History of North Adams, Mass.,
Reminiscences of early settlers:
extracts from old town records;
its public institutions, industries and prominent citizens,
together with a roster of commissioned officers in the War of the Rebellion.
North Adams, Mass.
Hoosac Valley News Printing house
[Transcribed by Coralynn Brown]
CAPTAIN JEREMIAH COLGROVE was born in Rhode Island in 1758. He learned the trade of a blacksmith. He was drafted into the Revolutionary army at the age of 21, where he served for two or three years as a minute-man or coast guard. Nearly all this time he was employed as an armorer or gunsmith. His father and three brothers were in some hard fights at Newport, and he burned to he in the thickest of the fray, but duty forbad. He never knew the meaning of the word "fear." Many stories are related of his iron nerve and presence of mind in times of extreme danger. He was about six feet tall, finely proportioned, athletic, nimble and rear ~- to lead off in any emergency. He employed a great number of men, and some of them were absolute giants. He never asked any one to do more work than himself. His word of command was "come on" not "go on," but his personal bearing and the expression of his eyes were in themselves commanding. He was quick in decision, prompt, persevering and thorough in action. Captain Colgrove emigrated to Charlton, Worcester county, in 1784, following his trade as a blacksmith there for ten years. He made a visit to this town in 1793, was struck with its immense water power and moved here in the following year. His business enterprises for several years have already been mentioned; his foresight and keen practical judgment were of more service in developing the resources of the town than in enriching himself. That he "could see farther into a millstone" than many around him is proven by a remark often made to his wife, who sometimes repined at the frowning mountains and the rough, uncultivated appearance of the country. "Ah," he would say, "don't fret, this will be a city yet; such water power wasn't made for nothing." Captain Colgrove gained his military title prior to 1800, and held it until in 1806 his son received the same commission. IIe was a .justice of the peace for more than twenty years, and was a terror to evil-doers. He held several petty town offices, and might have held more but for his unpopular political sentiments. IIe was an ardent, outspoken Federalist, while the town was very strongly Democratic, giving a majority of over 100 in some 250 votes. He performed the hazardous duty of challenger at the polls and was a great tactician, or "wire-puller" as it would now be called. He could fathom all the designs of his opponents, and his council and aid were continually sought by the Federalists of this county. His natural penetration and fertility of mind more than supplied the lack of early education. IIe was, in short, one of nature's truest noblemen, a sincere Christian, though not a church member ; spotless in moral character and integrity, of frank hospitality and great benevolence to the sick and unfortunate. He gave them his personal attention and substantial aid no matter how pressing his private business. In times of trouble his political enemies (he had no other) would go to him sooner than to many of their own partizans, for he was trusty, sympathizing, a man of his word in all things and a whole-souled friend.
PROTECTION TO A FUGITIVE SLAVE.
About the year 1802 a colored woman, who had fled from slavery in the state of New York, came to this village closely pursued by some kidnappers from Hoosick or that vicinity. She was directed to Captain Colgrove, whose warm sympathy with misfortune, ready faculty for circumventing rascals, great physical strength and unshrinking courage made him conspicuous. She ran to his door crying : "For God's sake save me!" Her under lip was torn and a large wound was bleeding on the side of her face. Her pursuers were in sight and rapidly approaching over Furnace hill. Captain Colgrove took the poor creature by the hand, led her quickly though his house, across his garden and into the grist mill, then standing where now stands the mill of M. D. & A. W. Hodge. He ordered the mill to be stopped and told his faithful miller, Captain Ray, not to allow the gate to be hoisted by anybody till further orders. He then secreted the panting fugitive in the water wheel, which was a kind of undershot. Returning to his house, the kidnappers soon came there and demanded that he should give up the negro woman, whom they had seen enter there a few moments before. He replied that they might find her if they could. They searched the house from cellar to attic, then the woodshed, and lastly the mill very thoroughly. Though they looked at the water wheel, they were in such a hurry or in so tipsy a condition that they did not discover the woman. They departed,. blustering and blaspheming furiously, to imbibe at the Black tavern something that would give them "Dutch courage." Still entertaining suspicions of Captain Colgrove, this ungodly squad again visited his house and attempted to bully him into a confession, threatening to search his house a second time. They were boldly met and refused, the Captain telling them that one search was sufficient, and if they entered his premises again it would be across his dead body. They looked at his stalwart form, quailed at his flashing eye and ingloriously backed out. In the meantime the hunted fugitive had been taken from the water wheel and secreted in the tool room up stairs. Another search being expected, Captain Ray, in order to ward off the suspicion which might arise by the mill being stopped so long, removed the hopper and busied himself sharpening up the millstones. The miserable slave hunting scamps were scared out of a second search, and after dark the poor fugitive was conveyed to the house of John Waterman (also a warm friend of the unfortunate), a short distance south of the village, where she lived about three years. The savage wounds on her lip never completely healed, but were speaking testimonials against the heathenish system from which she fled. Captain Colgrove died in this village August 2Gth, 1837, aged 79 years. His estimable wife survived him about fourteen years. Her maiden name was Waterman, and she was an aunt of William Waterman of Williamstown. Her marriage took place in 1782, and for the last few years of her life she enjoyed a pension from the Federal government for the Revolutionary services of her husband.
