. 1, 1887, he was ordered as assistant to the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation, Navy Dept., and took up his residence in Washington, D.C.
In addition to bureau work, which had been the sole duty of one officer, he continued as inspector of electric lighting and as a member of different boards. The new book on naval regulations was at this time well advanced, but not completed. During the year 1888 he served as a member of a board on pay and rating of enlisted men; also as a member of a board of accounts of naval property. At the request of the Secretary of the Interior he was ordered to prepare plans for and superintend lighting the Interior Building at Washington by electricity. He also performed the same service for the new fireproof Broadway Theatre building in New York City. The latter installation contained the first incombustible electric switchboard, switch bases, cut-outs, solenoids, etc., ever used in the U.S.
Lieut-Com. Bradford was promoted to commander March 26, 1889, having served an even twenty years since commissioned as a lieutenant. He was then eligible to command third-rate ships of war.
During the year 1889 Commander Bradford's health failed, the catarrhal affection from which he had previously suffered again attacking him, no doubt due to overwork and the enrvating climate of Washington in summer. On Nov. 21, of that year, by advice of a board of surgeons, he was ordered to the U. S. Naval Hospital, Chelsea, Mass., for treatment. He remained there, where he had once before recovered, until April 21, 1890, performing by preference such duty in connection with electric lighting as he was able, when he was ordered to return to Washington and resume his former duties. His health was only partially restored, however, and he sought and obtained a relief from some of his arduous work. The requirements and methods of lighting ships by electricity were well established and a new inspector was ordered; also a new assistant to the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation. Commander Bradford then again took up the subject of naval regulations, a quiet and somewhat secluded office in the Navy Dept. being provided for this purpose.
During the years 1889 and 1890 [couple illegible words follow]......on a Torpedo Board; a board to test the nwe steel ship "Concord"; and prepared plans for lighting navy yards and the capitol at Washington by electricity, in addition to the duties already mentioned. On May 28, 1891, he was ordered to command the U.S.S. "Bennington," a new steel ship then being completed and fitted out at the New York Navy Yard.
By this time the new naval regulations were completed, except a few chapters on naval stations and shore and staff duties of naval officers. After the latter work had been done by others, they were submitted to boards and senior officers for criticism, and finaly published early in 1893. Commander Bradford always regarded his work on naval regulations as among his best efforts. It involved an immense reserach and study of naval law, regulaitons, precedents, and customs of our own and foreign navies. As each paragraph was prepared, a reference was entered in a book to authorities on the subject, thereby eliminating in a measure in the eyes of others the question of personal opinion. All naval regulations must be changed from time to time to accord with changed conditions, but the arrangement of the book remains as he prepared it.
The "Bennington," after various inspections and trial trips, sailed from New York for the Chesapeake, Nov. 19, 1891, for target practice. Later she joined at Hampton Roads the squadron commanded by Rear-Admiral J. S. Walker, which sailed for Montevideo, Uruguay, Dec. 9, 1891, to await there the result of a threatened war with Chile. After calling at St. Thomas, St. Lucia and Barbadoes, West Indies, and Bahia, Brazil, the squadron arrived at Montevideo, Jan. 12, 1892. Then followed in the quiet waters of the Plata river, in the vicinity of Montevideo, constant drills and target practice, in order to prepare the ships for efficient war service. The difficulties with Chile having been peacefully settled, Admiral Walker's squadron, except the "Bennington," sailed for home May 3, 1891, leaving Com. Bradford, by virtue of his seniority, in command of the South Atlantic Station, with a total of three ships. The "Bennington" visited Maldonado and Colonia, Uruguay, also Ensenada and Bueros Ayres, Argentina. While at the latter port, Com. Bradford received orders by cable to proceed to Palos, Spain, and participate in a celebration in honor of the four hundredth anniversay of the departure of Columbus in 1492.
The Bennington sailed from Montevideo, July 10th; she called at Bahia, Brazil, and Porto Grande, Cape de Verde Islands, for coal, en route, and arrived at Palos, Aug. 4. The celebration lasted three days commencing Aug. 3d. Later the Bennington refitted at Cadiz and proceeded to Gibraltar, thence to Barcelona, Spain, where she joined the flagship "Newark." Together they proceeded to Toulon, France, and thence to Genoa, Italy, where both participated in a fete given by the Italian government early in September, in honor of Columbus. More than forty ships of war of different nationalities had assembled at the birthplace of the great navigator for the occasion. The festivities generally were led by the popular King and Queen of Italy in person. The senior ship of each nation was personally visted by the King and his staff, including the Crown Prince and the Grand Dukes.
The U. S. government had invited foreign nations to participate in a naval review to be held at New York, April, 1893, and in addition had invited Spain to bring to the review and exhibit later at the Columbus Expositon at Chicago, a duplicate of Columbus' first squadron of discovery. Spain agreed to bring the "Santa Maria," the flagship of Columbus; then the U. S. contracted with a firm in Barcelona for a reproduction of the "Pinta" and "Nina." Spain, in addition to the celebration at Palos in August, had arranged for another celebration at the same place in October, on the anniversary of Columbus' discovery of the western continent. Spain desired the presence of the "Pinta" and "Nina" on that occasion, with the "Santa Maria," and to the Bennington was assigned the duty of taking them. She sailed from Genoa Sept. 18, and spending a week at Villefranche, France, en route, arrived at Barcelona Sept. 26. The officer superintending the construction of the "Pinta" and "Nina" had had some differences with the contractors on the subject of completion and payments; the contractors threatened to pevent the vessels from leaving the harbor. Com. Bradford then placed both vessels in commission as American vessels of war, and officered and manned them from the Bennington. As they were the property of the government, carried guns, and were commanded by a commissioned officer, their status warranted this act. On the appointed day, Sept. 30, the Bennington sailed from Barcelona, with both vessels in tow, without interference. Calling at Gibraltar for coal and provisions, she arrived at Palos with her consorts Oct. 7. While at Gibraltar, the Spanish consul at that port, a scholarly man, officially visited the Bennington. After paying him the usual honors, he was taken to the "Pinta," which he desired to see, and which he carefully examined. The flood of history and the decadence of Spain brought to his mind by the sight of this vessel caused much touching emotion. The celebration commenced Oct. 10, and lasted three days, the Queen being present. The latter gave an audience to the foreign officers. On Oct. 12, the four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of San Salvador, a fine momument of Columbus was unveiled at the Convent of La Ribida, near Palos.
The Bennington proceeded with the Pinta and Nina to Cadiz, Spain, Oct. 14, and remained there with them, except for two short visits to Gibraltar for coal and provisions, until Feb. 18, 1893. On that day the Bennington, with the Pinta in tow, and the flagship Newark, with the Nina, sailed for Havana; calling at Las Palmas, Canary Islands, and at St. Thomas, Daniel West Indies, they arrived March 21. They had been preceded by the Santa Maria, which being much larger, sailed part of the way. Here the Pinta and Nina were turned over to the Spanish naval authorities in order that the facsimile Columbus squadron might take part as a unit in the naval review, and be present at the Columbian Exposition in charge of the representatives of Spain. This was the first instance, so far as known, of towing vessels entirely across the Atlantic ocean. The Bennington and Newark sailed for Norfolk March 23, and arrived there March 26. In April the Bennington took part in the naval exercises at Hampton Roads and the review at New York. In May she laid out a course off Cape Ann for the speed trial of the cruiser "New York," then new, and assisted at the trial. On May 25 she arrived at the New York Navy Yard to refit for another foreign cruise. Here she remained until July 20, 1893, when Commander Bradford was detached from command on account of the expiration of his cruise. He was then granted leave, the first tine for many years.