It is not too much to claim that our village and its present interests are heavily indebted to the energy, skill, industry and indomitable perseverence of such men as Giles Tinker, Artemas Crittenden, Rufus Wells, Thomas Higgenbottom, Caleb B. Turner, Stephen B. Brown and Duty S. Tyler, as well as others previously mentioned.
Giles Tinker was a mechanic, and one of uncommon ingenuity and power of mind considering the times in which he lived and the circumstances under which he commenced and carried on business. He was born in Lyme, Conn., and in 1802, at the age of 21, he came to reside in this small village of twenty-five houses. Mr. Tinker commenced the manufacture of wool carding machines with no previous experience. The first one he constructed in some portion of the premises of David Estes, on River street. That indispensable mechanic, Joseph Darby, performed the iron work. All portions of the machine which could be so constructed were made of wood.
Mr. Tinker and Captain E. Richmond formed a copartnership in 1804 for the manufacture of carding machines, occupying a building on the west side of Bank street, near the corner of Main. Afterwards each worked on his own account in the same shop.
In 1805 Mr. Tinker married the daughter of Richard Knight, a wealthy farmer, who owned and occupied the Daniel Wells place . in Braytonville. In 1809 he purchased the house and lot, embracing some two acres or more, fronting on Main street from Bank to J. II. Adams' block. The price paid was $2000. In 1811, when the spirit of enterprise in the cotton manufacture had begun to spread from Rhode Island, its first seat in this country, a company was formed by the citizens of this and adjoining towns for the erection of the "old brick factory." Mr. Tinker and Captain E. Richmond were shareholders, and a contract was made with them to construct the necessary machinery. The con-tract embraced all the improvements extant for cotton machinery —the spinning frames and mules, but not the picker or power loom, which were then unknown. The usual terms were to build at so much per spindle, including preparation. The job was taken by Tinker & Richmond at $16 per spindle, amounting to about $7000, and affording a net profit to the contractors of about $2000. In 1822 Estes & Crittenden, who were engaged in manufacturing satinets in the old mill on River street, paid 10 cents per yard for the hand weaving of satinets. About this time Mr. Tinker, being desirous of testing the power loom, made arrangements to try the operation of one in this mill. He went to North Providence, R. I., and procured a power loom all fitted up. This was the first satinet power loom ever brought into Western Massachusetts. Soon afterwards he introduced the first cotton power loom for the Eagle factory, which factory in 1813 he, with four other gentlemen, had erected and put in operation. In 1815 he sold his interest in this mill and engaged in the mercantile business, as silent partner, with W. E. Brayton. This continued till 1822, Mr. Tinker still carrying on his machine shop. In 1826 he was connected with E. D. Whitaker in merchandizing. In 1820 he was commissioned as captain of the military company here.