On Nov. 20, 1893, Commander Bradford was ordered as a member of the permanent statutory board of inspection and survey, with headquartes at Washington, D. C. The duty of this board is to appraise ships for sale, inspect and report on the condition of ships in commission, and to inspect and test new ships and ascertain if they are in accordance with the building contract, He remained on this duty until June 30, 1896. During this period he was ordered to perform the following additional duty. Jan. 17, 1894, president of a board on ventilation of ships of war; Jan. 24, 1894, member of a board on navy signals; March 2, 1894, to appear before a joint congressional commission on naval reorganization; April 12, 1894, president of a special board to report upon the condition of the battleship "Indiana"; July 24, 1894, president of a board to examine and report upon the conditon of the bottom of the cruiser "Minneapolis"; Sept. 1, 1894, president of a special borad to report upon the condition of the battleship "Massachusetts"; Oct. 23, 1894, to advise Secretary of the Navy on the policy of removing all cumbustible material from ships of war; Nov. 26, 1894, to inspect the training ship "Essex"; Dec. 10, 1894, president of a board to consider what wood work in ships building may be advantageously dispensed with, what additional facilities for extinguishingv fire should be provided, and what non-flammable and non-conducting substitue for wood, if any, may be used; June 8, 1895, to inspect the training ship "Essex"; July 8, 1895, to conduct a speed trial of the trans-Atlantic American steamer "St. Louis," in accordance with the postal subsidy act of March, 1891, said trial to take place in the English Channel or waters adjacent thereto; Sept .28, 1895, to conduct a speed trial of the trans-Atlantic American steamer "St. Paul," in accordance with the postal subsidy act of March 3, 1891, said trial to take place off Cape Ann, Mass.; Nov. 9, 1895, member of a board to revise the signal books of the Navy; Nov. 16, 1895, member of a borad to determine the best location of the ram on the bows of battle ships; Feb. 20, 1896, member of a board to determine the best location for a coal wharf at Key West, Florida; and president of a board to examine and report upon a claim of the contractors of the ram "Katahdin" for addiontl compensation for delivery.
On June 30, 1896, Commander Bradford was ordered to command the U.S.S. "Montgomery," a steel cruiser only two years in service. This ship was attached to the North Atlantic Squadron, and during the period she was under his command spent the greater part of the time on detached service in the Gulf of Mexico and vicinity for the purpose of preventing the departure of Cuban filibustering expeditions from that coast. The balance of the time was mostly spent cruising in squadron for tactical exercises and at navy yards under repairs. Commander Bradford was detached from command of the Montgomery July 23, 1897.
On Sept. 7, 1897, Com. Bradford was appointed by President McKinley, Chief of the Bureau of Equipment, Navy Dept., with the relative rank of commodore; the appointment was confirmed by the Senate Dec. 18, 1897, for a period of four years, and he was then commissioned. The Navy Dept. is divided into eight bureaus, among which are distributed the work of the Department. Chiefs of Bureaus have, under the law, the authority of the Secretary of the Navy in the performance of their respective duties; they also serve as technical advisers of the Secretary.
Early in 1898, when war with Spain appeared probable, Com. Bradford repeatedly applied verbally to the Sec. of the Navy for a command afloat. On April 21, 1898, the day war was declared, he forwarded to the Secretary his resignation as chief of bureau, and with it a request for a command of a ship and the following correspondence took place:
Washington, D.C., April 21, 1898.
1. I have the honor to transmit through you to the President my resignation as Chief of Bureau of Equpment, Navy Department.
2. It is tendered soley because of a desire for active service afloat.
3. I beg to express my thanks for the confidence you have placed in me during my service in this Department, and to assure you of my great personal regard.
4. I have the honor to ask for the command of an active war ship.
R. B. Bradford,
Chief of Bureau.
The Secretary of the Navy,
Washington, D. C., April 21, 1898.
1. I respectfully tender my resignation as Chief of Bureau of Equipment, Navy Department.
2. It has been a great pleasure to serve during your administration in the above-named capacity, and I beg to express my thanks for the honor conferred upon me by your appointment to such a responsible office.
3. This resignation is tendered only that I may ask for active duty afloat.
I have the honor to be, Sir,
R. B. Bradford,
Chief of Bureau.
Washington, April 22, 1898.
My Dear Commodore:
I am in receipt of your letter, enclosing your resignation as Chief of the Bureau of Equipment, Navy Department, and asking me to present it to the President.