In 1825, the business of his machine shop had so increased, he purchased of Captain J. Colgrove the old grist mill and water -privilege and erected a building on the site now owned and occupied by M. D. & A. W. Hodge as a grist mill. In 1829 he erected for his own residence a building on the east-corner of Main and Bank streets, which in later years was known as the "Kimbell homestead." and is at present the site of the Adams National Bank. In the fall of 1832 Mr. Tinker's health began to fail from close 'application to his business and from the effects of a severe cold contracted by exposure in water while making repairs. Ile showed marked symptoms of consumption. By the advice of physicians and friends he concluded to winter at St. Augustine, Fla., hoping for improvement, if not restoration, in that genial climate. He left home in good spirits, and was accompanied from Troy by a gentleman going out for the same purpose. Upon the passage he either took cold or the salt air was too bracing for him, as he complained of feeling more unwell upon his arrival, which was Christmas day. His death was as sudden as it was afflicting to his family and friends. While leaning back in his chair on the 1st of January, 1833, his friend, being absent from the room a moment, heard a heavy fall upon the floor. On entering he found that Mr. Tinker had fallen over backwards. Being asked if he was hurt, he replied : "Not much." He never spoke again. He died the same day, in the 52nd year of his age. Mrs. Tinker did not survive the sudden shock of her husband's death but a short time. She died February 27, 1833.
DEACON ARTEMAS CRITTENDEN
was born in Conway, this state, and at a proper age learned the -clothier's trade. In 1810 he removed to this village and worked at his trade for Captain Colgrove. In 1813 he erected the first factory at Blackinton. It was a wooden structure 25 by 60 feet, three stories high. It was intended for the manufacture of satinets and all-wool cloth, in part by machinery, and is supposed to have been the first mill of the kind erected in this county. Wool carding and cloth dressing was also carried on in this mill. About 1817 Mr. Crittenden sold all his interests to John Willey, who sold the .property to Aaron Foot in 1821. Mr. Crittenden removed to Pownal, Vt., and engaged in the same business on a limited scale. About 1819 he returned to this village and rented the clothing works of Captain Colgrove, doing quite a large business. In 1822, he formed a partnership with Evenel Estes, and manufactured . satinet in the clothing works of David Estes. In 1824 they dissolved partnership, and Deacon Crittenden run the mill alone until 1S25, when Salmon Burlingame became a partner, this ararrangement continuing for three years. In 1826 Messrs. Crittenden. & Burling me purchased of Giles Tinker a water power in what was then termed the "Gory lot," and built a small factory on the site of that in later years owned and run by Ingalls, Tyler & Co.. In 1828 Mr. Burlingame sold his interest to his partner and retired from the firm. In 1829 Edmond Burke purchased an interest in the establishment. In the same year Mr. Crittenden sold his interest to William E. Brayton, who had aided him in building, and Mr. Crittenden removed to Turin, N. Y., where he died about 1839. The Congregational society of this village is largely indebted to. Mr. Crittenden, one of its first deacons, who was a most active and efficient workingman in the organization of the church, and aided, to build their house of worship.
Rufus Wells, the senior partner in the "boys' factory," was born in Cheshire in 1799, and labored on a farm until 16 years old. He then became an apprentice to Deacon Crittenden and learned the clothier's trade. It was while fellow apprentices that the three-young men, Messrs. Wells, Blackinton and White, formed that intimacy which resulted in their flourishing partnership. In 1823 Mr. Wells was married to Miss Sylvia Blackinton, daughter of Deacon Otis and sister to Sanford Blackinton, who died in a few years. He then married Harriet B. Richards of Attleboro. In. 1844, while Mr. Wells was overseeing some carpenter work, he was. standing near one of the workmen, who was hewing logs with a. broad-ax. The ax slipped from the hands of the workman, struck Mr. Wells on the head and inflicted a terrible wound. He never recovered from the effects of this. In 1845 he contracted typhoid fever and died in about ten days, the wound on his head, making him a raving maniac during his last sickness. His funeral attracted large crowds from all this section, people coming from as far away as Providence in wagons to attend the ceremony, which had to be held in the open air because of the crowd. Mr. Wells. was a plain, unostentatious man, of great industry and perseverence, a careful calculator, and his excellent business talents were combined with high moral integrity, commanding the confidence and respect of the community. His career was rather uneventful, as he sought not to make a figure in the world, but to act well his part in the great drama of life.
Born in Adams June 16, 1806; died September 4, 1876. Received an academic education at Wesleyan Academy, and began the study of medicine with Dr. Isaac Hodges, to whose daughter he was subsequently married. Compelled by ill health to abandon his studies, he entered upon his career as a manufacturer in the spring of 1828, when he associated himself with his brother Oliver and Nathan Blinn, under the firm name of Arnold, Blinn & Co. From this time until his death his business interests were so closely connected with his brother Oliver that it would only be a recapitulation of that account to write them.
was born in Natick. R. I., October 18, 1801. About 1830 his father moved his family to this town, and Mr. Arnold went into the employ of Alvin Sanford, who made cotton and woolen machinery for Giles Tinker. Here Mr. Arnold remained about two years, and then entered into partnership with Isaac Hodges and Alvin Sanford for the manufacture of cotton goods. The former was a successful physician, and only invested capital.
The style of the firm was Hodges, Sanford & Co. They hired a part of the factory on the Union privilege, put in fourteen looms and the requisite machinery for caruing and spinning. Here they continued five years. Mr. Arnold next formed partnership with his brother Harvey and Nathaniel Blinn, under the style of Arnold, Blinn & Co. The new firm bought out the machinery of Hodges, Sanford & Co., and occupied the same premises for three and a half years. In 1831 they purchased the mill privilege immediately -above them and erected a stone factory, with two main stories, attic and basement. This mill, which, with alterations and additions, has become a part of the Eclipse mill, was occupied in 1832, and their machinery was increased to twenty-one looms. At the same time Edmond Burke put in an equal amount of machinery, but did not engage in the manufacturing. Mr. Blinn sold his interest in the firm February 28, 1835, and the business was conducted by the brothers Arnold, under the firm style of O. & H. Arnold. During the same year they purchased the machiney in this mill belonging to Mr. Burke. In 1831 Isaac Hodges and Alvin Sanford had erected at the privliege above them the Slater mill. In 1836 0. & H. Arnold bought this mill, its owners having failed. They had for some years sold their whole production to Turner & Laflin, who were carrying on the Union Print Works, now owned and occupied by the Freeman Manufacturing Company. In the financial crisis of 1837 Turner & Laflin failed. They were largely indebted to O. & H. Arnold, and the latter firm was compelled to go into liquidation. The business was, however, soon started again by their younger brother, John F. Arnold, who had had charge of their accounts, and become a skillful accountant and financier. The business was conducted under the firm name of John F. Arnold until 1843.
A new partnership was formed August 10th of that year by the three brothers, under the style of 0. Arnold & Co. In 1844, the Union Print Works being idle, the Arnolds hired them. Jerome B. Jackson and Johnson D. Stewart were in partnership as far as the printing department was concerned, the business in which was carried on under the style of ArnoIds, Jackson & Co.
In 1856 A. W. Richardson & Co., who were engaged in manufacturing print cloths at the Eagle mill, bought the Union Print Works property from James E. Marshall, and entered into a five years' contract with O. Arnold & Co., under which they, in connection with Richardson & Co., were to supply the Print Works with cloths, each firm to share in the profits pro rats of the cloths supplied by them, and equally as to cloths purchased from outside firms. In June, 1856, Abiel P. Butler purchased from the assignees of Joseph L. White all the land now covered by M. D. & A. W. Hodges' grist mill, Arnold Print Works and Sampson's shoe shop. He soon sold an interest of one-half to 0. Arnold & Co., and they on the 5th of August sold one-half of their interest to Willard S. Ray. A partnership was formed under the firm style of A. P. Butler & Co. A factory was erected and furnished with one hundred looms and the subsidiary machinery. Mr. Butler sold his interest to Jerome B. Jackson August 23, 1858, and the firm became changed to Jerome B. Jackson & Co. May 1, 1860, Mr. Jackson sold his interest to O. Arnold & Co., the style of the firm being changed to Arnolds & Ray. In 1860 the Messrs. Arnolds erected on the northern part of the property, buildings for a print works to be under their sole ownership and control. They were finished and ready to start at the expiration of their contract with Richardson & Co., in 1861.