I appreciate that the patriotic purpose which actuates you in tendering this is solely a desire for active service afloat. I appreciate, also, the high professional spirit characteristic of the true naval officer, which has impelled you to ask a post of duty at the front, where the danger and the sacrifices are greatest. I sympathize with your ardor so deeply that I should cordially comply with your request if I did not feel the strongest conviction that you can in no other way render so great a service as you are now doing at the head of the Bureau of Equipment. I need not tell you how much I rely upon your absolute integrity, good judgment, ability and, especially, your experience there.
I think you will agree with me that, at this time, it would be exceedinly difficult, if not impossible, to fill your place. We are in a special emerency. The business of your Bureau has rapidly increased. It involves contracts, negotiations, and other business which no one could take up without embarrasment. I must, therefore, beg of you to withdraw your request that I transmit your letter to the President.
With very kind regards,
John D. Long,
Commodore R. B. Bradford, U.S.N.,
Chief, Bureau of Equipment,
Navy Department, Washington, D. C.
May 3, 1898.
1. In accordance with your request, dated April 22, 1898, I hereby withdraw my resignation as Chief of Bureau of Equipment, Navy Department.
2. I have the honor to ask that official copies of my resignation and your reply thereto may be made a part of my record.
3. I beg further to request that I may be appointed to the command of a Naval war ship at any tine in the future during the continuance of the present war, if my services in the Navy Department can be spared.
R. B. Bradford,
Chief of Bureau.
At the beginning of this war, Secretary of the Navy Long said in effect, to his bureau chiefs, "you know yow to carry on this war, I do not, go ahead." He was very loyal in his support, and always gave them the credit for the success of the navy during the war. Their duties were enormously increased and the number of their assistants decreased; their responsibility was great and their work incessant. There is never any glory for a fighting man, however, except at the front. Many officers who saw service afloat were advanced, but the bureau chiefs have never been rewarded for making their success possible. A captain of a battleshp, who was advanced, said to a bureau chief after the war, "I had a picnic compared with you," The duties of Commodore Bradford as Chief of the Bureau of Equipment were, as the name implies, to equip ships and keep them equipped; some of the equipment supplies used are purchased and many are manufactured at Navy Yards. Their number is so great that their names cannot even be enumerated here. [thank God!] As an indication of the enormous demand upon the bureau, it may be stated that before the war the average number of nautical outfits, such as nautical instruements, compasses, charts, nautical books, etc., was twelve per year, while during the first three months of the war, one hundred and thirty-four were supplied. The supply in stock at the beginning of the war was greater than ever before; in addition every nautical instrument in the market was at once bought; even junk shops were searched for old sextants and octants that could be repaired, All chronometers that could be found and bought were obtained, and large numbers of these and other supplies ordered by cable from London; and home manufacuturers of nautical instruments were urged to increase their output to the utmost capacity. While the nautical outfits in store were once reduced to a single set, no ship was ever delayed.
Coal for ships is also one of the items upplied by the Bureau of Equipment. At the beginning of the war, the Navy Dept. possessed no colliers, coal barges, or coal depots. A panic seized upon ship owners, and as a consequence nearly all merchant vessels were laid up in port. Contractors for coal in various ports defaulted upon the plea of no transportation available. The Bureau purchased colliers and manned them with naval officers and men; coal barges and tugs for towing were also purchased and not a single complaint of a scarcity of coal ever reached the Navy Dept. during the war.
At the close of the war, Commodore Bradford was appointed by President McKinley, Naval Attache of the U. S. Commission to negotiate and conclude a treaty of peace with the government of Spain. This duty being temporary, it was not necessary to vacate the position of Chief of the Bureau of Equipment. His testimony before the Commission in Paris will be found in the President's Message on the "Treaty of Peace between the United States and Spain, Signed at Paris, December 10, 1898." He favored the retention of the Philippine Archipelago by the U. S. as a naval and commercial base, believing its possession desirable if the U. S. was to be in the future a world power and share in the commerce of the East. He also believed that the archipelago was rich in resources and, when developed, that an interchange of products with the U. S. proper would be mutually advantageous.
On March 3, 1899, Commodore Bradford was promoted on the lineal list of the navy, to the rank of captain. On the same day, under a new law, he was advanced, while Chief of Bureau, from the relative rank of commodore to the actual rank of rear admiral.