May 28, 1873, the factory building of Arnolds & Ray, which had been known as the Phoenix mill, was sold to M. D. & A. W. Hodge, and has since been used as a flouring mill. The firm of Arnolds & Ray was at this time dissolved.
DUTY S. TYLER
was born at South Adams, March 27, 1700. In common with all the youths of that day he enjoyed very limited means of education. Being habituated to industry and self-reliance he entered the brick factory (known as Plunkett & Wheelers, at Adams), about 1820 or 1821, as an apprentice. Though he began at the lowest rounds of the ladder, he worked his way upwards, acquiring not only skill in the business but the confidence and goodwill of his employees and associates. In 1826 Mr. Tyler and S. B. Brown (his brother-in-law) hired the Turner mill. Here the young partners manufactured cotton striper. In 1828 they engaged with William Jenks in running the Caleb Turner cotton mill of this village, on a three years lease, at the expiration of which, in 1831, the partnership was dissolved. In the same year the firm of Brown & Tyler was formed, which existed for eight years.
In 1840 Mr. Tyler retired to his farm, which embraced all the land from the Western end of the cemetaries till it joined that of Orson Wells in Braytonville. In 1836 he exchanged certain property with Mr. Wells and became joint partner with Samuel Ingalls in the Union Mill. He was elected president of the Adams National Bank in 1842 and held the office until his resignation from ill health in 1857, about fifteen years.
He united with the Baptist church soon after his removal to this village in 1828, and was chosen one of its deacons in 1834, filling that station until his death, August 27, 1857. In his death the church mourned the loss of one of its most exemplary, useful, liberal and devoted members, while the community at large lost a reliable, practical and energetic business man.
WILLIAM WALLACE FREEMAN
was born in Salem, this State, in the month of June, 1819. He was the youngest of a family of ten children. His early business career was begun as a merchant of his native place, where he prospered for a number of years. In 1844 he was married to Catherine Russell. In 1849, he removed with his family to Adams, where he established himself in a large country store. He was one of the principal founders of the old National bank, and was for two years, from 1861 to '63, cashier of that institution. In 1863 Mr. Freeman commenced his active business life in this village, which continned till his death. At remote intervals for many years, Mr. Freeman was troubled with affections of the heart, which resulted fatally on the 9th of October, 1881.
WILLIAM E. BRAYTON
Born in Rhode Island in 1789, came to this town in 1812. At first he worked in one of the mills as an operative, until he had saved enough to start in the mercantile business in a small way. In company with others he, in 1813, built the old Eagle factory, which was the second cotton mill erected in town. In 1826 he received the appointment of postmaster, which he held for a period of twenty-three years. That his service was satisfactory to the public at large is shown from the fact that he held the office through the administration of six presidents, four of whom he was opposed to in political sentiments, he being a whig, though not an active politician. In company with his brother Thomas, in 1831 he built the Braytonville mill where he continued until 1853. He died in 1865 after a most useful life at the age of 76 years.
CALEB B. TURNER
Was born in Cranston, R. 1., July 1789. In 1820 he removed to this village, and in connection with his brother Gershom, leased the Eagle factory, which had laid idle for several years. Just be fore the expiration of their lease, in 1823, the brothers dissolved partnership, and divided the profits, $1,300 to each. With this money Mr. Turner purchased the factory and machinery, including the water-power and land where the Gould mill stood, and a saw mill which stood near, all for the sum of $2,000.
Being a man of close observation, keen, astute perception, sound judgment and determined will, he was ever ready to investigate and adopt the modern improvements. He kept pace with the spirit of the times, and filled the Eagle mill with a complete set of machinery, including about twenty, power looms. In 1826 he built what was known as the Gould mill, placing in it twenty looms, and manufactured sheetings. In 1826 he built a brick store on the corner of Union and Eagle streets. In 1828 he leased his mills, dwellings and store to Brown, Jenks & Tyler for three years. In 1828 be purchased the furnace then belonging to Otis. Hodge, Jr., and the land now occupied by the Freeman Print Works, and erected first a small building adjoining the furnace, nd the next year commenced the printing of cloths. This was the first print works in the county, and probably the first in Western Massachusetts. In 1831 Mr. Turner took in Walter Laflin as a joint partner in real and personal estate. Just before this partnership was formed Mr. Turner met with a serious loss by fire ; a portion of his print works and goods were destroyed, the loss being estimated at $8000. Turner & Laflin erected the main brick building of the present Freeman Print Works, and carried on a very extensive business until 1837.