During the enitire period of his service as Chief of Bureau, Rear Admiral Bradford was a member of the Board of Construction, charged with the design of all ships for the Navy. There were designed during this time a total of seventy-six ships; of these, fifteen were battleships; eight, armored cruisers; twelve, cruisers and gunboats; four, monitors; two, training ships; and the balance, thirty-seven, were torpedo boat destroyers, torpedo boats and submarines.
July 20, 1901, Rear Admiral Bradford became a member of the general board, upon the invitaion of its President, Admiral Dewey. This board was established March 13m 1900. Dec. 18, 1901, upon the expiration of his term a Chief of Bureau, Rear Admiral Bradford was again appointed to the same position for four years by President Roosevelt, and confirmed by the Senate. After serving as Chief of Bureau of Equipment a little more than six years, Rear Admiral Bradford, desiring sea service, tendered his resignation as Chief of Bureau. His letter to the President and the reply, also a letter from the Secretary of the Navy after his departure from the Navy Dept. follow:
Wasington D.C., Oct. 10, 1903.
I respectively tender my resignation as Chief of Bureau of Equipment, Navy Department, to take effect Oct. 20, 1903.
While I have served less than one-half of the term for which I was appointed by you, and while I appreciate the honors and responsibilities of the office I hold, yet I have been Chief of the Bureau of Equipment longer than any of my predecessors, and have had no sea service for a long time.
I therefore earnestly request the acceptance of my resignation, and respectfully ask that I may be assigned to suitable command duty afloat during the balance of my service on the active list of the Navy.
R. B. Bradford,
Chief of Bureau.
Washington, Oct. 19, 1903.
My Dear Admiral Bradford:
Your resignation as Chief of the Bureau of Equipment has been received and is accepted. I appreciate the motives which have led you to tender it. The desire of an officer of your rank, experience and ability for a command afloat pleases me, and I am glad to learn that it is he intention of the Secretary of the Navy to assign you to the command of the Battleshp Illinois. I was closely associated with you while I was Assistant Secretary of the Navy; I have watched your work closely since I have been President. As bureau chief you have shown signal zeal, ability and energvy, as well as unswerving devotion to the public interests. You carry the same high qualities to your new station, and I wish you abundant success therein.
Rear Admiral R. B. Bradford.
Chief, Bureau of Equipment,
Washington, Oct. 21, 1903.
My Dear Admiral:
The President consents that his letter to you accepting your resignation as Chief of Bureau of Equipment may be placed upon the files of your record. In conveying to you this information permit me to say that I am in heaty accord with what the President has written. I realize that in resigning your position as Chief of Bureau you have made serious personal sacrifices in the interests of the service a you saw it, and I sincerely hope that such opportunities for service afloat may come to you as will more than replay what you have lost.
I shall miss your untiring energy, careful regard for public expenditures, and intelligent and fearless advice, .........[line cut off top of page]...........and for you and yours abundant health and happiness.
William H. Moody,
Captain R. B. Bradford, U.S.N.,
1522 P St., N. W., Washington, D.C.
The administration of the Bureau of Equipment while Rear Admiral Bradford was chief thereof, was especially noted for establishing the first U. S. naval coal depots; the acquistion of the first naval colliers and coal barges; and the purchase and use of coal handling machinery. When he left the Bureau there were ninteen foreign, insular and domestic coal depots, built and building and sites acquired for several additional. A large numberof experiments were mde for he purpose of ascertaining the best coal mined in the U.S. for naval use. A system of making annual contracts for coal in foreign ports for use of navy ships in time of peace at less than current rates was inaugurated. A method of supplying ships with fresh water for boilers in time of war and peace by means of water ships, barges and boats, at greatly reduced rates, was perfected. Experiments with wireless telegraphy were extensively made and the system adopted for naval use. The use of electricity on ship board, especially for revolving gun turrets, was largely extended. He conceived and had surveyed under his own instructions, the route for the present trans-Pacific submarine telegraphic cable and then caused the cable laying charts to be prepared. This survey was pronounced by experienced English cable engineers the best ever made. He also drew the requirements for guarding the interests of the U. S. in time of war in connection with this cable which had to be accepted before the surveys were conveyed to the cable company. The Navy Hydrigraphic office was transferred to the Bureau of Equipment during his term of office and he secured new and improved offices and work rooms, reorganized it, enlarged its capacity and output, and made great progress in chart making and ocean surveys. The construction of confidential charts for war purposes was commenced. The administration of the Naval Observatory was much improved and the work of the Nautical Almanac Office brought up to date. Perhaps the most noted change of all was the very great addmtions to facilities for equipment work at navy yards and stations by the construction of new buidings and shops fully equipped with modern tools and machinery. The appropriations for the Bureau were more than quadrupled during..........[top cut off scan of pg].............expended under his supervision without loss.
When Rear Admiral Bradford ceased to be Chief of Bureau, he resumed his lineal rank on the Navy Register - that of captain. It is believed that the act of voluntarily relinquishing the rank of rear admiral for that of captain in order that he might go to sea in command of a ship, constituted a precedent. In accordance with his wish, he assumed command of the U.S. battleship "Illinois," Oct. 27, 1893. At that time she was probably the best ship in the navy. The Illinois was attached to the North Atlantic Squadron and cruised from the coast of New England to the West Indies. The winter months were spent south where the squadron engaged in tactical exercises and manoeuvres. During squardron tactical manoeuvres off the south coast of Cuba, March 1, 1904, the steering gear of the battleship "Missiouri" became disabled and she rammed the stern of the "Illinois." One of the propeller shafts of the latter ship was disabled, and a hole torn in the port quarter; she was kept from sinking by promptly closing her water-tight compartment doors. A court of inquiry on this disaster was ordered. Not only was Capt. Bradford acquitted of all blame, but his conduct was highly commended. This accident made it necessary for the Illinois to proceed to the Navy Yard at New York for repairs. The hold in her underwater body was stopped by means of a wall built on the inside of fire brick and cement, and then braced with timbers. This having been done, she proceeded early in March under one engine, convoyed by a tug and collier, and arrived safetly off New York during a snow storm. After repairs were completed, the Illinois proceeded the latter part of May to Martha's Vineyard Island, where she had her annual record target practice. In this practice she obtained the highest score of any ship in the squadron. In the meantime, the squadron of battleships had sailed from the south for the Mediterrean, and the Illinois, after coaling, sailed from Newport, Rhode Island, June 17 to join her consorts. Calling en route at Gibraltar, she joined the commander-in-chief at Trieste, Austria, July 13. A short cruise with the squadron in the Mediterrean followed, and then all ships returned to the U. S., calling on the way at the Azores. Target practice off Martha's Vineyard Island again followed, and later the Illinois proceeded to the Navy Yard, New York, for docking.
On Nov. 7, 1904, after a little more than one years service afloat, Capt. Bradford was detached from the command of the Illinois, and ordered to command the Atlantic Training Squadron. He assumed command at Hampton Roads, Virginia, Nov. 8, 1904, with the cruiser "Minneapolis" as flagship. On Nov. 23, 1904, he was promoted to the grade of rear-admiral, and ordered as commander-in-chief of the Atlantic Training Squadron, then consisting of eleven ships. These ships were primarily for training youn seamen, but incidentally they performed a large amount of cruiser service on the Atlantic Coast, in the Gulf of Mexico and West Indies; they also participated in the fleet manoeuvres of the North Atlantic Squadron, going south for the winter months. This duty was pleasant and interesting.