In 1832 they gave the land for Union street, which was then opened, and $200 toward building the lower bridge. In 1832 they built a furnace on Union street and carried on machine making for their own use and for sale. In the general crash and suspension of financial matters of 1837 the firm failed. After his failure Mr. Turner followed merchandizing. He died December 17, 1858, of paralysis. He did more than any other man at an early period to develop by practical effort the cotton manufacture in this village, and he was the pioneer in cotton printing.
was born in Stafford, Conn., February 2, 1815. At the age of 14 he went as one of the hands in a cotton mill at Chicopee, where he remained five years. He then came to this town, where he worked about four years more in the cotton mill at the Beaver, after which he went into the store there as clerk. Here he remained until 1837, when he commenced business in a small way for himself at South Adams. In 1849 he sold his interests there to W. W. Freeman and removed to Copake, N. Y., and engaged in the furnace business. This new business being unsuited to his taste it was abandoned in less than a year. In 1850 he returned to this village and established a concern for the manufacture of cotton warps, which business he carried on successfully to the date of his death. He was instrumental in getting gas and water in the village, was the principal mover in the Agricultural Society and was acknowledged one of the corner-stones of the town. He represented the town in the State Legislature in the years 1847, '57, '59, '64 and '66. He was chosen to The Governor's Council in 1869 and 1870. He was also Selectman of the town for a number of years. Mr. Johnson's business connections will be found under the head of Johnson Manufacturing Company.
AMASA W. RICHARDSON
was born in this town March 4, 1816. In 1833 he left his father's farm and entered the store of Edmond Southwick, where he remained one year as a clerk. At the age of 20 he embarked in the fancy dry goods line, at which he continued until 1806. In 1849 he engaged with other parties in cotton manufacturing, making print cloths and printing, and was practically identified with this industry until 1867. He then sold out his entire interest. In 1862 he, with other parties, built what is known as the Eagle mill. In 1864 he assisted in rebuilding the Union Print Works. He was for five years engaged in paper manufacturing at South-Adams. In 1865, when the gas works were organized, he was instrumental in bringing the company to working order. In 1838 he was married to Harriet M. Ingraham, his wife dying in 1854. In 1856 he was again married to Miss Esther Cone of Albany. N. Y. He died on the 4th of September, 1883.
was born in Attleboro, Mass., December 10. 1797. His father, Otis, removed to this town when Sanford was but 2 years of age. At his death Mr. Blackinton was probably the wealthiest man in town, his property being variously estimated. For many years a member of the Baptist church, that society has often been indebted to him for most generous contributions, especially in building the present church edifice. It is related of him and his brothers, Peter and Noble, that they cleared the timber from the low lands in the cemetery, on the south side of the road, carted it to Blackinton and used it to burn brick, which they made themselves and built the brick house on what is known as the Blackinton farm. About 1865 he built the fine residence at the head of Main street, removing into it from Blackinton, which previous to this had been his home. His first wife was a Miss Russell of Williamstown, and his second, who survived him, Miss Robinson of Attleboro. He left no children. His death occurred on the 24th of July, 1885. For more than sixty years his name was associated with the manufacturing interests of this town.
came to this town from Swansea, Mass., about 1790, locating in 1810 on road 23, where he died in 1849. Two sons, Elisha and Henry W., resided here, the former living at 60 Holden street and the latter occupying a farm adjoining that owned by his father. Henry died very suddenly of heart disease in 1884.
grandson of John Wells, one of the early settlers of Cheshire, was born in that town in 1795, and removed to this town in 1810, engaging in the manufacture of acid. He married Zernah Phillips in 1817, and had one son, Daniel M., whom he associated with himself in business. Mr. Wells died on the 24th of May, 1884, in the 90th year of his age.
from Dartmouth, Mass., came to this town about 1812, and cleared a farm in the Notch. None of his family of nine children are now living. One son, Joseph, who came here with his father, resided on the homestead until his death in 1837, at the age of 87 years, and was the father of eleven children, of whom Hiram A. succeeded to the old homestead on road 21.