On April 1, 1905, the Navy Dept. organized the large number of ships in the Atlantic into a fleet of three squadrons. While at Pensacola, Florida, Rear Admiral Bradford was detached on that date from the command of the Atlantic Training Squadron and ordered to command the third squadron of the Atlantic Fleet, with the U.S.S. "Olympia" as flagship. On May 1, following, the Third Squadron was ordered to proceed to the West Indies on detached duty, with special instructions in connection with affairs in Santa Domingo. The Dominican Republic was largely in debt to citizens of foreign countries and was paying neither interest nor principal. Upon being pressed by the respective governments of the debtors and reprisals being theatened, an appeal was made to the U. S. for aid, chiefly in consequence probably of the policy of that country to preserve the territorial integrity of American Republics. The U. S. then undertook to collect all Dominican import duties, the only source of revenue of the country, applying a portion to defray the legitimate expenses of the Dominican government and the cost of collection, and forming a sinking fund with the balance to pay foreign indebtedness. It was a notorious fact that the import duties of Santa Domingo had not been honestly collected for many years and that large smuggling operations were permitted. This act of the U. S. was unpopular with a class of Dominican politicians who chiefly made a living by graft, and they threatened to declare war against their government. Several small uprisings had already taken place. Rear Admiral Bradford was directed to aid and protect the collectors of customs, to prevent revolutions and stop the introduction of arms, ammunition and munitions of war into the country. The latter really required belligerent rights when the arms were in foreign ships. It was to the interest of foreigners, however, that the U. S. should succeed in its ultimate purpose, also that good order should be maintained in Santa Domingo. Rear Admiral Bradford did not fail to point out these facts and succeeded in carrying out his orders to the letter. While engaged on this duty he had from six to twelve ships under his command. He remained in West Indian water until Jan., 1906, when he proceeded to Hampton Roads with four ships that were much in need of repairs. He remained in the waters of the Chesapeake until June 18, 1906, when he sailed with four ships on a cruise to the Madeiras and Azores. He was directed to reach Bar Harbor on his return, July 20. His four ships anchored early that morning off the mouth of Famchman's Bay, but were prevented from entering port until the afternoon of the 23rd, on account of a dense fog.
The statutory date of his retirmenet was July 22d, his sixty-second birthday, and upon arrival he received orders detaching him from command and ordering him to his home on that day, which had already passed. On account of this fact his time in command was extended until the 28th, on which day he hauled down his flag - thus terminating his active career afloat. His retirement, dated from July 11, 1906.
The following quotation is made from a somewhat extended notice of the retirement of Rear Admiral Bradford, which appeared in the Army and Navy Journal of August 4, 1906:
"From the above outline it will be seen that Admiral Bradford's professional career has been one of manifold activities involving large responsibilities and requiring the broadest training and experience. It is a simple statement of truth to say that he has proved equal to every task to which he has been assigned, that he has realized the highes ideals of the American Naval Officer, and that the Service which he has adorned has been enriched by his example and influence."
The following is quoted from the Army and Navy Register of Aug. 4, 1906, on the same subject:
"Rear Admiral Bradford, U.S. Navy, was transferred to the retired list July 22, and has since relinquished his command afloat. No officer has gone on the retired list with a better record than does Rear Admiral Bradford. His service has been a long [trans note: tell me about it!] and distinguished one, marked by loyalty to the best traditions of the service and grea industry in the performance of his duties, to whatever official task he may have been assigned. The naval service benefited materially and especially by the administration of Rear Admiral Bradford at the head of the Bureau of Equipment, where his conduct of the affairs of that branch of the Navy Department is felt today for the liberality, fearlessness, and determination of the officer's policy. The active list of the Navy sufers a distinct los by the retirement of Rear Admiral Bradford."
Rear Admiral Bradford married, when a lieutenant, May 26, 1875, at Newport, Rhode Island, Harriet Stanhope, daughter of Samuel and Elizabeth (Stanhope) Engs, born Nov. 16, 1847, at Newport, Rhode Island.
1. Elise, born at Newport, R.I., July 5, 1876; married, at Washington, D.C., Jan. 8, 1902, to Rev. Edward Dalington, son of John Oliver and Katharine Lacy (Darlington) Johnson, born Dec. 27, 1873, at Schuykill Haven, Schuykill county Pennsylvania. Children: i. Elizabeth Engs, b. June 27, 1903, at Brunswick, Maine; ii. Bradford, b. April 19, 1908, at West Pittston, Pennsylvania.
2. Katharine Engs, b. at Newport, R.I., Aug. 15, 1881; married, at Washington, D.C., April 17, 1906, to Howard Angell, son of Leverett Ellery and Clara (Kingsley) Brockway, born Nov. 22, 1870, at Brooklyn, N. Y.
3. Rose Mary, born at Newport, R.I., Sept. 2, 1883.