EZRA D. WHITAKER
son of Ezra, a sea captain, was a merchant in the tows from 1824 to 1829, after which he removed to Troy, N. Y., returning to North Adams in about five years and engaging in mercantile pursuits, which he followed until about 1858, when he became treasurer of the North Adams Savings Bank, which office he resigned October 7, 1872, after a service of about fourteen years. After this he retired from active business, although he is still quite smart at 88 years of age.
JOSIAH QUINCY ROBINSON
emigrated to Adams from Hardwick, where he remained from 1794 to 1828, when he settled in North Adams, where he died in 1856, aged 83 years. His son, Benjamin F., who was born in Adams, coming thence to North Adams in 1828, owns several farms in Adams and two in North Adams. He was engaged in mercantile pursuits until 1845. He married Eliza B. Whitman, who died in 1853, rearing three children, two of whom, Mrs. Susan F. Fisher of New York and Sarah Eliza, wife of George L. Rice of this town, are still living.
DR. EDWARD NORMAN
Born in Hudson, N. Y., in 1806 ; removed to this town in 1830, and opened the first drug store in the place, selling out in 1859 to W. H. Griswold and Dr. Lawrence, both now deceased. Dr. Norman married Miss L. M. Putnam, a great-granddaughter of Gen. Israel Putnam, by whom he had two children—Martha M., wife of Samuel Keyes, and Emily N., wife of L. M. Hayden. He was one of the oldest Free and Accepted Masons in town. His death occurred on May 28, 1874.
DR. SETH N. BRIGGS
was born at Rochester, Vt., September 2, 1813, the youngest of six children of Enos and Lovisa (Nichols) Briggs. He began the study of medicine in 1832 with Dr. Ross of Rutland, and afterward studied in Philadelphia. He first begen practice in Starksboro, but in 1840 came to this village, and since that time has continued in practice here, being the oldest resident physician. His wife was Sarah Campbell, also of Rochester, Vt.
DR. NATHAN S. BABBITT
son of Dr. Snell Babbitt, was born in Hancock, August 30, 1812. He studied medicine with his father and with Dr. Wells of Windsor, graduated from Williams College, began the practice of medicine before 20 years of age, and has always practiced in Adams and North Adams. His wife was Ann Eliza Robinson.
DR. ELIHU S. HAWKES
was born in Deerfield, Mass., July 25, 1801. The first event of Dr. Hawkes' life which impressed itself powerfully upon his memory was the total eclipse of the sun in 1806, of which his father took advantage to teach him the divine power through the truth of astronomy. When he was 8 years old his father removed to Charlemont, where the educational advantages were so poor he was sent to live with his uncle, Dr. Allen, in Buckland. There he remained until he was 14 years old, assisting his uncle out of school hours in compounding medicines, and thus obtained some knowledge of medical substances. In the spring of 1821 he commenced the study of medicine with Drs. Clark and Smith of Ashfield, Mass., who had four other students. He afterwards changed his instructor to Dr. Winslow of Colerain. In the summer of 1823 he took his third course of lectures in Pittsfield and received his degree of Doctor in Medicine, which, as the charter of the Berk-shire Medical Institute then required, was conferred by Williams College, and he commenced practice in Rowe in company with Dr. Haynes, whose daughter he married in 1826. His wife died three years later, and residence in Rowe became so painful to him that in 1829 he removed to North Adams, being then 29 years old, his father-in-law, Dr. Haynes, coming with him. In 1863 he removed to Troy to engage in a commercial venture, which turned out so disastrously that he returned to this town in a year or two. November 4, 1830, he took for a second wife Sophia E. Abbey, who was born in Natchez, Miss., August 21, 1812, Dr. Ilawkes died May 17, 1879, in his 78th year.